International Journal of Family Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Less Than One-Third of Caretakers Sought Formal Health Care Facilities for Common Childhood Illnesses in Ethiopia: Evidence from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey Sun, 26 Jul 2015 14:13:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2015/516532/ Background. Most of the childhood illnesses can be proven with effective interventions. However, countless children die needlessly in developing countries due to the failure of their guardians to seek care timely. The aim of this study was to assess health care seeking behavior of caretakers of children under the age of five years for treatment of common childhood illnesses. Methods. Further analysis of the Ethiopian 2011 demographic and health survey was done. All children under the age of five reported to have been ill from the three common childhood illnesses and their caretakers were included in the analysis. A complex sample logistic regression model was employed to determine factors associated with the health care seeking behavior of caretakers. Result. A total of 2,842 caregivers who reported that their index child had at least one of the three common childhood illnesses in the two weeks preceding the survey were captured, of which 849 (29.87%; 95% CI: 28, 32%) sought formal health care facilities. Conclusion and Recommendation. In Ethiopia health care seeking behavior of caretakers for common childhood illnesses is low. Increasing mass media exposure can possibly improve the health seeking behavior of caretakers. Achamyelesh Gebretsadik, Alemayehu Worku, and Yemane Berhane Copyright © 2015 Achamyelesh Gebretsadik et al. All rights reserved. Placebo-Controlled Discontinuation of Long-Term Acid-Suppressant Therapy: A Randomised Trial in General Practice Sun, 12 Jul 2015 11:26:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2015/175436/ Objective. To investigate whether patients on long-term antisecretory medication need to continue treatment to control symptoms. Methods. A double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial in general practices in Denmark. Patients aged 18–90 who were treated with antisecretory drugs on a long-term basis were randomized to esomeprazole 40 mg or identical placebo. Outcome measures were time to discontinuation with trial medication due to failed symptom control analysed as survival data. The proportion of patients stopping trial medication during the one-year follow-up was estimated. Results. A total of 171 patients were included with a median prior duration of antisecretory treatment of four years (range: 0.5 to 14.6 years). 86 patients received esomeprazole 40 mg and 85 patients received placebo. At 12 months, statistically significantly more patients in the placebo group had discontinued (73% (62/85)) compared with the esomeprazole group (21% (18/86); < 0.001). Conclusions. Long-term users of antisecretory drugs showed a preference for the active drug compared to placebo. However, 27% of patients continued on placebo throughout the study and did not need to reinstitute usual treatment. One in five patients treated with esomeprazole discontinued trial medication due to unsatisfactory symptom control. Discontinuation of antisecretory treatment should be considered in long-term users of antisecretory drugs. This trial is registered with Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00120315. Jon Eik Zwisler, Dorte Ejg Jarbøl, Annmarie Touborg Lassen, Jakob Kragstrup, Niels Thorsgaard, and Ove B. Schaffalitzky de Muckadell Copyright © 2015 Jon Eik Zwisler et al. All rights reserved. Management of Overweight during Childhood: A Focus Group Study on Health Professionals’ Experiences in General Practice Mon, 06 Jul 2015 12:31:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2015/248985/ Background. Because of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood in the Western world, focus on the management in general practice has also increased. Objective. To explore the experiences of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing two management programmes in general practice for children who are overweight or obese. Methods. Three focus groups with GPs and nurses participating in the RCT. Transcribed data were analysed using systematic text condensation followed by thematic analysis. Results. Health professionals considered it their responsibility to offer a management programme to overweight children. They recognised that management of overweight during childhood was a complex task that required an evidence-based strategy with the possibility of supervision. Health professionals experienced a barrier to addressing overweight in children. However, increasing awareness of obesity in childhood and its consequences in society was considered helpful to reach an understanding of the articulations concerning how best to address the issue. Conclusions. Health professionals in general practice recognised that they have a special obligation, capacity, and role in the management of obesity in childhood. Implementation of future management programmes must address existing barriers beyond an evidence-based standardised strategy. Lone Marie Larsen, Loni Ledderer, and Dorte Ejg Jarbøl Copyright © 2015 Lone Marie Larsen et al. All rights reserved. Improving Preclinic Preparation for Patients with Chronic Conditions in Quito, Ecuador: A Randomized Controlled Trial Wed, 25 Mar 2015 12:28:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2015/724245/ Objectives. As in many settings, patients in community health centers in Ecuador do not complete previsit forms or receive assistance to identify questions and concerns they would like to address in brief clinic visits with physicians. We examined the comparative effectiveness of providing (1) a previsit form to complete; (2) a previsit form along with assistance in completing the form; and (3) usual care. Methods. Parallel, three-arm randomized controlled trial in two health centers serving indigent to low-income communities in Quito, Ecuador, among 199 adult patients who took medications for at least one chronic condition. Outcome measures were self-reported satisfaction with the visit, confidence in asking questions, and extent to which patients’ objectives were met. Results. Patients who received assistance in completing a previsit form were more than twice as likely as participants in usual care to report achieving everything they wanted during their visit (AOR 2.2, ). There were no differences in any outcomes between the groups who received the previsit form with no assistance and usual care. Conclusions. For high-quality patient-centered primary care, it is important to develop and test innovative and scalable interventions for patients and physicians to make the best use of limited clinic time. K. Rodriguez, E. Kaselitz, J. Wong, S. Ligard, D. Peck, V. Hugo Mena, F. Gordillo, D. Serlin, and M. Heisler Copyright © 2015 K. Rodriguez et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Identity after Aphasic Stroke: Implications for Primary Care Wed, 21 Jan 2015 14:08:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2015/970345/ Background. Stroke survivors with aphasia experience difficulty associated with their communication disorder. While much has been written about aphasia’s impacts on partners/family, we lack data regarding the psychosocial adjustment of aphasic stroke survivors, with a paucity of data from the patients themselves. Methods. Qualitative study of lived experiences of individuals with poststroke aphasia. Each of the stroke survivors with aphasia completed 3-4 semistructured interviews. In most cases, patients’ partners jointly participated in interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using techniques derived from grounded theory. Results. 12 patients were interviewed, with the total of 45 interviews over 18 months. Themes included poststroke changes in patients’ relationships and identities, which were altered across several domains including occupational identity, relationship and family roles, and social identity. While all these domains were impacted by aphasia, the impact varied over time. Conclusion. Despite the challenges of interviewing individuals with aphasia, we explored aphasia’s impacts on how individuals experience their identity and develop new identities months and years after stroke. This data has important implications for primary care of patients with aphasia, including the importance of the long-term primary care relationship in supporting psychosocial adjustment to life after aphasic stroke. Benjamin Musser, Joanne Wilkinson, Thomas Gilbert, and Barbara G. Bokhour Copyright © 2015 Benjamin Musser et al. All rights reserved. Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder among Primary School Children in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt Wed, 10 Dec 2014 09:04:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/257369/ Background. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral problem in children. Global variations in diagnostic criteria and rating scales of ADHD either by DSM-IV or ICD 10 may contribute to variations in its prevalence. Objectives. The study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of ADHD and to determine its risk factors. Methodology. A cross-section comparative study was conducted in a randomly selected four primary schools in Menoufia governorate, Egypt. All children after a valid consent of their parents (. 1362) were subjected to complete history taking, medical and psychological assessment, and IQ estimation. Their parents and teachers were subjected to the corresponding Arabic forms of Conner’s questionnaire. Suspected cases were confirmed and categorized by DSM-IV criteria. The sample was divided into cases and controls to study the risk factors. Results. Prevalence of ADHD was 6.9% and the male : female ratio was 3.5 : 1. The main risk factors were neonatal problems (), family history of psychiatric and medical illnesses ( and 2.8), and male gender (). Conclusion. Prevalence of ADHD among Menoufia school children was 6.9%. Dealing with its risk factors is mandatory for prevention, early management, and better outcome. Taghreed Farahat, Mohammad Alkot, Afaf Rajab, and Reda Anbar Copyright © 2014 Taghreed Farahat et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Economic, Physical, and Psychological Abuse on Mental Health: A Population-Based Study of Women in the Philippines Thu, 27 Nov 2014 00:10:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/852317/ Background. The comparative effect of economic abuse and other forms of abuse in predicting depression and other mental health disorders has not been previously investigated despite its relevance for mental illness prevention. Objective. To determine the differential association of economic abuse on psychological distress and suicide attempts. Study Design. We used cross-sectional data from women aged 15–49 years in the 2008 Philippines Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) (N = 9,316). Results. Adjusting for sociodemographic confounders revealed positive associations between economic, physical, or psychological abuse and suicide attempts and psychological distress. Psychological and economic abuse were the strongest predictors of suicide attempts and psychological distress, respectively. Economic abuse was also negatively associated with psychological distress. Comorbidity with one mental health disorder greatly increased the odds of reporting the other mental health disorder. Conclusion. Overall, the results elucidate the differential effects of these forms of abuse on women’s mental health. Diddy Antai, Ayo Oke, Patrick Braithwaite, and Gerald Bryan Lopez Copyright © 2014 Diddy Antai et al. All rights reserved. Relevance of Chronic Lyme Disease to Family Medicine as a Complex Multidimensional Chronic Disease Construct: A Systematic Review Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/138016/ Lyme disease has become a global public health problem and a prototype of an emerging infection. Both treatment-refractory infection and symptoms that are related to Borrelia burgdorferi infection remain subject to controversy. Because of the absence of solid evidence on prevalence, causes, diagnostic criteria, tools and treatment options, the role of autoimmunity to residual or persisting antigens, and the role of a toxin or other bacterial-associated products that are responsible for the symptoms and signs, chronic Lyme disease (CLD) remains a relatively poorly understood chronic disease construct. The role and performance of family medicine in the detection, integrative treatment, and follow-up of CLD are not well studied either. The purpose of this paper is to describe insights into the complexity of CLD as a multidimensional chronic disease construct and its relevance to family medicine by means of a systematic literature review. Liesbeth Borgermans, Geert Goderis, Jan Vandevoorde, and Dirk Devroey Copyright © 2014 Liesbeth Borgermans et al. All rights reserved. A Web-Based Survey of Residents’ Views on Advocating with Patients for a Healthy Built Environment in Canada Tue, 11 Nov 2014 07:54:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/458184/ Purpose. To determine family medicine residents’ perceived knowledge and attitudes towards the built environment and their responsibility for health advocacy and to identify their perceived educational needs and barriers to patient education and advocacy. Methods. A web-based survey was conducted in Canada with University of Toronto family medicine residents. Data were analyzed descriptively. Results. 93% agreed or strongly agreed that built environment significantly impacts health. 64% thought educating patients on built environment is effective disease prevention; 52% considered this a role of family physicians. 78% reported that advocacy for built environment is effective disease prevention; 56% perceived this to be the family physician’s role. 59% reported being knowledgeable to discuss how a patient’s environment may affect his/her health; 35% reported being knowledgeable to participate in community discussions on built environment. 78% thought education would help with integration into practice. Inadequate time (92%), knowledge (73%), and remuneration (54%) were barriers. Conclusions. While residents perceived value in education and advocacy as disease prevention strategies and acknowledged the importance of a healthy built environment, they did not consider advocacy towards this the family physician’s role. Barrier reduction and medical education may contribute to improved advocacy, ultimately improving physical activity levels and patient health outcomes. Matthew Cruickshank and Marcus Law Copyright © 2014 Matthew Cruickshank and Marcus Law. All rights reserved. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Motivations towards Blood Donation among King Abdulaziz Medical City Population Thu, 06 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/539670/ Background. Blood donation is remarkably safe medical procedure. However, attitudes, beliefs, and level of knowledge may affect it. Objectives. To measure the level of knowledge regarding blood donation, find out positive and negative attitudes, identify the obstacles, and suggest some motivational factors. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC). Participants were selected by convenient nonrandom sampling technique. A self-created questionnaire was used for data collection. Results. The study included 349 individuals. About 45.8% of the participants claimed that they have a history of blood donation. Reported causes for not donating blood were blood donation not crossing their mind (52.4%), no time for donation (45%), and difficulty in accessing blood donation center (41.3%). Reported motivating factors for donating blood were one day off (81.4%), mobile blood donation caravans in public areas (79.1%), token gifts (31.5%), and finally paying money (18.9%). Conclusion. People in the age group 31–50 years, males, higher education and military were more likely to donate blood as well as People who showed higher knowledge level and positive attitude towards blood donation. More educational programs to increase the awareness in specific targeted populations and also to focus on some motivational factors are recommended. Najd Alfouzan Copyright © 2014 Najd Alfouzan. All rights reserved. Low Back Pain in Primary Care: A Description of 1250 Patients with Low Back Pain in Danish General and Chiropractic Practice Tue, 04 Nov 2014 09:43:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/106102/ Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented separately for general and chiropractic practice patients, Mann-Whitney rank sum test and Pearson’s chi-square test, were used to test for differences between the two populations. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 934 patients in chiropractic practice and 319 patients from general practice. Four out of five patients had had previous episodes, one-fourth were on sick leave, and the LBP considerably limited daily activities. The general practice patients were slightly older and less educated, more often females, and generally worse on all disease-related parameters than chiropractic patients. All differences were statistically significant. Conclusions. LBP in primary care was recurrent, causing sick leave and activity limitations. There were clear differences between the chiropractic and general practice populations in this study. Lise Hestbaek, Anders Munck, Lisbeth Hartvigsen, Dorte Ejg Jarbøl, Jens Søndergaard, and Alice Kongsted Copyright © 2014 Lise Hestbaek et al. All rights reserved. Comparative Analysis: Potential Barriers to Career Participation by North American Physicians in Global Health Mon, 27 Oct 2014 12:14:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/728163/ Physician interest in global health, particularly among family physicians, is reflected by an increasing proliferation of field training and service experiences. However, translating initial training involvement into a defined and sustainable global health career remains difficult and beset by numerous barriers. Existing global health literature has largely examined training experiences and related ethical considerations while neglecting the role of career development in global health. To explore this, this paper extrapolates potential barriers to global health career involvement from existing literature and compares these to salary and skills requirements for archetypal physician positions in global health, presenting a framework of possible barriers to sustained physician participation in global health work. Notable barriers identified include financial limitations, scheduling conflicts, security/family concerns, skills limitations, limited awareness of opportunities, and specialty choice, with family practice often closely aligned with global health experience. Proposed solutions include financial support, protected time, family relocation support, and additional training. This framework delineates barriers to career involvement in global health by physicians. Further research regarding these barriers as well as potential solutions may help direct policy and initiatives to better utilize physicians, particularly family physicians, as a valuable global health human resource. Daniel S. Rhee, Jennifer E. Heckman, Sae-Rom Chae, and Lawrence C. Loh Copyright © 2014 Daniel S. Rhee et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Perceived Barriers of Colorectal Cancer Screening among Family Physicians in National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh Sun, 28 Sep 2014 08:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/457354/ Objectives. The objective of this study is to explore the current knowledge, attitude, and practice of family physicians working in family medicine clinics in National Guard Health Affairs (NGHA), Riyadh, toward colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to identify the barriers of the screening. Methods. Data were collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire adopted from the National Cancer Institute in USA, customized by adding and eliminating questions to be in line with the institution (NGHA) characteristics. Results. Of the 130 physicians, 56.2% of the physicians were not practicing CRC screening although 94.6% considered CRC screening effective. Board certified physicians had higher knowledge score and were practicing CRC screening more when compared to other physicians. Physicians who reported practicing CRC screening scored more on the knowledge score than those not practicing. Male physicians scored better on attitude score than female physicians. The study found that barriers were cited in higher rates among physicians not practicing CRC screening compared with practicing physicians. Lack of patients’ awareness was the most cited barrier. Conclusion. Large percentage of family physicians in this study do not practice CRC screening, despite the knowledge level and the positive attitude. Eyad Demyati Copyright © 2014 Eyad Demyati. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of the Knowledge and Utilization of the Partogragh in Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Care Settings in Calabar, South-South Nigeria Sun, 14 Sep 2014 09:24:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/105853/ The challenge to maternal well-being with associated maternal wastages especially in labor has remained unsurmountable across the three tiers of health care delivery in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine and compare the factors that influence utilization of the partograph in primary, secondary, and tertiary health care delivery levels in Calabar, Nigeria. This was a descriptive study, using a self-administered semistructured questionnaire on 290 consenting nonphysician obstetric care workers, purposively recruited. The mean age of the respondents was with a preponderance of females (92.4%). Knowledge of the partograph and previous partograph training had statistically significant relationship with its utilization among respondents from the tertiary and general hospitals. The level of knowledge was higher among workers in the general hospital than those working in the university teaching hospital. Nurses/midwives in the three levels of care were significantly more knowledgeable in partograph use than other nonphysician obstetric care workers. Lack of detailed knowledge of the partograph, its nonavailability and poor staff strength in the study centers were factors militating against its ease of utilization. The authors recommend periodic in-service training and provision of partograph in labor rooms in all maternity wards in our environment. Ita B. Okokon, Afiong O. Oku, Thomas U. Agan, Udeme E. Asibong, Ekere J. Essien, and Emmanuel Monjok Copyright © 2014 Ita B. Okokon et al. All rights reserved. A Change in Students’ Perceptions of Peer and Faculty Attitudes to Rural Medicine following the Introduction of a Rural Health Rotation Wed, 27 Aug 2014 07:49:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/124708/ Introduction. In 2000, the Dunedin School of Medicine (one of Otago Medical School’s 3 clinical schools) introduced 7-week rural placement. A survey of students conducted before attending the placement showed that most students did not perceive faculty to have a positive view of rural health. In 2007, we explored whether students’ perceptions had changed. Method. All 5th year medical students at Otago Medical School were surveyed using items from the original study. The perceptions of students in Dunedin were compared with those of students in the other clinical schools (no rural rotation) and with those of students in the original study. Results. In 2007, there was a significantly increased likelihood of students from Dunedin reporting perceptions of positive faculty attitudes towards rural health compared with students from the other two clinical schools and with Dunedin students from the original survey. Conclusion. The results suggest that student perceptions of faculty attitudes in the school towards rural health may be changed following the introduction of a general practice rural placement to its curriculum. Martyn Williamson Copyright © 2014 Martyn Williamson. All rights reserved. Comparing the Effects of Dietary Flaxseed and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplement on Cyclical Mastalgia in Iranian Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:11:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/174532/ Considering the negative side effects of chemical drugs, there is a great need for effective alternative treatment strategies to manage cyclical mastalgia. Therefore, this study aimed at comparing the effects of flaxseed diet and omega-3 fatty acids supplement on treatment of cyclical mastalgia. In this study, 61, 60, and 60 women, respectively, received flaxseed as bread, omega-3 fatty acids as pearl, and wheat bread as their diet for two menstrual cycles. At the baseline cycle and end of both interventional cycles, intensity of mastalgia was measured using visual analogue scale. Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference among the three groups regarding the mean intensity of cyclical mastalgia in the first and second cycles of the interventions (). Also, repeated measures analysis of covariance with adjustment of two variables of age and mastalgia intensity of the baseline cycle demonstrated that flaxseed bread was more effective compared to omega-3 and wheat bread (). The results of this study demonstrated that flaxseed bread diet was an effective approach in decreasing cyclical mastalgia and could be prescribed to women as a simple treatment with few complications. Farideh Vaziri, Mansooreh Zamani Lari, Alamtaj Samsami Dehaghani, Mousa Salehi, Hossein Sadeghpour, Marzieh Akbarzadeh, and Najaf Zare Copyright © 2014 Farideh Vaziri et al. All rights reserved. The Danish Symptom Cohort: Questionnaire and Feasibility in the Nationwide Study on Symptom Experience and Healthcare-Seeking among 100 000 Individuals Wed, 23 Jul 2014 09:30:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/187280/ Introduction. In order to develop strategies to prevent delay in diagnosis, it is important to gain knowledge of symptoms and healthcare-seeking processes in the population. This paper describes a combined survey and register-based study with (1) focus on development of a questionnaire concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences and (2) feasibility of the study. Methods. The study is a nationwide cohort study of 100 000 individuals randomly selected from the Danish general population. A comprehensive questionnaire concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences was developed. The methodological framework for the development included defining the domains to be measured, identification of previous items, scales and questionnaires in the literature, and pilot and field testing. Results. A total of five domains and 16 subdomains were defined covering the area of symptom experience, symptom characteristics, reaction in response to symptom experience, external factors, and personality characteristics with potential influence on the symptom experience. In total, 49 706 questionnaires were completed, yielding a response rate of 52.2%. Conclusion. We developed a comprehensive questionnaire used in a large combined survey and register-based study concerning experience of symptoms and subsequent consequences of symptom experiences. We succeeded in conducting a large survey providing the groundwork for The Danish Symptom Cohort. Sanne Rasmussen, Jens Søndergaard, Pia Veldt Larsen, Kirubakaran Balasubramaniam, Sandra Elnegaard, Rikke Pilsgaard Svendsen, Rikke Sand Andersen, Anette Fischer Pedersen, Peter Vedsted, and Dorte Ejg Jarbøl Copyright © 2014 Sanne Rasmussen et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge and Perception on Long Acting and Permanent Contraceptive Methods in Adigrat Town, Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study Mon, 21 Jul 2014 08:24:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/878639/ Background. Long acting and permanent contraceptive methods have the potential to reduce unintended pregnancies but the contraceptive choice and utilization in Ethiopia are highly dominated by short term contraceptives. Objective. To assess the knowledge and perception on long acting and permanent contraceptives of married women and men in Northern Ethiopia. Method. A qualitative method was conducted in Adigrat on January, 2012. Four focus group discussions with married women and men and six in-depth interviews with family planning providers were conducted. Content analysis was used to synthesize the data. Result. Participants’ knowledge on long acting and permanent contraceptives is limited to recognizing the name of the methods. Most of the participants are not able to identify permanent methods as a method of contraception. They lack basic information on how these methods work and how they can use it. Women had fears and rumors about each of these methods. They prefer methods which do not require any procedure. Family planning providers stated as they have weakness on counseling of all contraceptive choices. Conclusion. There are personal barriers and knowledge gaps on these contraceptive methods. Improving the counseling service program can help women to increase knowledge and avoid misconceptions of each contraceptive choice. Alem Gebremariam and Adamu Addissie Copyright © 2014 Alem Gebremariam and Adamu Addissie. All rights reserved. Lifestyle and Dietary Behaviors among Saudi Preschool Children Attending Primary Health Care Centers, Eastern Saudi Arabia Thu, 10 Jul 2014 10:37:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/432732/ Objective. To study life styles and dietary behaviors among Saudi preschool children (1–5 years) attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) in Dammam and Qatif areas, eastern province, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods. Cross-sectional study. Data were collected using structured, interviewer-filled questionnaire. Children and their mothers were encountered during their well-baby clinic visits. A total number of 300 preschool children and their mothers were interviewed during study period. Results. Unsatisfactory areas include smoking fathers (32%), smoking in front of children (11.3%), overweight and obesity among mothers (60.3%), noncompliance using seat belts for both parents (56.3%) and children (68%), children watching television (T.V) more than 2 hours (50%), adherence to exclusive breast feeding (only 20.7%), and late solid food introduction (65.3%). Frequent intake of unhealthy food items was 26%, 25%, and 24% for pizza, burger, and soft drinks. Unfortunately frequent intake of the following unhealthy food items was high: biscuits, deserts/chocolates, and chips which was 78%, 67%, and 72%, respectively. Conclusion. This study provides benchmark about the current situation. It provides health care workers and decision makers with important information that may help to improve health services. Magdy A. Darwish, Ghadeer Al-Saif, Suha Albahrani, and Amr A. Sabra Copyright © 2014 Magdy A. Darwish et al. All rights reserved. Relational Coordination and Organisational Social Capital Association with Characteristics of General Practice Thu, 19 Jun 2014 11:41:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/618435/ Background. Relational coordination (RC) and organisational social capital (OSC) are measures of novel aspects of an organisation’s performance, which have not previously been analysed together, in general practice. Objectives. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations between RC and OSC, and characteristics of general practice. Methods. Questionnaire survey study comprising 2074 practices in Denmark. Results. General practitioners (GPs) rated both RC and OSC in their general practice higher than their secretaries and nurses. The practice form was statistically significantly associated with high RC and OSC. RC was positively associated with the number of patients listed with a practice per staff, where staff is defined as all members of a practice including both owners and employees. Conclusion. The study showed that RC and OSC were significantly associated with type of profession and practice type. RC was also found to be significantly positively associated with number of patients per staff. However, the low response rate must be taken into consideration when interpreting the self-reported results of this study. Sanne Lykke Lundstrøm, Kasper Edwards, Thomas Bøllingtoft Knudsen, Pia Veldt Larsen, Susanne Reventlow, and Jens Søndergaard Copyright © 2014 Sanne Lykke Lundstrøm et al. All rights reserved. Effectiveness of Gatekeepers in Determining the Appropriate Use of Brain MRI/MRA Tests Mon, 26 May 2014 07:23:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/670915/ The purpose of the study is to examine whether, among patients who visited hospitals and underwent brain MRI or MRA scan tests, there was a relationship between the existence of clinically significant abnormal findings and the relevance of primary care physicians’ referrals. A case-control study was carried out at six teaching hospitals in Japan. We identified cases with significant abnormal MRI/MRA findings from radiologists’ reports based on certain explicit criteria and controls with outpatients who underwent MRI/MRA scans but did not have stroke. We also collected clinical data independently from medical records. The findings of 156 cases and 721 controls were collected for the analysis. A multivariate analysis adjusted by age group, sex, and the number of comorbidity factors showed that those who had visited the hospitals after referral were more likely to have significant abnormal findings in their MRI/MRA scan results (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 to 2.4). The present study suggests that referral from gatekeepers such as primary care physicians is effective in determining the appropriate use of brain MRI/MRA tests for hospital outpatients. Seiji Bito, Shinji Matsumura, Kazuhiko Kotani, and Shunichi Fukuhara Copyright © 2014 Seiji Bito et al. All rights reserved. Childhood Adversities are Associated with Diabetes Management in Working Age in Finland Mon, 28 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/864572/ Backgrounds. Research findings suggest that the mind can cause physical disease. To plan the best quality of care, general practitioner needs to understand an individual's health problems in physical, social, and psychological dimensions. This study sought to establish whether adverse life events occurring in childhood and adolescence are associated with diabetes. Methods. The cohort was collected from the health and social support (HeSSup) study—a postal follow-up survey of randomized working-aged Finns initiated in 1998. The response rate was 40.0% and the final cohort size 24057. Data on reimbursed diabetes medication during the years 1998–2006 were obtained from the Social Insurance Institute of Finland registers. Subjects were divided into insulin, tablet, combination therapy, and drug-naive groups together with a control group without diabetes. The prevalence of childhood adversities was assessed based on answers to six survey questions. Results. Childhood adversities showed predominant linkage to diabetes type 2 groups, especially to the combination therapy group requiring combined insulin and tablet treatment. No connection was found between childhood adversities and insulin use. Cumulative adversities did not markedly increase the association. Conclusions. Stressful events in childhood are associated with diabetes combination therapy in working age. The meaning of the relationship remains unsolved. Lauri Pisto, Atte Vadén, Lauri Sillanmäki, and Kari Mattila Copyright © 2014 Lauri Pisto et al. All rights reserved. Early COPD Diagnosis in Family Medicine Practice: How to Implement Spirometry? Thu, 03 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/962901/ Introduction. COPD is often diagnosed at an advanced stage because symptoms go unrecognized. Furthermore, spirometry is often not done. Methods. Study was conducted in diverse family medicine practice settings. Patients were targeted if respiratory symptoms were present. Patients had a spirometry to confirm the presence of airflow obstruction and COPD diagnosis. An evaluation of the process was done to better understand facilitating/limiting factors to the implementation of a primary care based spirometry program. Results. 12 of 19 primary care offices participated. 196 of 246 (80%) patients targeted based on the presence of smoking and respiratory symptoms did not have COPD; 18 (7%) and 32 (13%) had COPD, respectively, GOLD I and ≥II. There was no difference in the type and number of respiratory symptoms between non-COPD and COPD patients. Most of the clinics did not have access to a trained healthcare professional to accomplish spirometry. They agreed that giving access to a trained healthcare professional was the easiest and most reliable way of doing spirometry. Conclusion. Spirometry, a simple test, is recommended in guidelines to make the diagnosis of COPD. The lack of allocated time and training of healthcare professionals makes its implementation challenging in family medicine practices. Nathalie Saad, Maria Sedeno, Katrina Metz, and Jean Bourbeau Copyright © 2014 Nathalie Saad et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Effect of Interactive Online Dietician Weight Loss Advice in General Practice (LIVA) Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial Sun, 30 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/245347/ Background. Internet-based complex interventions aiming to promote weight loss and optimize healthy behaviors have attracted much attention. However, evidence for effect is lacking. Obesity is a growing problem, resulting in an increasing demand for cost efficient weight loss programs suitable for use on a large scale, for example, as part of standard primary care. In a previous pilot project by Brandt et al. (2011) without a control group, we examined the effects of online dietician counseling and found an average weight loss of 7.0 kg (95% CI: 4.6 to 9.3 kg) after 20 months. Aims and Methods. To analyze the effects of a complex intervention using trained dieticians in a general practice setting combined with internet-based interactive and personalized weight management support compared with conventional advice with a noninteractive internet support as placebo treatment in 340 overweight patients during a 2-year period. Primary endpoints are weight loss and lowering of cholesterol (LDL). We will also explore patients’ sociodemographics and use of the intervention as well as the health professionals’ views and perceptions of the intervention (their role and the advice and support that they provide). Perspective. The project will generate knowledge on the cost-effectiveness of a complex internet-based intervention in a general practice setting and on barriers and acceptability among professionals and patients. Carl J. Brandt, Vibeke Brandt, Mathilde Pedersen, Dorte Glintborg, Søren Toubro, Jesper Bo Nielsen, Gunther Eysenbach, Kirsten Brandt, and Jens Søndergaard Copyright © 2014 Carl J. Brandt et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Utility of Cognistat in Multiprofessional Team Evaluations of Patients with Cognitive Impairment in Swedish Primary Care Sun, 23 Mar 2014 09:55:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/649253/ Background. Diagnostic evaluations of dementia are often performed in primary health care (PHC). Cognitive evaluation requires validated instruments. Objective. To investigate the diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat in a primary care population. Methods. Participants were recruited from 4 PHC centres; 52 had cognitive symptoms and 29 were presumed cognitively healthy. Participants were tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and Cognistat. Clinical diagnoses, based on independent neuropsychological examination and a medical consensus discussion in secondary care, were used as criteria for diagnostic accuracy analyses. Results. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 0.85, 0.79, 0.85, and 0.79, respectively, for Cognistat; 0.59, 0.91, 0.90, and 0.61 for MMSE; 0.26, 0.88, 0.75, and 0.46 for CDT; 0.70, 0.79, 0.82, and 0.65 for MMSE and CDT combined. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.82 for Cognistat, 0.75 for MMSE, 0.57 for CDT, and 0.74 for MMSE and CDT combined. Conclusions. The diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of Cognistat was better than the other tests alone or combined. Cognistat is well adapted for cognitive evaluations in PHC and can help the general practitioner to decide which patients should be referred to secondary care. Maria M. Johansson, Anna S. Kvitting, Ewa Wressle, and Jan Marcusson Copyright © 2014 Maria M. Johansson et al. All rights reserved. Prescription Practice for Diabetes Management among a Female Population in Primary Health Care Thu, 20 Mar 2014 07:06:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/103853/ Introduction. Prescription for diabetes care is an important practice in primary care. Methods. This is a descriptive study carried out on at primary care clinics over a five-month period at Al Imam Medical Complex, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It was cross-sectional study of 160 female diabetic patients, who visited the services between January and May, 2012. Data were collected from the medical records on the clinical characteristics and drugs prescribed for their diabetic management. Results. The majority of the sample population (82%) was older than 40 years old. Half of them had concomitant hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. There were 500 prescriptions for diabetes management. More than 57% of participants were on two or more drugs for hyperglycemia. Metformin was the most common drug prescribed. Metformin and sulphonylurea were the most common combined medications. Most of cases ( 70%) were on a combination of antihypertensive drugs. ACE or ARBs and diuretic was the most common combined prescriptions. Statins and aspirin were used by 41% and 23.8% of the research population, respectively. Conclusion. Polypharmacy is a feature in diabetes care. Most of the prescription practice for diabetic care follows the recommended guidelines for hyperglycemia and hypertension. Management of dyslipidemia among diabetic patients, however, is an area that needs to be developed. Fouzia A. ALHreashy and Abdulelah F. Mobierek Copyright © 2014 Fouzia A. ALHreashy and Abdulelah F. Mobierek. All rights reserved. Measuring Staff Empowerment Regarding Health Care for Clients with Intellectual Disabilities Tue, 25 Feb 2014 12:08:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/678127/ Background. Women with intellectual disabilities (ID) contract breast cancer at the same rate as the general population but have higher breast cancer mortality and lower rates of breast cancer screening. Many women with ID live in group homes or supported residences where they are cared for by direct support workers. While direct support workers are thought to influence client health, this effect is underresearched, and we lack tools for measuring staff empowerment and perceptions regarding client health. Methods. We developed and validated an instrument, the staff empowerment tool (SET), to measure staff empowerment as related to supporting clients in preventive health. Results. The SET was found to be a reliable instrument for measuring staff activation and empowerment in helping clients access mammography screening. Discussion. Quantifying staff empowerment and perspectives is important in studying and reducing disparities among adults with ID, a vulnerable population. Further research to determine the impact of staff empowerment levels on their clients’ health and health care access is suggested. The SET is a valuable tool for measuring the construct of staff empowerment, evaluating interventions, and collecting data regarding variation in staff empowerment. Joanne Wilkinson, Nechama W. Greenwood, Claire Tienwey Wang, Laura F. White, and Larry Culpepper Copyright © 2014 Joanne Wilkinson et al. All rights reserved. Tablet-Based Screening of Depressive Symptoms in Quito, Ecuador: Efficiency in Primary Care Mon, 17 Feb 2014 13:04:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/845397/ Depression is a frequent yet overlooked occurrence in primary health care clinics worldwide. Depression and related health screening instruments are available but are rarely used consistently. The availability of technologically based instruments in the assessments offers novel approaches for gathering, storing, and assessing data that includes self-reported symptom severity from the patients themselves as well as clinician recorded information. In a suburban primary health care clinic in Quito, Ecuador, we tested the feasibility and utility of computer tablet-based assessments to evaluate clinic attendees for depression symptoms with the goal of developing effective screening and monitoring tools in the primary care clinics. We assessed individuals using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Clinical Global Impression Severity, and a DSM-IV checklist of symptoms. We found that 20% of individuals had a PHQ9 of 8 or greater. There was good correlation between the symptom severity assessments. We conclude that the tablet-based PHQ9 is an excellent and efficient method of screening for depression in attendees at primary health care clinics and that one in five people should be assessed further for depressive illness and possible intervention. Michelle Grunauer, David Schrock, Eric Fabara, Gabriela Jimenez, Aimee Miller, Zongshan Lai, Amy Kilbourne, and Melvin G. McInnis Copyright © 2014 Michelle Grunauer et al. All rights reserved. Adherence to Long-Term Therapies and Beliefs about Medications Thu, 13 Feb 2014 13:07:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/479596/ Objectives. To assess adherence to long-term medications among patients in family medicine clinics and to evaluate relationship between adherence, beliefs about medications, medication information adequacy, and other factors. Methods. Interviewer assisted survey was conducted to assess adherence using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), beliefs about medications using beliefs about medicine questionnaire (BMQ), and the patients’ perception of medication information adequacy. Results. Of the 408 participants, 56.9% reported low adherence. Pearson’s bivariate correlation showed positive association between MMAS-8 score and BMQ-specific necessity (  ) and the perceived information adequacy (  ), and there was negative association between adherence score and BMQ specific concerns, general overuse, and harm (, 0.466, and 0.663, resp.) (). Multivariable analysis revealed that age, number of medications, number of medical conditions, specific necessity and concerns beliefs, general harm beliefs, and perceived adequacy of medication information were independent predictor of adherence. Furthermore, specific beliefs explain 27.7% of the variance in adherence, while medication information adequacy explains 32.3% of the variance in adherence. Conclusion. The prevalence of low adherence among patients on long-term medications is high and it is related to negative beliefs about medications and to inadequate information given to patients about their medications. Abdullah AlHewiti Copyright © 2014 Abdullah AlHewiti. All rights reserved. The Impact of Insurance and a Usual Source of Care on Emergency Department Use in the United States Sun, 09 Feb 2014 11:26:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijfm/2014/842847/ Background. Finding a usual source of care (USC) is difficult for certain populations. This analysis determines how insurance type and having a USC affect the settings in which patients seek care. Methods. In this cross-sectional study of the 2000–2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys, we assessed the percentage of low-income persons with half or more of their ambulatory visits to the emergency department (ED). Respondents were stratified based on insurance type and presence of a USC. Results. In 2011, among Medicaid enrollees without USCs, 21.6% had half or more of their ambulatory visits to EDs compared to 8.1% for those with USCs. Among the uninsured without USCs, 24.1% went to an ED for half or more of their ambulatory visits compared to 8.8% for those with USCs in 2011. Among the privately insured without USCs, 7.8% went to an ED for half or more of their ambulatory visits compared to 5.0% for those with USCs in 2011. These differences remained in multivariate analyses. Conclusions. Those who lack USCs, particularly the uninsured and Medicaid enrollees, are more likely to rely on EDs. Winston Liaw, Stephen Petterson, David L. Rabin, and Andrew Bazemore Copyright © 2014 Winston Liaw et al. All rights reserved.