About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Ecology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 438189, 7 pages
Research Article

Potential Propagation by Seed and Cuttings of the Azorean Native Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull

Department of Biology, Azores University, Ponta Delgada, 9501-801 Azores, Portugal

Received 2 December 2013; Revised 16 February 2014; Accepted 19 February 2014; Published 25 March 2014

Academic Editor: Mariana Amato

Copyright © 2014 Maria João Pereira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. A. Franco, Nova Flora de Portugal (Continente e Açores), Clethraceae-Compositae, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisboa, Portugal, 1984.
  2. L. H. Bailey and E. Z. Bailey, Hortus Third, Macmillan, New York, NY, USA, 1976.
  3. G. J. Arabuli, S. E. Connor, and E. V. Kvavadze, “Calluna vulgaris and Spiranthes amoena in the Colchis mire flora: weeds or relicts?” Acta Palaeobotanica, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 469–478, 2007. View at Scopus
  4. P. A. V. Borges, C. Abreu, A. M. F. Aguiar et al., A List of the Terrestrial Fungi, Flora and Fauna of Madeira and Selvages Archipelagos, Direcção Regional do Ambiente da Madeira e Universidade dos Açores, Funchal e Angra do Heroísmo, Portugal, 2008.
  5. “Global Invasive Species Database,” 2012, http://www.issg.org.
  6. C. H. Gimingham, “Calluna salisb.,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 455–483, 1960. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. V. Vandvik, E. Heegaard, I. E. Måren, and P. A. Aarrestad, “Managing heterogeneity: the importance of grazing and environmental variation on post-fire succession in heathlands,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 139–149, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. Dias, Vegetação Natural dos Açores; Ecologia e Sintaxonomia das Florestas Naturais, Universidade dos Açores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal, 1996.
  9. H. Schaefer, Flora of the Azores, a Field Guide, Margraf Publishers, Weikersheim, Germany, 2nd edition, 2005.
  10. L. Silva and C. W. Smith, “A characterization of the non-indigenous flora of the Azores Archipelago,” Biological Invasions, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 193–204, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. L. Silva, M. Moura, H. Schaefer, F. Rumsey, and E. Dias, “Lista das plantas vasculares (Tracheobionta),” in A List of the Terrestrial and Marine Biota from the Azores, P. Borges, A. Costa, R. Cunha et al., Eds., pp. 117–146, Principia, Cascais, Portugal, 2010.
  12. European Comission; Environment; Life Program, “Project: Sustainable Laurissilva,” 2013, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.createPage&s_ref=LIFE07%20NAT/P/000630&area=1&yr=2007&n_proj_id=3341&cfid=105772&cftoken=6f61be55b1a33a80-1F3780B4-A96B-9E77-9FE0F309FBB4594A&mode=print&menu=false.
  13. Governo dos Açores, “Centro de Monitorização e Investigação das Furnas,” 2013, http://siaram.azores.gov.pt/centros-interpretacao/mi-furnas/CMI-Furnas.pdf.
  14. Governo dos Açores, “Acções de conservação, ZPE pico da vara/ribeira do guilherme, viveiros e estufas para produção de plantas nativas,” 2014, http://www.azores.gov.pt/Gra/srrn-cets/menus/principal/acoes+conservacao.
  15. European Comission; Environment; Life Program, “Project: Life—Lands of Priolo,” 2014, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/life/project/Projects/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.dspPage&n_proj_id=4740.
  16. R. J. Mitchell, R. J. Rose, and S. C. F. Palmer, “Restoration of Calluna vulgaris on grass-dominated moorlands: the importance of disturbance, grazing and seeding,” Biological Conservation, vol. 141, no. 8, pp. 2100–2111, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Van Der Wal, W. De Boer, P. J. A. Klein Gunnewiek, and J. A. Van Veen, “Possible mechanism for spontaneous establishment of Calluna vulgaris in a recently abandoned agricultural field,” Restoration Ecology, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 308–313, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. L. Calvo, I. Alonso, A. J. Fernàndez, and E. De Luis, “Short-term study of effects of fertilisation and cutting treatments on the vegetation dynamics of mountain heathlands in Spain,” Plant Ecology, vol. 179, no. 2, pp. 181–191, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Calvo, R. Tárrega, and E. Luis, “Changes of species richness in heathland communities over 15 years following disturbances,” International Journal of Forestry Research, vol. 2012, Article ID 547120, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. T. H. Thomas and I. Davies, “Responses of dormant heather (Calluna vulgaris) seeds to light, temperature, chemical and advancement treatments,” Plant Growth Regulation, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 23–29, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Reader’s Digest, O Livro do Jardim, The Readers’s Digest Association, London, UK, 1996.
  22. M. A. Dirr and C. W. Hauser, The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation, from Seed to Tissue Culture, Varsity Press, Cary, NC, USA, 2nd edition, 2006.
  23. G. Krussmann, La Pépinière, La Maison Rustique, Paris, France, 1981.
  24. H. Hartman, D. Kester, F. Davies, and R. Geneve, Hartmann and Kester’s Plant Propagation Principles and Practices, Pearson Higher Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 8th edition, 2010.
  25. K. Gebhardt and M. Friedrich, “Micropropagation of Calluna vulgaris cv. “H.E. Beale’,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 137–145, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. P. Spindelböck, Z. Cook, M. I. Daws, E. Heegaard, I. E. Måren, and V. Vandvik, “Conditional cold avoidance drives between-population variation in germination behaviour in Calluna vulgaris,” Annals of Botany, vol. 112, no. 5, pp. 801–810, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. S. O. Grimstad, “Effect of gibberellic acid, temperature and storage on seed germination of heather (Calluna vulgaris L. Hull),” Meldinger fra Norges Landbrukshogskole, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 1–11, 1985.
  28. C. J. Legg, E. Maltby, and M. C. F. Proctor, “The ecology of severe moorland fire on the North York Moors: seed distribution and seedling establishment of Calluna vulgaris,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 737–752, 1992. View at Scopus
  29. K. Thompson and S. R. Band, “Survival of a lowland heathland seed bank after a 33-year burial,” Seed Science Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 409–411, 1997. View at Scopus
  30. O. Juntilla, “Effect of gibberellic acid on dark and light germination at different temperatures of Calluna, Ledum and Rhododendron seeds,” Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 239–243, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. M. Equihua and M. B. Usher, “Impact of carpets of the invasive moss Campylopus introflexus on Calluna vulgaris regeneration,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 359–365, 1993. View at Scopus
  32. L. Valbuena, E. Luis, and R. Tarrega, “Relationship between thermal shock and germination in five Mediterranean shrubs,” in Fire and Biological Processes, L. Trabaud and R. Pradon, Eds., pp. 93–98, Backhuys, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2002.
  33. H. Helsper and G. Klerken, “Germination of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull in vitro under different pH conditions,” Acta Botanica Neerlandica, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 347–353, 1984.
  34. J. Grime, G. Mason, A. Curtis et al., “A comparative study of germinationcharacteristics in a local flora,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 1017–1059, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. T. Pons, “Dormancy and germination of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull and Erica tetralix L. seeds,” Acta Oecologica, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 1989.
  36. A. D. Garcia, C. Faria, M. H. Almeida, and E. D. Vizcaíno, “Efeito da aplicação de diferentes tratamentos na germinação e reprodução vegetativa de ericáceas,” in Actas do 5° Congresso Florestal Nacional: A Floresta e as Gentes, pp. 1–11, Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências Florestais, Viseu, Portugal, 2005.
  37. P. Browse, A Propagação das Plantas. Sementes, Raízes, Bolbos e Rizomas, Mergulhia Estacas de Madeira e Foliares, Enxertia de Borbulha de Cavalo e de Garfo, Colecção Euroagro, Publicações Europa-América, Mem Martins, Portugal, 1979.
  38. M. Iglesias-Díaz and F. González-Abuín, “Investigating the rooting potential by cutting propagation in wild populations of heathers in NW Spain, (Galicia),” Acta Horticulturae, vol. 630, pp. 279–285, 2004.
  39. S. Grant and R. Hunter, “Ecotypig differentiation of Calluna vulgaris (L.) in relation to altitude,” New Phytologist, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 44–55, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. B. Dommée, Étude de Quelques Éléments de la Variabilité Intraspécifique de la Callune, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre d'Études Phytosociologiques et Écologiques, Montpellier, France, 1967.
  41. R. P. Cummins and G. R. Miller, “Altitudinal gradients in seed dynamics of Calluna vulgaris in Eastern Scotland,” Journal of Vegetation Science, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 859–866, 2002. View at Scopus
  42. G. Mahy, X. Vekemans, A. L. Jacquemart, and J. R. De Sloover, “Allozyme diversity and genetic structure in South-Western populations of heather, Calluna vulgaris,” New Phytologist, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 325–334, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. G. Mahy, R. A. Ennos, and A.-L. Jacquemart, “Allozyme variation and genetic structure of Calluna vulgaris (heather) populations in Scotland: the effect of postglacial recolonization,” Heredity, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 654–660, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Rendell and R. A. Ennos, “Chloroplast DNA diversity in Calluna vulgaris (heather) populations in Europe,” Molecular Ecology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 69–78, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. ISTA, International Rules for Seed Testing, International Seed Testing Association, Bassersdorf, Switzerland, 2005.
  46. J. F. Harrington, “The effect of temperature on the germination of several kinds of vegetable seeds,” in Proceedings of the 16th International Horticultural Congress, vol. 2, pp. 435–441, Brussels, Belgium, 1963.
  47. J. D. Bewley and M. Black, Seeds, Physiology of Development and Germination, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1994.
  48. M. A. Carine and H. Schaefer, “The Azores diversity enigma: why are there so few Azorean endemic flowering plants and why are they so widespread?” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 77–89, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. V. H. Forjaz, Atlas Básico dos Açores, Observatório Vulcanológico e Geotérmico dos Açores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal, 2004.
  50. Biodiversidade dos Açores, “Base de Dados da Biodiversidade dos Açores,” 2013, http://www.azoresbioportal.angra.uac.pt.
  51. Biodiversidade dos Açores, “Base de Dados da Biodiversidade dos Açores,” 2013, http://servicos.sram.azores.gov.pt/morhi/.
  52. T. T. Kozlowski, Seed Biology. Germination Control, Metabolism, and Pathology, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1972.
  53. C. Damiano and S. Monticelli, “In vitro fruit trees rooting by Agrobacterium rhizogenes wild type infection,” Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 1, pp. 189­–1195, 1998.
  54. P. Bonfante and L. A. Anca, “Plants, mycorrhizal fungi, and bacteria: a network of interactions,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 63, pp. 363–383, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. R. Hayat, S. Ali, U. Amara, R. Khalid, and I. Ahmed, “Soil beneficial bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion: a review,” Annals of Microbiology, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 579–598, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. A. V. Kwolek and H. W. Woolhouse, “Studies on the dormancy of Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, during winter: classification of dormancy,” Annals of Botany, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 435–442, 1981. View at Scopus
  57. L. Taiz and E. Zeiger, Plant Physiology, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass, USA, 3rd edition, 2002.