Table 1: Description of study sample characteristics by multimorbidity categories among Medicare beneficiaries Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, 2000–2005.

TotalMultimorbidity categories
MM/MIMM/No MINo MMSig
Wt%Wt%Wt%Wt%

ALL8,963100.013.866.519.7 ***
Panels ***
 2000–20022,24424.08.871.619.6
 2001–20032,26025.113.865.820.4
 2002–20042,21724.716.165.019.0
 2003–20052,24226.216.264.019.7
Sex ***
 Women5,01156.815.666.817.6
 Men3,95243.211.566.122.4
Race/ethnicity ***
 White7,15680.413.367.319.4
 African American8929.413.269.017.8
 Latino5636.320.056.723.3
 Others3393.916.061.322.7
Age in years ***
 Less than 55 7786.144.237.118.7
 56–644886.538.953.47.7
 65–691,81626.110.164.125.8
 70–741,67620.311.167.521.4
 75 and older4,20541.19.174.016.9
Marital status ***
 Married4,74555.911.667.221.3
 Widowed2,79128.912.172.515.4
 Divorced/separated90410.527.354.018.7
 Others5194.720.950.129.0
Metro status
 Metro6,00271.213.865.920.3
 Not metro2,96028.813.968.018.0
Education ***
 No high school2,87530.015.966.817.3
 High school3,25136.713.467.619.0
 Some college1,22914.414.865.919.3
 College1,57818.910.564.724.8
Poverty status ***
 GT 200% FPL4,10749.09.967.622.5
 LT 200% FPL4,85651.017.565.517.0
General health ***
 Excellent1,16613.74.361.234.4
 Very good2,31827.07.465.627.1
 Good2,89632.111.571.916.6
 Fair1,79719.222.767.99.4
 Poor7478.039.254.85.9
Functional status (ADL) ***
 None6,19971.19.766.423.9
 1–31,92420.720.669.310.1
 3 or more8258.231.861.36.9
Body mass index ***
 Underweight2012.112.264.223.6
 Normal3,12834.011.964.823.3
 Overweight3,38538.712.167.720.2
 Obese1,90022.217.967.414.7
 Morbid2833.029.164.26.7
Smoking status ***
 Current smoker1,19913.524.656.019.3
 Past smoker4,14547.012.469.118.5
 Never smoked3,60539.511.867.221.0
Care coordination ***
 PCP/SPEC1,91723.117.172.610.4
 SPEC only91711.014.072.014.0
 PCP only3,02436.213.268.118.7
 None2,48929.711.663.325.2

Note: Based on 8,963 Medicare beneficiaries who were followed for 3 years and were first interviewed either in 2000, 2001, 2002, or 2003 and not enrolled in Medicare Health Maintenance organizations during the observation years. Asterisks represent significant group differences between multimorbidity categories and sample characteristics based on chi-square tests at .
ADL: activities of daily living; FPL: federal poverty line; GE: greater than or equal; Wt: weighted, MM/MI: multimorbidity with mental illness; MM/No MI: multimorbidity without mental illness; No MM: no multimorbidity or only one condition; PCP/SPEC: primary care provider and specialty care use; SPEC: specialist care use only; PCP: primary care provider use only.