International Journal of Ecology http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Assessment of the Bioavailability of Cu, Pb, and Zn through Petunia axillaris in Contaminated Soils Mon, 25 Aug 2014 09:45:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/378642/ Heavy metals are potentially toxic to human life and the environment. Metal toxicity depends on chemical associations in soils. For this reason, determining the chemical form of a metal in soils is important to evaluate its mobility and the potential accumulation. The aim of this examination is to evaluate the accumulation potential of Petunia x hybrida as a flower crop for three metals, namely, copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni). Trace metals (Zn, Cu, and Pb) in the soils were partitioned by a sequential extraction procedure into H2O extractable (F1), 1 M CH3COONa extractable (F2). Chemical fractionation showed that F1 and F2 fraction of the metals were near 1% and residue was the dominant form for Zn, Cu, and Pb in all samples. Using fluorescence method allowed us to estimate condition of the plants by adding metals. As result of plant and soil analysis, we can conclude that Petunia has Cu, Zn, and Ni tolerance and accumulation. Therefore, Petunia has the potential to serve as a model species for developing herbaceous, ornamental plants for phytoremediation. Lydia Bondareva, Roman Teisserenc, Nina Pakharkova, Alexander Shubin, Théo Le Dantec, Leïla Renon, and Ivan Svoboda Copyright © 2014 Lydia Bondareva et al. All rights reserved. Responses of Soil Organic Carbon to Long-Term Understory Removal in Subtropical Cinnamomum camphora Stands Thu, 03 Jul 2014 06:43:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/615348/ We conducted a study on a 48-year-old Cinnamomum camphora plantation in the subtropics of China, by removing understory gradually and then comparing this treatment with a control (undisturbed). This study analyzed the content and storage soil organic carbon (SOC) in a soil depth of 0–60 cm. The results showed that SOC content was lower in understory removal (UR) treatment, with a decrease range from 5% to 34%, and a decline of 10.16 g·kg−1 and 8.58 g·kg−1 was noticed in 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm layers, respectively, with significant differences (). Carbon storage was reduced in UR, ranging from 2% to 43%, with a particular drastic decline of 15.39 t·hm−2 and 11.58 t·hm−2 in 0–10 cm () and 10–20 cm () layers, respectively. Content of SOC had an extremely significant () correlation with soil nutrients in the two stands, and the correlation coefficients of CK were higher than those of UR. Our data showed that the presence of understory favored the accumulation of soil organic carbon to a large extent. Therefore, long-term practice of understory removal weakens the function of forest ecosystem as a carbon sink. Yacong Wu, Zhengcai Li, Caifang Cheng, and Rongjie Liu Copyright © 2014 Yacong Wu et al. All rights reserved. Are Commonly Measured Functional Traits Involved in Tropical Tree Responses to Climate? Wed, 25 Jun 2014 11:11:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/389409/ Climate models predict significant rainfall reduction in Amazonia, reducing water availability for trees. We present how functional traits modulate the tree growth response to climate. We used data from 3 years of bimestrial growth measurements for 204 trees of 53 species in the forest of Paracou, French Guiana. We integrated climate variables from an eddy covariance tower and functional trait values describing life history, leaf, and stem economics. Our results indicated that the measured functional traits are to some extent linked to the response of trees to climate but they are poor predictors of the tree climate-induced growth variation. Tree growth was affected by water availability for most of the species with different species growth strategies in drought conditions. These strategies were linked to some functional traits, especially maximum height and wood density. These results suggest that (i) trees seem adapted to the dry season at Paracou but they show different growth responses to drought, (ii) drought response is linked to growth strategy and is partly explained by functional traits, and (iii) the limited part of the variation of tree growth explained by functional traits may be a strong limiting factor for the prediction of tree growth response to climate. Fabien Wagner, Vivien Rossi, Christopher Baraloto, Damien Bonal, Clément Stahl, and Bruno Hérault Copyright © 2014 Fabien Wagner et al. All rights reserved. Location and Roles of Deep Pools in Likangala River during 2012 Recession Period of Lake Chilwa Basin Tue, 03 Jun 2014 12:32:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/294683/ The ecological study focusing on Likangala River was conducted during the recent (2012) Lake Chilwa recession and aimed at identifying the important pools and the impact of indigenous ecological knowledge on the use and management of the aquatic biodiversity in the pools. An extensive georeferencing of the pools, field observations, and measurement of the pool depths was conducted to locate and map the deep pools along the river. Garmin Etrex Venture HC, GPS, and georeferencing were used to obtain the points and locate the place. Oral interviews with local leaders were conducted to understand the use and management of the pools by communities. The study showed that Likangala River has 17 pools with depths ranging from 1.85 m to 3.6 m. The pools act as habitats and feeding and spawning ground for various aquatic biodiversity. The study further found that some important deep pools have apparently become shallower during the past few years due to increased silt deposition from the upper part of the catchment. The study shows that deep pools are very important during Lake Chilwa recession and recommends the participatory fisheries management as the best way of sustaining the aquatic biodiversity and endangered species in Lake Chilwa basin. Rodgers Makwinja, Mphatso Chapotera, Patrick Likongwe, John Banda, and Asaf Chijere Copyright © 2014 Rodgers Makwinja et al. All rights reserved. Stabilizing Effect of Prey Refuge and Predator’s Interference on the Dynamics of Prey with Delayed Growth and Generalist Predator with Delayed Gestation Wed, 30 Apr 2014 07:24:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/429086/ In the present paper, I study a prey-predator model with multiple time delays where the predator population is regarded as generalist. For this regard, I consider a Holling-Tanner prey-predator system where a constant time delay is incorporated in the logistic growth of the prey to represent a delayed density dependent feedback mechanism and the second time delay is considered to account for the length of the gestation period of the predator. Predator’s interference in predator-prey relationship provides better descriptions of predator's feeding over a range of prey-predator abundances, so the predator's functional response here is considered to be Type II ratio-dependent. In accordance with previous studies, it is observed that delay destabilizes the system, in general, and stability loss occurs via Hopf bifurcation. There exist critical values of delay parameters below which the coexistence equilibrium is stable and above which it is unstable. Hopf bifurcation occurs when delay parameters cross their critical values. When delay parameters are large enough than their critical values, the system exhibits chaotic behavior and this abnormal behavior may be controlled by refuge. Numerical computation is also performed to validate different theoretical results. Lyapunov exponent, recurrence plot, and power spectral density confirm the chaotic dynamical behaviors. Debaldev Jana Copyright © 2014 Debaldev Jana. All rights reserved. A Comparison of Three Dry Matter Forage Production Methods Used in South Africa Sun, 27 Apr 2014 13:59:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/314939/ A common method for determining forage production of rangelands is by clipping and weighing forage from quadrats with predetermined areas. This technique is however time consuming. Other techniques which require less time and labour include amongst others using the disk pasture meter or phytomass derived from the vegetation classification program PHYTOTAB, in conjunction with the Plant Number Scale, which is used to determine vegetation canopy cover. The phytomass determined using PHYTOTAB/Plant Number Scale and the disk pasture meter was compared to the phytomass obtained from the actual clipping and weighing of forage. Tests showed that there were indeed statistically significant differences between the mean phytomass values of the three techniques. Considerable variation was shown in the results of the disk pasture meter readings compared to the other two techniques. The phytomass values obtained using the disk pasture meter were significantly higher than the phytomass determined using both the PHYTOTAB/Plant Number Scale and the clipping and weighing techniques. Results further indicated a significant similarity in the phytomass determined using the PHYTOTAB/Plant Number Scale and the clipping and weighing technique. The results of this pilot study need further investigation. A. J. Joubert and W. J. Myburgh Copyright © 2014 A. J. Joubert and W. J. Myburgh. All rights reserved. Semideciduous Seasonal Forest Production of Leaves and Deciduousness in Function of the Water Balance, LAI, and NDVI Mon, 31 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/923027/ This study investigated the relationship between leaf production, litterfall, water balance, Leaf Area Index (LAI), and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in semideciduous forests. The goal was to model this phenomenon to obtain the estimates of this component as an additional compartment of the ecosystem carbon sink. The tests were conducted in eight semideciduous forest fragments. Twenty-four permanent plots were monitored monthly and LAI measurements and weighing of litterfall deposited in nets were conducted for a period of thirteen months. In this period, Landsat 5 and IRS satellite images were obtained and processed for generation of NDVI. The water balance was calculated for each day. The relationship among the variables “leaf dry weight,” “LAI,” “NDVI,” and “water balance” was verified and a regression model was built and evaluated. The deciduous phenomenon can be explained by hydric balance, and LAI and NDVI are ancillary variables. The tendency of the variables in the period of 13 months was explained by quadratic functions. The varied behavior among the monitoring sites helped to know differences in the deposition of leaves. This study showed that only the leaf component of the litterfall of a semideciduous forest in tropical climate can capture 4 to 8 Mgha−1yr−1 of CO2 and this amount can be estimated using climate, biophysics, and vegetation index variables. Thomaz Correa e Castro da Costa, João Herbert Moreira Viana, and Juliana Leite Ribeiro Copyright © 2014 Thomaz Correa e Castro da Costa et al. All rights reserved. Potential Propagation by Seed and Cuttings of the Azorean Native Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull Tue, 25 Mar 2014 08:00:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/438189/ This work investigates the potential propagation by seed and cuttings of the Azorean native Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull. for landscape conservation. With that purpose we have performed several germination and cuttings trials, using plant material from wild populations of this species. In the germination trials, we tested the effects of photoperiod length (8 and 16 h), temperature (10, 15, 20, and 20–10°C), seed age (6, 108, and 270 days), temperature of seed storage (4°C and room temperature), and seed surface sterilization on the germination characteristics. In the cuttings trials, we tested the effects of stem cutting type, cultural conditions, cuttings’ harvest month, and rooting substrates on the rooting percentages. The best percentages of germination, 93 and 90%, were obtained with fresh seeds and surface sterilized and sown under an 8 h photoperiod and with temperatures of 10°C or 15°C, respectively; germination after seed storage during 270 days is significantly superior (71%) when seeds are stored at 4°C. The best percentages of rooting were achieved for straight (96%) or heel cuttings (90%) harvested in March, planted on soil from natural stands of C. vulgaris and Erica azorica Hochst., outdoors in half shade, and partially covered with transparent polyethylene film. Maria João Pereira, Helena Fagundo, Tiago Menezes, and João Couto Copyright © 2014 Maria João Pereira et al. All rights reserved. Venus Flytrap Seedlings Show Growth-Related Prey Size Specificity Tue, 18 Mar 2014 09:10:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/135207/ Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) has had a conservation status of vulnerable since the 1970s. Little research has focussed on the ecology and even less has examined its juvenile stages. For the first time, reliance on invertebrate prey for growth was assessed in seedling Venus flytrap by systematic elimination of invertebrates from the growing environment. Prey were experimentally removed from a subset of Venus flytrap seedlings within a laboratory environment. The amount of growth was measured by measuring trap midrib length as a function of overall growth as well as prey spectrum. There was significantly lower growth in prey-eliminated plants than those utilising prey. This finding, although initially unsurprising, is actually contrary to the consensus that seedlings (traps < 5 mm) do not catch prey. Furthermore, flytrap was shown to have prey specificity at its different growth stages; the dominant prey size for seedlings did not trigger mature traps. Seedlings are capturing and utilising prey for nutrients to increase their overall trap size. These novel findings show Venus flytrap to have a much more complex evolutionary ecology than previously thought. Christopher R. Hatcher and Adam G. Hart Copyright © 2014 Christopher R. Hatcher and Adam G. Hart. All rights reserved. Understanding the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle: An Ecohydrological Perspective Tue, 04 Mar 2014 12:03:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/712537/ The terrestrial carbon (C) cycle has a great role in influencing the climate with complex interactions that are spatially and temporally variable and scale-related. Hence, it is essential that we fully understand the scale-specific complexities of the terrestrial C-cycle towards (1) strategic design of monitoring and experimental initiatives and (2) also developing conceptualizations for modeling purposes. These complexities arise due to the nonlinear interactions of various components that govern the fluxes of mass and energy across the soil-plant-atmospheric continuum. Considering the critical role played by hydrological processes in governing the biogeochemical and plant physiological processes, a coupled representation of these three components (collectively referred to as ecohydrological approach) is critical to explain the complexity in the terrestrial C-cycling processes. In this regard, we synthesize the research works conducted in this broad area and bring them to a common platform with an ecohydrological spirit. This could aid in the development of novel concepts of nonlinear ecohydrological interactions and thereby help reduce the current uncertainties in the terrestrial C-cycling process. The usefulness of spatially explicit and process-based ecohydrological models that have tight coupling between hydrological, ecophysiological, and biogeochemical processes is also discussed. Ajit Govind and Jyothi Kumari Copyright © 2014 Ajit Govind and Jyothi Kumari. All rights reserved. Adaptation of Australia’s Marine Ecosystems to Climate Change: Using Science to Inform Conservation Management Tue, 25 Feb 2014 08:28:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/140354/ The challenges that climate change poses for marine ecosystems are already manifesting in impacts at the species, population, and community levels in Australia, particularly in Tasmania and tropical northern Australia. Many species and habitats are already under threat as a result of human activities, and the additional pressure from climate change significantly increases the challenge for marine conservation and management. Climate change impacts are expected to magnify as sea surface temperatures, ocean chemistry, ocean circulation, sea level, rainfall, and storm patterns continue to change this century. In particular, keystone species that form the foundation of marine habitats, such as coral reefs, kelp beds, and temperate rocky reefs, are projected to pass thresholds with subsequent implications for communities and ecosystems. This review synthesises recent science in this field: the observed impacts and responses of marine ecosystems to climate change, ecological thresholds of change, and strategies for marine conservation to promote adaptation. Increasing observations of climate-related impacts on Australia’s marine ecosystems—both temperate and tropical—are making adaptive management more important than ever before. Our increased understanding of the impacts and responses of marine ecosystems to climate change provides a focus for “no-regrets” adaptations that can be implemented now and refined as knowledge improves. Johanna E. Johnson and Neil J. Holbrook Copyright © 2014 Johanna E. Johnson and Neil J. Holbrook. All rights reserved. Impact of Environmental Changes on Migratory Bird Survival Wed, 19 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/245849/ We present a mathematical model that studies and simulates the interconnection between energetic and ecological aspects of bird migration. By comparing model predictions with experimental data, we show that it can be used to assess the impact of changing environmental conditions in breeding, wintering, and stop-over sites on migratory success. We relate in particular to the European white stork (Ciconia ciconia) and its Eastern migration route and discuss questions concerning the timing, stopover, and feeding behavior en route. Opinions concerning the importance of resource availability and resource quality en route are divided. Whereas some studies have shown that storks gain weight in the wintering site, but almost do not feed en route, others stress the importance of the quality of stop-over locations. We address these questions and simulate the development of stork populations for changing environmental conditions. We demonstrate that resource availability and competition for breeding sites are crucial factors determining the timing of spring migration and the length of stop-over periods. Analyzing the robustness of migration strategies with respect to changing environmental conditions, we show that birds will shorten their stay in stop-over places of poor resource availability rather than prolonging it in the attempt to gain time for accumulating fat reserves. Sabine Stöcker-Segre and Daniel Weihs Copyright © 2014 Sabine Stöcker-Segre and Daniel Weihs. All rights reserved. Biological Monitoring Using Macroinvertebrates as Bioindicators of Water Quality of Maroaga Stream in the Maroaga Cave System, Presidente Figueiredo, Amazon, Brazil Mon, 17 Feb 2014 12:52:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/308149/ Aquatic environments are being modified by anthropogenic activities regarding their biological, physical, and chemical conditions; even pristine aquatic ecosystems can be threatened. This study focused on the biological monitoring of Maroaga Stream—a first order stream located in an Environmental Protection Area in the Amazon using the Biological Monitoring Working Party (BMWP) Score System. The BMWP Score System revealed that the Maroaga Stream was a Class I stream (score of 138 points), indicating clean or not significantly altered water quality. The results suggest the adequate environmental conditions and ecological responses of the Maroaga Stream. Christiane Brito Uherek and Fernando Bernardo Pinto Gouveia Copyright © 2014 Christiane Brito Uherek and Fernando Bernardo Pinto Gouveia. All rights reserved. Conservation Concern for the Deteriorating Geographical Range of the Grey Parrot in Cameroon Sun, 16 Feb 2014 14:37:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/753294/ The need for information on Grey Parrot distribution and vegetation associations for informed management and policy decisions was the basis for this study. A nationwide survey of the Grey Parrot population and habitat status was carried out, using questionnaire and point count methods. From the results, the extent of the contemporary range of the parrots was restricted to Southern Cameroon, which harbours the rainforest. Regional parrot population means ranged from 3,487 parrots in the Littoral to 1,351,275 parrots in the East Regions. The extent of the contemporary range as a percentage of the whole country was 25.4% and as a percentage of the regions with rainforest was 44.5%. The historic range of the bird has been reduced by over 55.5%. Estimated percentage of forest lost per region ranged from 20.4% in the Centre to 57.1% in the East and South Regions. At a global level, Cameroon contributed 9% to the total extent of the range of the Grey Parrot in Africa. The range is increasingly fragmented, contracted, and lost through land-based socioeconomic activities. These degradation pressures on the range called for urgent conservation considerations for long-term survival of the parrot species and its associated biodiversity in Cameroon. Simon A. Tamungang, Robert A. Cheke, Gilbert Z. Mofor, Richard N. Tamungang, and Fritz T. Oben Copyright © 2014 Simon A. Tamungang et al. All rights reserved. Ecological Importance of Insects in Selenium Biogenic Cycling Thu, 06 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/835636/ Selenium is an essential trace element for animal and human beings. Despite the importance of insects in most ecosystems and their significant contribution to the biological cycling of trace elements due to high abundance, population productivity, and diverse ecosystem functions, surprisingly little information is available on selenium bioaccumulation by these arthropods. This review considers selenium essentiality and toxicity to insects as well as insects’ contribution to selenium trophic transfer through the food chains. Data on Se accumulation by insects of the Dniester River Valley with no anthropogenic Se loading reveal typically low Se content in necrophagous insects compared to predators and herbivores and seasonal variations in Se accumulation. Nadezhda Golubkina, Sergey Sheshnitsan, and Marina Kapitalchuk Copyright © 2014 Nadezhda Golubkina et al. All rights reserved. Macroinvertebrate Richness Importance in Coastal Tropical Streams of Esmeraldas (Ecuador) and Its Use and Implications in Environmental Management Procedures Tue, 14 Jan 2014 09:13:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/253134/ This study was aimed at determining the performance of some indices and community attributes frequently used to assess river quality and test the role of macroinvertebrate taxa richness as element of bioindication in several coastal tropical streams of western Esmeraldas (Ecuador). In addition, a macroinvertebrate taxon list of this region was provided for the first time. Thirteen sampled points distributed across nine streams were selected for this study and nineteen parameters and attributes of bioindication were tested. The differences between nonimpact and impact places were evaluated mainly using one-way analysis of variance. Jackknife 2 and Clench were used to estimate the regional richness and the quality of the inventory, respectively. Seventy taxa (principally genus and family) of the main groups of macroinvertebrates were collected. Measured richness and family richness were the best metric followed by Biological Monitoring Working Party/Colombia (BMWP/Col), Odonata richness, Shannon-Weiner, and EPT richness (Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera) indices. Only a slight right trend (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Chironomidae attributes) or incorrect performances (Average Score Per Taxon (ASPT) and % EPT) were showed by frequently used metrics. Finally, several recommendations were made about taxonomic level used, the ranks of quality of taxa richness, and the effort-results relationship in the field of bioindication. Carlos Martínez-Sanz, Sara María Puente-García, Eduardo Rodolfo Rebolledo, and Pedro Jiménez-Prado Copyright © 2014 Carlos Martínez-Sanz et al. All rights reserved. Diversity-Productivity Relationship in the Northeastern Tamaulipan Thornscrub Forest of Mexico Sun, 05 Jan 2014 12:21:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2014/196073/ This research examines the diversity-productivity relationship in a semiarid scrubland, initially under late successional conditions and subsequently under early successional conditions created by experimental clearing, to explore the roles that productivity and stochastic mortality play in species exclusion in this environment. A total of fifteen plots were studied by measuring environmental conditions and biomass components of shrubs and seedlings. These stands were distributed along a productivity gradient across five different landforms. A hypothesis about the stochastic self-thinning mortality model along the gradient was evaluated with the diversity-productivity-environment data. The diversity-productivity relationship was linear and reversed between the early and late succession stages. The hypothesis of stochastic mortality of species exclusion was rejected in the early stages of succession and partially accepted in the mature stage of succession. Species exclusion was negatively related to productivity gradients, suggesting that strong interspecific competition occurs in high productivity plots and that a larger number of species can survive in higher abiotic stress landscapes. Further research is needed to understand the temporal and spatial variations of the ecological interactions that shape this plant community. Jose Navar, F. de Jesus Rodriguez-Flores, Pedro A. Dominguez-Calleros, and Gustavo Perez-Verdin Copyright © 2014 Jose Navar et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Plant Diversity on the Numerical Response of Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to Changes in Cereal Aphid Density in Wheat Crops Thu, 26 Dec 2013 11:26:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/789532/ Cereal aphids cause economic injury to wheat crops. In Argentina, Eriopis connexa is an indigenous ladybird. In the present study, the numerical response of E. connexa to changes in aphid density on wheat crops with high and low plant diversity was investigated. The study was carried out in Balcarce, Buenos Aires, Argentina, from September to December 2007 and 2008, on two wheat crops with either a higher plant diversity (HPD) with refuge strips or a lower plant diversity (LPD) without refuge strips. Crops were sampled every week and the abundance of aphids and E. connexa was recorded. The dominant aphid species were Schizaphis graminum, Metopolophium dirhodum, and Sitobion avenae. Eriopis connexa showed a linear increase in the numerical response to an increase in aphid density, which varied in space and time. The abundance of E. connexa increased in relation to the crop development and aphid population and was higher in the HPD than in the LPD system. This predator increased its reproductive numerical response only in 2008, with a significant liner response in the HPD system. This suggests that the potential of E. connexa as a predator of cereal aphids also increases directly in proportion to landscape vegetal diversity. María C. Tulli, Dora M. Carmona, and Ana M. Vincini Copyright © 2013 María C. Tulli et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Changes in the Vegetation Density of Similipal Biosphere Reserve in Odisha (India) Using Multitemporal Satellite Imagery Tue, 24 Dec 2013 18:20:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/368419/ National parks and protected areas require periodic monitoring because of changing land cover types and variability of landscape contexts within and adjacent to their boundaries. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to analyse the changes in the vegetation density particularly in the zones of higher anthropogenic pressure in the Similipal Biosphere Reserve (SBR) of Odisha (India), using Landsat imagery from 1975 to 2005. A technique for the detection of postclassification changes was followed and the change in vegetation density as expressed by normalized difference vegetation index was computed. Results indicate that high dense forest in the core zone has been conserved and the highest reforestation has also occurred in this zone of SBR. The results also reveal that anthropological interventions are more in the less dense forest areas and along the roads, whereas high dense forest areas have remained undisturbed and rejuvenated. This study provides baseline data demonstrating alteration in land cover over the past three decades and also serves as a foundation for monitoring future changes in the national parks and protected areas. Anima Biswal, A. Jeyaram, Sumit Mukherjee, and Umesh Kumar Copyright © 2013 Anima Biswal et al. All rights reserved. Forest Fragments Surrounded by Sugar Cane Are More Inhospitable to Terrestrial Amphibian Abundance Than Fragments Surrounded by Pasture Sat, 14 Dec 2013 10:51:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/183726/ In recent years, there has been increasing interest in matrix-type influence on forest fragments. Terrestrial amphibians are good bioindicators for this kind of research because of low vagility and high philopatry. This study compared richness, abundance, and species composition of terrestrial amphibians through pitfall traps in two sets of semideciduous seasonal forest fragments in southeastern Brazil, according to the predominant surrounding matrix (sugar cane and pasture). There were no differences in richness, but fragments surrounded by sugar cane had the lowest abundance of amphibians, whereas fragments surrounded by pastures had greater abundance. The most abundant species, Rhinella ornata, showed no biometric differences between fragment groups but like many other amphibians sampled showed very low numbers of individuals in fragments dominated by sugar cane fields. Our data indicate that the sugar cane matrix negatively influences the community of amphibians present in fragments surrounded by this type of land use. Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação, Marcela Fernandes Vilela Silva, Lucas Ferrante, Diego Santana Assis, Thamires Casagrande, Andréa Zalmora Garcia Coelho, Bárbara Christina Silva Amâncio, Túlio Ribeiral Pereira, and Vinícius Xavier da Silva Copyright © 2013 Paula Eveline Ribeiro D’Anunciação et al. All rights reserved. Winter Latitudinal Population Age-Structure of a Migratory Seagull (Larus fuscus) Differs between Its Two Major Migratory Flyways Sun, 08 Dec 2013 11:26:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/737616/ The migration is energy-demanding and is expected to greatly affect the distribution of individuals over the species range and condition the choice of migratory routes. We investigated the wintering distributions and migratory flyways use of geographically contiguous populations of Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus) and difference in population winter age structure between migratory flyways. Recoveries of metal ringed pulli from Denmark, Sweden, and Finland were used. The results showed that contiguous populations can have distinct wintering distribution patterns and migratory flyways. More importantly, we found that depending on the place of origin, the population winter distribution may or may not show a latitudinal cline in the age structure. The population migrating via the eastern Atlantic flyway (western flyway) showed a winter age-related latitudinal cline, with adults staying at more northern latitudes than immatures. In contrast, no such pattern was found in the population migrating along the Mediterranean/Black sea flyway (eastern flyway). Interestingly, immatures within the eastern population showed a more dispersed pattern of migratory bearings. Overall, our results enhance the importance of the migration flyway in shaping the age structure of populations in the winter quarters and how it may influence the effect of other factors like sexual maturation. Paulo A. M. Marques and Paulo E. Jorge Copyright © 2013 Paulo A. M. Marques and Paulo E. Jorge. All rights reserved. Ecological Restoration and Reforestation of Fragmented Forests in Kianjavato, Madagascar Thu, 05 Dec 2013 14:18:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/726275/ A reforestation effort in Kianjavato Commune in southeast Madagascar is presented that combines native diversity with rapidly growing introduced and native pioneer trees. This work utilizes a three-tiered corridor design that capitalizes on the region’s mountainous terrain. The process of seed selection, transplantation, and survival rate of seedlings over a 16 month period is reported. The uppermost 50% of each mountain is planted with 38 woody species and most closely approximates native forest. This tier was divided into two categories, pioneer and secondary species. Most of the pioneer species were not native; however, results showed that four fast-growing, environmentally-tolerant native species could be suitable alternatives: Streblus mauritianus, Syzygium bernieri, Treculia madagascariensis and Uapaca thouarsii. More than 70,000 seeds of secondary species were extracted from fecal samples from wild, free-ranging black and white ruffed lemurs; the majority of which germinated significantly better after gut passage. The most effective pretreatment that enhanced germination was to scarify unwashed seeds. Commercially valuable trees, belonging to the community members, were grown on the lower half of each mountain. Lastly, the various contributions of the community are described along with agroforestry development plans designed to reduce pressure on forest resources and generate supplemental income. Christophe Manjaribe, Cynthia L. Frasier, Bakolimalala Rakouth, and Edward E. Louis Jr. Copyright © 2013 Christophe Manjaribe et al. All rights reserved. Induced Bacteriovory in a Declining Culture of the Mixotrophic Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum minimum (Pavillard) Schiller Tue, 03 Dec 2013 12:07:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/234372/ Bacteriovory was reported previously in the dinoflagellate, Prorocentrum minimum, but it was unclear if this is constitutive or induced under certain conditions. We tested the hypothesis that phosphate deficiency, or cessation of autotrophic growth for other reasons, would induce bacteriovory in a culture of P. minimum that is harmful to shellfish. Phosphate-starved cells did not ingest fluorescently labeled bacteria and died. In stationary-phase, full-enrichment cultures, more than half of viable P. minimum cells showed declines in chlorophyll that was coincident with incorporation of fluorescently labeled bacteria. Declining populations of P. minimum increase in toxicity to suspension-feeding shellfish; this suggests a possible association between bacteriovory and toxicity. Gary H. Wikfors and Emilie Fernandez Copyright © 2013 Gary H. Wikfors and Emilie Fernandez. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Development of Allometric Equations for Estimating Above-Ground Liana Biomass in Tropical Primary and Secondary Forests, Malaysia” Thu, 03 Oct 2013 08:19:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/858630/ Patrick Addo-Fordjour and Zakaria B. Rahmad Copyright © 2013 Patrick Addo-Fordjour and Zakaria B. Rahmad. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Ceramics in Different Colors from Industrial Waste Sun, 14 Jul 2013 10:20:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/208979/ The synthesis of arsenic-free ceramics from industrial waste is studied. Samples of waste containing siliceous material passed the exploitation leap-guard layer shift reactor whose main oxide is -Al2O3 and, with the addition of natural raw materials and pure oxide, arsenic-free ceramics were synthesized with thermal and electrical properties related to the main phase of spinel group minerals; solid solutions were also formed in the process of synthesis. Insulating properties were established by successive heating and cooling of the specimen for six cycles. Electrical insulating properties were established by the method of resistance to arcing. The relative density was determined by hydrostatic method and diffusion lines of molecules at the main phase were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis. The experimental procedures followed in this study allowed mixing on a molecular level due to the small dimensions of the crystallite which in turn explains the relatively high density. Mihail Doynov, Tsvetan Dimitrov, and Maria Kokkori Copyright © 2013 Mihail Doynov et al. All rights reserved. Plankton Resting Stages in the Marine Sediments of the Bay of Vlorë (Albania) Thu, 20 Jun 2013 14:39:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/101682/ In the frame of the INTERREG III CISM project, sediment cores were collected at 2 stations in the Gulf of Vlorë to study the plankton resting stage assemblages. A total of 87 morphotypes were identified and produced by Dinophyta, Ciliophora, Rotifera, and Crustacea. In 22 cases, the cyst belonged to a species absent from the plankton of the same period. The most abundant resting stages were those produced by Scrippsiella species (Dinophyta). Some calcareous cysts were identified as fossil species associated with Pleistocene to Pliocene sediment, although they were also found in surface sediments and some of them successfully germinated, thus proving their modern status. Total abundance generally decreased with sediment depth at station 40, while station 45 showed distinct maxima at 3 and 8 cm below the sediment surface. The depth of peak abundance in the sediment varied with species. This paper presents the first study of the plankton resting stages in the Bay of Vlorë. The study confirmed the utility of this type of investigation for a more correct evaluation of species diversity. In addition, the varying distribution with sediment depth suggests that this field could be of some importance in determining the history of species assemblages. Fernando Rubino, Salvatore Moscatello, Manuela Belmonte, Gianmarco Ingrosso, and Genuario Belmonte Copyright © 2013 Fernando Rubino et al. All rights reserved. Development of Allometric Equations for Estimating Above-Ground Liana Biomass in Tropical Primary and Secondary Forests, Malaysia Sun, 16 Jun 2013 13:58:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/658140/ The study developed allometric equations for estimating liana stem and total above-ground biomass in primary and secondary forests in the Penang National Park, Penang, Malaysia. Using biomass-diameter-length data of 60 liana individuals representing 15 species, allometric equations were developed for liana stem biomass and total above-ground biomass (TAGB). Three types of allometric equations were developed: models fitted to untransformed, weighted, and log-transformed (log10) data. There was a significant linear relationship between biomass and the predictors (diameter, length, and/or their combinations). The same set of models was developed for primary and secondary forests due to absence of differences in regression line slopes of the forests (ANCOVA: ). The coefficients of determination values of the models were high (stem: 0.861 to 0.990; TAGB: 0.900 to 0.992). Generally, log-transformed models showed better fit (Furnival's index, FI < 0.50) than the other models (FI > 0.5). A comparison of the best TAGB model in this study (based on FI) with previously published equations indicated that most of the equations significantly () overestimated TAGB of lianas. However, a previous equation from Southeast Asia estimated TAGB similar to that of the current equation (). Therefore, regional or intracontinental equations should be preferred to intercontinental equations when estimating liana biomass. Patrick Addo-Fordjour and Zakaria B. Rahmad Copyright © 2013 Patrick Addo-Fordjour and Zakaria B. Rahmad. All rights reserved. Flower Density Is More Important Than Habitat Type for Increasing Flower Visiting Insect Diversity Thu, 30 May 2013 09:26:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/237457/ Declines in flora and fauna are well documented and highlight the need to manage available habitats to benefit local biodiversity. Between May and September in 2011 the number, composition, and diversity of flower visiting insects were assessed across eight sites, representing a range of habitats within an industrial site in the North East of England, UK. There was no significant difference in insect assemblages between the sites selected, but there was a significant difference between the months surveyed. Flower density was highlighted as the most important factor driving these changes between months and indicates that flower density is more important to a site for insect diversity than the presence of specific habitats. Analysis of the insect communities each month allowed comparison of dominant insects to the flower density data, highlighting sites where management intervention could be initiated to benefit insect diversity, or alternatively specific management plans to encourage target species. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of correct data interpretation to answer specific management objectives and recommends analysing the insect community interactions to determine the dominant species present prior to undertaking any management of the site in question. L. A. Scriven, M. J. Sweet, and G. R. Port Copyright © 2013 L. A. Scriven et al. All rights reserved. Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields Mon, 27 May 2013 12:02:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/617352/ Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers' interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition and management intensity at the field level. Agricultural intensity, measured as crop density, and farmers' interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations. This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers' interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account. J. Ahnström, J. Bengtsson, Å. Berg, L. Hallgren, W. J. Boonstra, and J. Björklund Copyright © 2013 J. Ahnström et al. All rights reserved. Ant-Related Oviposition and Larval Performance in a Myrmecophilous Lycaenid Sun, 12 May 2013 12:00:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijecol/2013/152139/ We experimentally assessed ant-related oviposition and larval performance in the Miami blue butterfly (Cyclargus thomasi bethunebakeri). Ant tending had sex-dependent effects on most measures of larval growth: female larvae generally benefitted from increased tending frequency whereas male larvae were usually unaffected. The larger size of female larvae tended by ants resulted in a substantial predicted increase in lifetime egg production. Oviposition by adult females that were tended by C. floridanus ants as larvae was similar between host plants with or without ants. However, they laid relatively more eggs on plants with ants than did females raised without ants, which laid less than a third of their eggs on plants with ants present. In summary, we found conditional benefits for larvae tended by ants that were not accompanied by oviposition preference for plants with ants present, which is a reasonable result for a system in which ant presence at the time of oviposition is not a reliable indicator of future ant presence. More broadly, our results emphasize the importance of considering the consequences of variation in interspecific interactions, life history traits, and multiple measures of performance when evaluating the costs and benefits of mutualistic relationships. Matthew D. Trager, Matthew D. Thom, and Jaret C. Daniels Copyright © 2013 Matthew D. Trager et al. All rights reserved.