About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 413703, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/413703
Research Article

Carbon Flux of Down Woody Materials in Forests of the North Central United States

USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Saint Paul, MN 55108, USA

Received 9 June 2009; Revised 13 October 2009; Accepted 5 November 2009

Academic Editor: Hamish Kimmins

Copyright © 2010 C. W. Woodall. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. W. Woodall and V. J. Monleon, “Sampling, estimation, and analysis procedures for the down woody materials indicator,” Tech. Rep. NRS-22, USDA Forest Service, Newtown Square, Pa, USA, 2008.
  2. L. S. Heath, J. E. Smith, and R. A. Birdsey, “Carbon trends in US forest lands: a context for the role of soils in forest carbon sequestration,” in The Potential of US Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect, J. M. Kimble, L. S. Heath, R. A. Birdsey, and R. Lal, Eds., pp. 35–45, CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2003.
  3. EPA, “Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2006,” Tech. Rep., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, USA, 2008.
  4. Y. Malhi, D. D. Baldocchi, and P. G. Jarvis, “The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forests,” Plant, Cell & Environment, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 715–740, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. X. Yin, “The decay of forest woody debris: numerical modeling and implications based on some 300 data cases from North America,” Oecologia, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 81–98, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Berry and O. Bjorkman, “Photosynthesis response and adaptation to temperature in higher plants,” Annual Review of Plant Physiology, vol. 31, pp. 491–543, 1980.
  7. J. W. Raich, A. E. Russell, K. Kitayama, W. J. Parton, and P. M. Vitousek, “Temperature influences carbon accumulation in moist tropical forests,” Ecology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 76–87, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. G. Hamilton, E. H. DeLucia, K. George, S. L. Naidu, A. C. Finzi, and W. H. Schlesinger, “Forest carbon balance under elevated CO2,” Oecologia, vol. 131, no. 2, pp. 250–260, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. O. J. Sun, J. Campbell, B. E. Law, and V. Wolf, “Dynamics of carbon stocks in soils and detritus across chronosequences of different forest types in the Pacific Northwest, USA,” Global Change Biology, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 1470–1481, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. C. W. Woodall and G. C. Liknes, “Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States,” Carbon Balance and Management, vol. 3, article 5, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  11. S. A. Hall, I. C. Burke, and N. T. Hobbs, “Litter and dead wood dynamics in ponderosa pine forests along a 160-year chronosequence,” Ecological Applications, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 2344–2355, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. M. Kashian, W. H. Romme, D. B. Tinker, M. G. Turner, and M. G. Ryan, “Carbon storage on landscapes with stand-replacing fires,” BioScience, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 598–606, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. J. Radtke, S. P. Prisley, R. L. Amateis, C. A. Copenheaver, and H. E. Burkhart, “A proposed model for deadwood C production and decay in loblolly pine plantations,” Environmental Management, vol. 33, supplement 1, pp. S56–S64, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. M. Gough, C. S. Vogel, C. Kazanski, L. Nagel, C. E. Flower, and P. S. Curtis, “Coarse woody debris and the carbon balance of a north temperate forest,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 244, no. 1–3, pp. 60–67, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. E. Janisch and M. E. Harmon, “Successional changes in live and dead wood carbon stores: implications for net ecosystem productivity,” Tree Physiology, vol. 22, no. 2-3, pp. 77–89, 2002. View at Scopus
  16. W. A. Bechtold and P. L. Patterson, Eds., “The enhanced forest inventory and analysis program—national sampling design and estimation procedures,” Tech. Rep. SRS-80, USDA Forest Service, Asheville, NC, USA, 2005.
  17. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, “Forest inventory and analysis national core field guide: field data collection procedures for phase 3 plots,” Version 3.0, 2005, http://socrates.lv-hrc.nevada.edu/fia/dab/databandindex.html.
  18. M. E. Harmon, C. W. Woodall, B. Fasth, and J. Sexton, “Woody detritus density and density reduction factors for tree species in the United States: a synthesis,” Tech. Rep. 29, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, St. Paul, Minn, USA, 2008.
  19. J. A. Westfall and C. W. Woodall, “Measurement repeatability of a large-scale inventory of forest fuels,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 253, no. 1–3, pp. 171–176, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. W. Woodall, L. S. Heath, and J. E. Smith, “National inventories of down and dead woody material forest carbon stocks in the United States: challenges and opportunities,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 256, no. 3, pp. 221–228, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. W. Woodall and J. A. Westfall, “Relationships between the stocking levels of live trees and dead tree attributes in forests of the United States,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 258, no. 11, pp. 2602–2608, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. Brown, “Measuring carbon in forests: current status and future challenges,” Environmental Pollution, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 363–372, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Q. Chambers, N. Higuchi, J. P. Schimel, L. V. Ferreira, and J. M. Melack, “Decomposition and carbon cycling of dead trees in tropical forests of the central Amazon,” Oecologia, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 380–388, 2000. View at Scopus
  24. O. N. Krankina and M. E. Harmon, “Dynamics of the dead wood carbon pool in northwestern Russian boreal forests,” Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 82, no. 1-2, pp. 227–238, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. A. Knohl, O. Kolle, T. Y. Minayeva, et al., “Carbon dioxide exchange of a Russian boreal forest after disturbance by wind throw,” Global Change Biology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 231–246, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. Wirth, E.-D. Schulze, B. Lühker, et al., “Fire and site type effects on the long-term carbon and nitrogen balance in pristine Siberian Scots pine forests,” Plant and Soil, vol. 242, no. 1, pp. 41–63, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. W. Woodall and G. C. Liknes, “Relationships between forest fine and coarse woody debris carbon stocks across latitudinal gradients in the United States as an indicator of climate change effects,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 686–690, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. D. Oliver and B. C. Larson, Forest Stand Dynamics. Update Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  29. L. Finér, H. Mannerkoski, S. Piirainen, and M. Starr, “Carbon and nitrogen pools in an old-growth, Norway spruce mixed forest in eastern Finland and changes associated with clear-cutting,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 174, no. 1–3, pp. 51–63, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus