Table 1: Estimates of mean county level dogwood populations for times 1 and 2, mean difference, relative mean difference, and result of ANCOVA for each FIA regional unit.

Time 1Time 2ANCOVA(3)
StateFIA Unit Namen (1)Mean(2)SEMeanSEDifferenceTime effectCovariate effect
treespercentF(1,n)P-valueF(1,n)P-value

AlabamaWest Central920,695,7643,274,02010,031,0082,016,787 .0032 .0472
(1990–2006)(4)North Central1521,507,3272,943,94613,406,2511,840,435 .0054
North109,244,3581,878,8982,912,652805,238 .0003 .0084
GeorgiaNorth Central327,313,091805,7784,458,056577,459 <.0001 <.0001
(1989–2005)Northern2113,073,9671,412,8877,310,997944,318 <.0001 <.0001
KentuckyEastern810,306,3971,743,9856,442,8011,630,781 .0201
(1988–2005)Northern Cumberland139,990,6091,275,9324,001,196800,892 .0002
Southern Cumberland1213,763,0142,296,9547,067,097938,907 .0003 .0033
Bluegrass231,039,546424,357974,558198,036 .5308
Pennyroyal205,654,549833,1794,102,760724,316 .0115 .0002
MarylandCentral143,056,785868,256854,696355,430 .0202
(1986–2005)Western26,446,8164,483,3482,721,4252,721,425
NewJerseyNew Jersey101,988,159832,2931,056,032670,973
(1987–2005)
NewYorkLake Plain4888,319647,869391,994391,994
(1993–2003)Southwest Highlands3979,608393,48221,54121,541
South-Central Highlands6845,510262,09100 .0176
Catskill-Lower Hudson72,637,366668,206446,236218,787 .0139
NorthCarolinaPiedmont3512,946,4251,185,7176,299,325678,232 <.0001 <.0001
(1984–2005)Mountains2115,561,4522,239,3853,889,7701,055,649 <.0001 .0006
OhioSouth-Central1012,575,2593,327,9522,949,358917,571 .0005 .0065
(1991–2005)Southeastern716,271,8633,664,6344,594,509820,116 .0051
East-Central119,344,1921,808,6473,547,3331,074,389 .0057
Northeastern142,358,145635,583542,080168,966 .0114
Southwestern102,640,8311,469,844468,895210,824 .0204 .0060
Northwestern81,822,098797,893266,995185,833 .0240 .0177
PennsylvaniaSouth Central94,059,553803,8901,012,088321,546 .0006 .0489
(1989–2004)Western116,083,8861,372,6182,025,858646,447 .0062
North Central/Allegheny121,530,963347,3281,543,194649,859
Southwestern56,139,0953,209,4921,490,5631,265,416
Northeastern/Pocono111,476,173435,794831,137548,256 .0267
Southeastern112,750,142669,852681,959269,232 .0009 .0030
SouthCarolinaPiedmont1814,121,3751,782,2138,456,840937,465 .0011 .0379
(1986–2006)
TennesseePlateau1614,451,8842,345,0464,144,037510,643 <.0001 .0027
(1989–2005)East279,121,8661,349,5483,603,451480,197 <.0001 .0040
VirginiaSouthern Piedmont1714,397,3951,386,4038,384,910677,451 <.0001 .0004
(1984–2006)Northern Piedmont1711,557,1371,619,4094,384,169785,853 <.0001 <.0001
Northern Mountains1412,462,5771,997,6022,373,419576,140 <.0001 <.0001
Southern mountains179,589,499853,9283,115,279508,146 <.0001 <.0001
WestVirginiaNortheastern187,646,4101,342,8502,716,840942,141 .0054
(1989–2005)Southern1415,904,1201,773,0082,106,411696,818 <.0001
Northwestern198,519,7071,562,6664,188,1891,043,101 .0012 <.0001

(1)Number of counties located within the unit.
(2)Mean number of dogwood stems greater than 1-inch diameter in counties located within the unit.
(3)Type III tests comparing time 1 county-level estimates to time 2 county-level estimates with change in stand density as the covariate.
(4)Inventory year associated with each state for both time 1 and time 2.