- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Ecology
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 769587, 10 pages
Seasonal Selection Preferences for Woody Plants by Breeding Herds of African Elephants (Loxodonta africana) in a Woodland Savanna
1Department of Nature Conservation, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
2Buttonwood Park Zoo, New Bedford, MA 02740, USA
3Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
4Department of Production Animal Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort 0110, South Africa
Received 19 November 2012; Revised 25 February 2013; Accepted 25 February 2013
Academic Editor: Bruce Leopold
Copyright © 2013 J. J. Viljoen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- G. I. H. Kerley and M. Landman, “The impacts of elephants on biodiversity in the Eastern Cape Subtropical Thickets,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 102, no. 9-10, pp. 395–402, 2006.
- K. A. Y. Hiscocks, “The impact of an increasing elephant population on the woody vegetation in southern Sabi Sand Wildtuin, South Africa,” Koedoe, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 47–55, 1999.
- R. J. van Aarde, T. P. Jackson, and S. M. Ferreira, “Conservation science and elephant management in Southern Africa,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 102, no. 9-10, pp. 385–388, 2006.
- Garaϊ, M. E, R. Slotow, R. D. Carr, and B. Reilly, “Elephant reintroductions to small fenced reserves in South Africa,” Pachyderm, vol. 37, pp. 28–36, 2004.
- R. Slotow, M. E. Garaï, B. Reilly, B. Page, and R. D. Carr, “Population dynamics of elephants re-introduced to small fenced reserves in South Africa,” South African Journal of Wildlife Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 23–32, 2005.
- G. D. Anderson and B. H. Walker, “Vegetation composition and elephant damage in the Sengwa wildlife research area, Rhodesia,” Journal of the South African Wildlife Management Association, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 1974.
- D. Western, “Water availability and its influences on the structure and dynamics of a savannah large community,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 13, no. 3-4, pp. 265–288, 1975.
- Y. de Beer, W. Kilian, W. Versfeld, and R. J. van Aarde, “Elephants and low rainfall alter woody vegetation in Etosha National Park, Namibia,” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 412–421, 2006.
- R. M. Holdo, “Elephants, fire, and frost can determine community structure and composition in Kalahari woodlands,” Ecological Applications, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 558–568, 2007.
- P. W. J. Baxter and W. M. Getz, “Development and parameterization of a rain- and fire-driven model for exploring elephant effects in African savannas,” Environmental Modeling and Assessment, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 221–242, 2008.
- J. Chafota and N. Owen-Smith, “Episodic severe damage to canopy trees by elephants: Interactions with fire, frost and rain,” Journal of Tropical Ecology, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 341–345, 2009.
- G. I. H. Kerley, M. Landman, L. Kruger, and N. Owen-Smith, “Effects of elephants on ecosystems and biodiversity,” in Elephant Management, R. J. Scholes and K. G. Mennell, Eds., chapter 3, pp. 146–205, Wits University Press, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2008.
- P. F. Scogings, R. W. Taylor, and D. Ward, “Inter- and intra-plant variations in nitrogen, tannins and shoot growth of Sclerocarya birrea browsed by elephants,” Plant Ecology, vol. 213, no. 3, pp. 483–491, 2012.
- N. Owen-Smith, G. I. H. Kerley, B. Page, R. Slotow, and R. J. van Aarde, “A scientific perspective on the management of elephants in the Kruger National Park and elsewhere,” South African Journal of Science, vol. 102, no. 9-10, pp. 389–394, 2006.
- A. M. White and P. S. Goodman, “Differences in woody vegetation are unrelated to use by African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Mkhuze Game Reserve, South Africa,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 215–223, 2010.
- M. Landman, G. I. H. Kerley, and D. S. Schoeman, “Relevance of elephant herbivory as a threat to important plants in the addo elephant National Park, South Africa,” Journal of Zoology, vol. 274, no. 1, pp. 51–58, 2008.
- W. P. D. Gertenbach, “Landscapes of the Kruger National Park,” Koedoe, vol. 26, pp. 9–121, 1983.
- I. O. Buss, “Some observations on food habits and behavior of the African elephant,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 131–148, 1961.
- F. V. Osborn, “The concept of home range in relation to elephants in Africa,” Pachyderm, vol. 37, pp. 37–44, 2004.
- J. Codron, D. Codron, J. A. Lee-Thorp et al., “Landscape-scale feeding patterns of African elephant inferred from carbon isotope analysis of feces,” Oecologia, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 89–99, 2011.
- L. Mucina and M. C. Rutherford, Eds., The Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland, vol. 19 of Sterlizia, South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, South Africa, 2006.
- F. J. Venter, “Soil patterns associated with the major geological units of the Kruger National Park,” Koedoe, vol. 29, pp. 125–138, 1986.
- F. J. Venter, R. J. Scholes, and H. C. Eckhardt, “The abiotic template and its associated vegetation pattern,” in The Kruger Experience, J. T. Du Toit, K. H. Rogers, and H. C. Biggs, Eds., chapter 5, pp. 83–129, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
- N. Zambatis, “Annual section ranger reports. KNP vegetation monitoring,” Scientific Services—Kruger National Park. In press.
- E. A. Archie, C. J. Moss, and S. C. Alberts, “The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B, vol. 273, no. 1586, pp. 513–522, 2006.
- S. Stokke and J. T. Du Toit, “Sex and size related differences in the dry season feeding patterns of elephants in Chobe National Park, Botswana,” Ecography, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 70–80, 2000.
- R. I. Yeaton, “Porcupines, fires and the dynamics of the tree layer of the Burkea africana savanna,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 76, no. 4, pp. 1017–1029, 1988.
- B. van Wyk and P. van Wyk, Field Guide to the Trees of Southern Africa, Field Guides Series, Struik Publishers, Cape Town, South Africa, 1997.
- T. E. Cerling, B. H. Passey, L. K. Ayliffe et al., “Orphans' tales: seasonal dietary changes in elephants from Tsavo National Park, Kenya,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 206, no. 3-4, pp. 367–376, 2004.
- C. J. Krebs, “Niche measures and resource preferences,” in Ecological Methodology, chapter 13, pp. 455–496, Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, 1999.
- StatSoft, “Statistica for Windows (data analysis software system),” version 7. 0, 2004, http://www.statsoft.com/.
- J. Codron, J. A. Lee-Thorp, M. Sponheimer, D. Codron, R. C. Grant, and D. J. de Ruiter, “Elephant (Loxodonta africana) diets in Kruger National Park, South Africa: spatial and landscape differences,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 27–34, 2006.
- P. van Wyk and N. Fairall, “The influence of the African elephant on the vegetation of the Kruger National Park,” Koedoe, vol. 12, pp. 66–75, 1969.
- R. J. Scholes, W. J. Bond, and H. C. Eckhardt, “Vegetation dynamics in the Kruger ecosystem,” in The Kruger Experience, J. T. Du Toit, K. H. Rogers, and H. C. Biggs, Eds., chapter 11, pp. 242–262, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
- T. G. O'Connor, P. S. Goodman, and B. Clegg, “A functional hypothesis of the threat of local extirpation of woody plant species by elephant in Africa,” Biological Conservation, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 329–345, 2007.
- C. V. Helm, E. T. F. Witkowski, L. Kruger, M. Hofmeyr, and N. Owen-Smith, “Mortality and utilisation of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra between 2001 and 2008 in the Kruger National Park, South Africa,” South African Journal of Botany, vol. 75, no. 3, pp. 475–484, 2009.
- G. Caughley and J. Goddard, “Abundance and distribution of elephants in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 39–48, 1975.
- S. K. Eltringham, “The numbers and distribution of elephants (Loxodonta africana) in the Rwenzori National Park and Chambura Game Reserve, Uganda,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 19–39, 1977.
- T. A. Afolayan and S. S. Afayi, “The influence of seaso nality on the distribution of large mammals in the Yankari Game Reserve, Nigeria,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 87–96, 1980.
- G. Merz, “Counting elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in tropical rain forests with particular reference to the Tai National Park, Ivory Coast,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 133–136, 1986.
- P. J. Viljoen, “Habitat selection and preferred food plants of a desert-dwelling elephant population in the northern Namib Desert, South West Africa/Namibia,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 227–240, 1989.
- M. N. Tchamba, “Number and migration patterns of savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) in Northern Cameroon,” Pachyderm, vol. 16, pp. 66–71, 1993.
- D. Babaasa, “Habitat selection by elephants in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, South-Western Uganda,” African Journal of Ecology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 116–122, 2000.
- G. P. Asner, S. R. Levick, T. Kennedy-Bowdoin et al., “Large-scale impacts of herbivores on the structural diversity of african savannas,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 4947–4952, 2009.
- Y. Pretorius, J. D. Stigter, W. F. de Boer et al., “Diet selection of African elephant over time shows changing optimization currency,” Oikos, vol. 121, no. 12, pp. 2110–2120, 2012.