- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2010 (2010), Article ID 964260, 11 pages
Emerging Themes in the Ecology and Management of North American Forests
1Department of Wildland Resources, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
2Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
3Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
4Department of Forest Resources, University of Minnesota, Saint. Paul, MN 55108, USA
5BC Ministry of Forests and Range, Prince, George, BC, Canada V2L 3H9
6Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA
7Cloquet Forestry Center, University of Minnesota, Cloquet, MN 55720, USA
8USDA Forest Service (retired), Box 482, Emigrant, MT 59027, USA
9Center for Forest Disturbance Science, USDA Forest Service, Athens, GA 30602, USA
10Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Grand Rapids, MN 55744, USA
11Department of Forestry, Mississippi State University, MS 39762, USA
12Western Aspen Alliance, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322, USA
13U.S. Geological Survey, Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Boise, ID 83706, USA
14Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Corvallis, OR 97730, USA
15School of Life Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire 5T5 5BG, UK
16Northern Research Station, USDA Forest Service, Saint. Paul, MN 55108, USA
17Pacific Northwest Research Station, USDA Forest Service, LaGrande, OR 97850, USA
Received 26 July 2009; Revised 18 November 2009; Accepted 10 December 2009
Academic Editor: Hamish Kimmins
Copyright © 2010 Terry L. Sharik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. J. Puettmann, K. D. Coates, and C. Messier, A Critique of Silviculture: Managing for Complexity, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2009.
- T. L. Sharik and J. E. Cook, “Nafew 1997 history and overview: introduction,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 114, no. 2-3, p. 169, 1999.
- A. E. Hessl and L. J. Graumlich, “Interactive effects of human activities, herbivory and fire on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) age structures in western Wyoming,” Journal of Biogeography, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 889–902, 2002.
- E. Howe and W. L. Baker, “Landscape heterogeneity and disturbance interactions in a subalpine watershed in Northern Colorado, USA,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 797–813, 2003.
- C. Bigler, D. Kulakowski, and T. T. Veblen, “Multiple disturbance interactions and drought influence fire severity in rocky mountain subalpine forests,” Ecology, vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 3018–3029, 2005.
- M. G. Turner, “Landscape ecology: what is the state of the science?” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 36, pp. 319–344, 2005.
- R. M. Scheller and D. J. Mladenoff, “An ecological classification of forest landscape simulation models: tools and strategies for understanding broad-scale forested ecosystems,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 491–505, 2007.
- J. W. Byler and S. K. Hagle, “Succession functions of pathogens and insects,” FHP Report 00-09, p. 37, USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Forest Health Protection Northern Region, 2000.
- C. M. Oswalt, “Evidence of significant declines in Cornus florida L. populations in the Appalachian ecoregion ,” International Journal of Forestry Research, In press.
- J. F. Franklin, H. H. Shugart, and M. E. Harmon, “Tree death as an ecological process,” Bioscience, vol. 37, pp. 550–556, 1987.
- D. Tomback, “Whitebark pine as a foundation and keystone species: functional roles and community interactions,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Whitebark Session, Paper no. 1, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/whitebark/1/.
- L. Willcox, “The bear facts: implications of whitebark pine loss for Yellowstone grizzlies,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Whitebark Session, Paper no. 12, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/whitebark/12/.
- B. Bentz, G. Schen, C. Boone, and K. Raffa, “Mountain pine beetle outbreak dynamics in high elevation forests,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Whitebark Session, Paper no. 3, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/whitebark/3/.
- S. T. Mckinney, C. E. Fiedler, and D. F. Tomback, “Invasive pathogen threatens bird-pine mutualism: implications for sustaining a high-elevation ecosystem,” Ecological Applications, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 597–607, 2009.
- N. K. Bockino, Interactions of white pine blister rust, host species, and mountain pine beetle in whitebark pine ecosystems in the greater yellowstone, M.S. thesis, University of Wyoming, Wyoming, Laramie, 2008.
- D. L. Six and J. Adams, “White pine blister rust severity and selection of individual whitebark pine by the mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae),” Journal of Entomological Science, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 345–353, 2007.
- W. W. Mcfarlane, B. Gordon, J. A. Logan, and L. Willcox, “Landscape assessment and monitoring of mountain pine beetle mortality in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem whitebark pine,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Whitebark Session, Paper no. 4, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/whitebark/4/.
- J. A. Logan, W. W. Macfarlane, and L. Willcox, “Effective monitoring as a basis for adaptive management: a case history of mountain pine beetle in Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem whitebark pine,” iForest, vol. 2, pp. 19–22, 2009, http://www.sisef.it/iforest/show.php?id=477.
- J. A. Hicke and J. A. Logan, “Mapping whitebark pine mortality caused by a mountain pine beetle outbreak with high spatial resolution satellite imagery,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 30, no. 17, pp. 4427–4441, 2009.
- J. A. Logan and J. A. Powell, “Ghost forests, global warming, and the mountain pine beetle,” American Entomologist, vol. 47, pp. 160–173, 2001.
- J. Régnière, B. J. Bentz, and J. A. Powell, “An individual based model of mountain pine beetle responses to climate and host resistance,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Whitebark Session, Paper no. 9, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/whitebark/9/.
- T. B. Jain, W. A. Gould, R. T. Graham, D. S. Pilliod, L. B. Lentile, and G. Gonzalez, “A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests,” Ambio, vol. 37, no. 7-8, pp. 563–568, 2008.
- T. B. Jain and R. T. Graham, “The relation between tree burn severity and forest structure in the Rocky Mountains,” type Conference Paper, PSW-GTR-203, USDA Forest Service, 2005, p. 213-250.
- P. F. Hessburg, J. K. Agee, and J. F. Franklin, “Dry forests and wildland fires of the inland Northwest USA: contrasting the landscape ecology of the pre-settlement and modern eras,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 211, no. 1-2, pp. 117–139, 2005.
- T. Schoennagel, T. T. Veblen, and W. H. Romme, “The interaction of fire, fuels, and climate across Rocky Mountain forests,” BioScience, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 661–676, 2004.
- K. Miyanishi, “Towards a sounder fire ecology,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 1, pp. 275–276, 2003.
- J. R. Kelly and M. A. Harwell, “Indicators of ecosystem recovery,” Environmental Management, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 527–545, 1990.
- M. S. McGlone, “The Polynesian settlement of New Zealand in relation to environmental and biotic changes,” The New Zealand Journal of Ecology, vol. 12, pp. 115–129, 1989.
- M. G. Turner, W. H. Romme, R. H. Gardner, R. V. O'Neill, and T. K. Kratz, “A revised concept of landscape equilibrium: disturbance and stability on scaled landscapes,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 213–227, 1993.
- J. F. Johnstone and F. S. Chapin, “Non-equilibrium succession dynamics indicate continued northern migration of lodgepole pine,” Global Change Biology, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 1401–1409, 2003.
- S. Renard, S. Gauthier, N. Fenton, and Y. Bergeron, “Assessment of prescribed burning effects in paludified black spruce forests in Ontario's Clay Belt Region,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, , Ed., Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Ecosystem Recovery Following Disturbance Session, Paper 4, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/recovery/4/.
- M. E. Harmon, J. F. Franklin, and F. J. Swanson, “Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems,” Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 15, pp. 133–302, 1986.
- C. Maser, R. G. Anderson, K. Cromack Jr., J. T. Williams, and R. E. Martin, “Dead and down woody material,” in Wildlife Habitats in Managed Forests: The Blue Mountains of Oregon and Washington Ag. Handbook, J. W. Thomas, Ed., vol. 553, pp. 78–95, USDA, Washington, DC, USA, 1979.
- M. G. Rollins, R. E. Keane, and R. A. Parsons, “Mapping fuels and fire regimes using remote sensing, ecosystem simulation, and gradient modeling,” Ecological Applications, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 75–95, 2004.
- C. W. Woodall, L. S. Heath, and J. E. Smith, “National inventories of down and dead woody material forest carbon stocks in the United States: Challenges and opportunities,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 256, no. 3, pp. 221–228, 2008.
- C. W. Woodall and G. C. Liknes, “Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States,” Carbon Balance and Management, vol. 3, p. 5, 2008.
- J. E. Smith, L. S. Heath, K. E. Skog, and R. A. Birdsey, “Methods for calculating forest ecosystem and harvested carbon with standard estimates for forest types of the United States,” Tech. Rep. NE-343, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Newtown Square, Pa, USA, 2006.
- J. F. Franklin, T. A. Spies, R. V. Pelt, et al., “Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 155, no. 1–3, pp. 399–423, 2002.
- S. E. Reutebuch, C. A. Harrington, D. D. Marshall, and L. C. Brodie, “Use of large-scale silvicultural studies to evaluate management options in Pacific Northwest forests of the United States,” Forest Snow and Landscape Research, vol. 78, no. 1-2, pp. 191–208, 2004.
- J. Bauhus, K. Puettmann, and C. Messier, “Silviculture for old-growth attributes,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 258, no. 4, pp. 525–537, 2009.
- K. B. Aubry, C. B. Halpern, and C. E. Peterson, “Variable-retention harvests in the Pacific Northwest: a review of short-term findings from the DEMO study,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 258, no. 4, pp. 398–408, 2009.
- S. E. Macdonald and T. E. Fenniak, “Understory plant communities of boreal mixedwood forests in western Canada: Natural patterns and response to variable-retention harvesting,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 242, no. 1, pp. 34–48, 2007.
- M. B. Adams, L. Loughry, and L. Plaugher, “Experimental forests and ranges of the USDA Forest Service,” Tech. Rep. NE-321, p. 178, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Newton Square, Pa, USA, 2003.
- N. R. Brown, R. F. Noss, D. D. Diamond, and M. N. Myers, “Conversation biology and forest certification: working together toward ecological sustainability,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 18–25, 2001.
- R. N. Green and K. Klinka, A Field Guide to Site Identification and Interpretation for the Vancouver Forest Region, vol. 28 of Land Management Handbook, British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria, BC, USA, 1994.
- Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (MN DNR), Field Guide to the Native Plant Communities of Minnesota: The Laurentian Mixed Forest Province, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, Minn, USA, 2005.
- L. H. Reineke, “Perfecting a stand-density index for even-aged forests,” Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 627–638, 1933.
- C. A. Bickford, F. S. Baker, and F. G. Wilson, “Stocking, normality, and measurement of stand density,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 99–104, 1957.
- J. H. Reynolds and E. D. Ford, “Improving competition representation in theoretical models of self-thinning: a critical review,” Journal of Ecology, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 362–372, 2005.
- B. Zeide, “How to measure stand density,” Trees, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2005.
- C. W. Woodall and J. A. Westfall, “Relationships between the stocking levels of live trees and dead tree attributes in forests of the United States,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 258, no. 11, pp. 2602–2608, 2009.
- D. W. Huffman, P. Z. Fulé, J. E. Crouse, and K. M. Pearson, “A comparison of fire hazard mitigation alternatives in pinyon-juniper woodlands of Arizona,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 257, no. 2, pp. 628–635, 2009.
- J. M. Kane, J. M. Varner, and E. E. Knapp, “Novel fuelbed characteristics associated with mechanical mastication treatments in northern California and south-western Oregon, USA,” International Journal of Wildland Fire, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 686–697, 2009.
- M. A. Battaglia, M. E. Rocca, C. R. Rhoades, and M. G. Ryan, “Surface fuel loadings and potential crown fire behavior within mulching treatments in Colorado coniferous forests,” submitted to Forest Ecology and Management.
- M. E. Rocca, M. Battaglia, C. Rhoades, and M. G. Ryan, “The effects of mulching treatments on the forest herbaceous layer of Colorado coniferous forests,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Mastication Session, Paper 7, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/mastication/7/.
- S. M. Owen, C. H. Sieg, C. A. Gehring, and M. A. Bowker, “Above- and belowground responses to tree thinning depend on the treatment of tree debris,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 259, no. 1, pp. 71–80, 2009.
- C. Rhoades, M. Battaglia, M. G. Ryan, and M. E. Rocca, “Woody mulch effects on soil nitrogen availability in mechanical fuel reduction treatments,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Mastication Session, Paper 6, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/mastication/6/.
- S. Overby and G. Gottfried, “Does mastication residue alter soil nitrogen dynamics in woodlands of Southwest Colorado?” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, Logan, Utah, USA, June 2009, Mastication Session, Paper 3, http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/nafecology/sessions/mastication/3/.
- J. S. Glitzenstein, D. R. Streng, G. L. Achtemeier, L. P. Naeher, and D. D. Wade, “Fuels and fire behavior in chipped and unchipped plots: Implications for land management near the wildland/urban interface,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 236, no. 1, pp. 18–29, 2006.
- T. L. Mundell, S. M. Landhäusser, and V. J. Lieffers, “Root carbohydrates and aspen regeneration in relation to season of harvest and machine traffic,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 255, no. 1, pp. 68–74, 2008.
- P. C. Rogers, A. J. Leffler, and R. J. Ryel, “Landscape assessment of a stable aspen community in southern Utah, USA,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 487–495, 2010.
- B. P. Kurzel, T. T. Veblen, and D. Kulakowski, “A typology of stand structure and dynamics of Quaking aspen in northwestern Colorado,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 252, no. 1–3, pp. 176–190, 2007.
- J. J. Worrall, L. Egeland, T. Eager, et al., “Rapid mortality of Populus tremuloides in southwestern Colorado, USA,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 255, no. 3-4, pp. 686–696, 2008.
- E. Jones and L. D. Daniels, “Decay dynamics of coarsewood habitat in old-growth spruce and pine stands in the Rocky Mountain Foothills,” in Proceedings of the 7th North American Forest Ecology Workshop, p. 31, June 2009.
- S. L. Taylor and D. A. MacLean, “Spatiotemporal patterns of mortality in declining balsam fir and spruce stands,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 253, no. 1–3, pp. 188–201, 2007.
- S. C. DeLong, G. D. Sutherland, L. D. Daniels, B. H. Heemskerk, and K. O. Storaunet, “Temporal dynamics of snags and development of snag habitats in wet spruce-fir stands in east-central British Columbia,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 255, no. 10, pp. 3613–3620, 2008.
- M. E. Harmon, J. F. Franklin, F. J. Swanson, et al., “Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems,” Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 15, pp. 133–302, 1986.