Table 5: The effect of surface sterilization on the germination characteristics of Calluna vulgaris seeds under a photoperiod of 8 h and a temperature regime of 10°C. Storage duration: 108 days. Mean values ± standard deviations. In each column, groups that showed significant differences ( ) are indicated with different letters.

Surface sterilizationNumber of seedsDays to first radicle emergenceMean time of germination (days)Percent germination
(at day 112)

Yes 4 × 1007 ± 2a30 ± 2.6a78 ± 14.1a
No4 × 1007 ± 2a30 ± 1.5a52 ± 13.0b