Table 2: Examples of parallel ecological speciation in animals showing the strength of evidence for each case. This list is not exhaustive and instead is a selection of well-studied cases serving as a comparison to the plant examples. The strength of evidence for each case was coded as follows: ***: strong direct evidence, **: weak direct evidence, *: indirect evidence, —: no evidence, †: evidence against, and NA: no data.

SpeciesMin. number of originsIndependenceIsolationCompatibilitySelectionMajor parallel trait(s)References

Astyanax cave fishes2 *** ** ** *** Pigmentation, eye functionality[27]
Coregonus clupeaformis 6 *** ** * *** Body size and shape, foraging niche[13, 108115]
Coregonus lavaretus3 *** * * *** Body size and shape, foraging niche[14, 115117]
Gasterosteus aculeatus benthic/limnetic5 *** ** ** ** Body size and shape, foraging niche[3, 15, 16, 23, 24, 118122]
Gasterosteus aculeatus lake/stream6 *** ** * ** Body size and shape, foraging niche[3, 23, 123130]
Gasterosteus aculeatus anadromous/stream residentmany *** ** ** *** Body size and shape, life history[3, 17, 23, 131133]
Littorina saxatilis-Galician Spain3 *** *** * *** Shell size and shape, microhabitat adaptation[18, 19, 134141]
Timema cristinaeNA *** ** ** ** Color pattern, host plant adaptation[20, 142144]