About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 108529, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/108529
Research Article

Silvicultural Attempts to Induce Browse Resistance in Conifer Seedlings

1United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, USA
2Monell Chemical Senses Center, 3500 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3Starker Forests, Inc., 7240 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97339, USA
4United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center, 4101 LaPorte Avenue, Fort Collins, CO 80521, USA
5British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range, Research, Innovation and Knowledge Management Branch, Cowichan Lake Research Station, P.O. Box 335, 7060 Forestry Road, Mesachie Lake, BC, Canada V0R 2N0

Received 31 December 2010; Revised 28 February 2011; Accepted 15 April 2011

Academic Editor: Michael Tausz

Copyright © 2011 Bruce A. Kimball et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. D. Côté, T. P. Rooney, J. P. Tremblay, C. Dussault, and D. M. Waller, “Ecological impacts of deer overabundance,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 35, pp. 113–147, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. R. M. A. Gill, “A review of damage by mammals in north temperate forests: 1. Deer,” Forestry, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 145–169, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. I. Ward, P. C. L. White, A. Smith, and C. H. Critchley, “Modelling the cost of roe deer browsing damage to forestry,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 191, no. 1–3, pp. 301–310, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. R. Searle, N. T. Hobbs, and L. A. Shipley, “Should I stay or should I go? Patch departure decisions by herbivores at multiple scales,” Oikos, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 417–424, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. J. van der Post and P. Hogeweg, “Resource distributions and diet development by trial-and-error learning,” Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 65–80, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. W. Christensen and M. Rundgren, “Predator odour per se does not frighten domestic horses,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol. 112, no. 1-2, pp. 136–145, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. W. J. Freeland and D. H. Janzen, “Strategies in herbivory by mammals—role of plant secondary compounds,” The American Naturalist, vol. 108, no. 961, pp. 269–289, 1974.
  8. R. L. Senft, M. B. Coughenour, D. W. Bailey, L. R. Rittenhouse, O. E. Sala, and D. M. Swift, “Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies,” Bioscience, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 789–799, 1987.
  9. S. Courant and D. Fortin, “Foraging decisions of bison for rapid energy gains can explain the relative risk to neighboring plants in complex swards,” Ecology, vol. 91, no. 6, pp. 1841–1849, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. F. D. Provenza, “Tracking variable environments—there is more than one kind of memory,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 911–923, 1995. View at Scopus
  11. R. T. Graham, T. B. Jain, and J. L. Kingery, “Ameliorating conflicts among deer, elk, cattle and/or other ungulates and other forest uses: a synthesis,” Forestry, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 245–255, 2010.
  12. D. L. Nolte, “Behavioral approaches for limiting depredation by wild ungulates,” in Grazing Behavior of Livestock and Wildlife, K. L. Launchbaugh, D. Sanders, and J. C. Mosely, Eds., pp. 60–69, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA, 1999.
  13. K. K. Wagner and D. L. Nolte, “Comparison of active ingredients and delivery systems in deer repellents,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 322–330, 2001. View at Scopus
  14. B. A. Kimball, J. Taylor, K. R. Perry, and C. Capelli, “Deer responses to repellent stimuli,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1461–1470, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Beguin, D. Pothier, and M. Prévost, “Can the impact of deer browsing on tree regeneration be mitigated by shelterwood cutting and strip clearcutting?” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 257, no. 1, pp. 38–45, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. A. Kimball, E. C. Turnblom, D. L. Nolte, D. L. Griffin, and R. M. Engeman, “Effects of thinning and nitrogen fertilization on sugars and terpenes in Douglas-fir vascular tissues: implications for black bear foraging,” Forest Science, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 599–602, 1998. View at Scopus
  17. B. A. Kimball, D. L. Nolte, D. L. Griffin, S. M. Dutton, and S. Ferguson, “Impacts of live canopy pruning on the chemical constituents of Douglas-fir vascular tissues: implications for black bear tree selection,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 109, no. 1–3, pp. 51–56, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Feeny, “Plant apparency and chemical defense,” in Biological Interactions Between Plants and Insects, J. W. Wallace and R. L. Nansel, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 1–40, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1976.
  19. D. F. Rhoades and G. A. Rosenthal, “Evolution of plant chemical defense against herbivores,” in Herbivores: Their Interactions with Secondary Plant Metabolites, D. H. Janzen, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 3–54, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1979.
  20. P. D. Coley, J. P. Bryant, and F. S. Chapin, “Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense,” Science, vol. 230, no. 4728, pp. 895–899, 1985. View at Scopus
  21. J. M. O'Reilly-Wapstra, B. M. Potts, C. McArthur, and N. W. Davies, “Effects of nutrient variability on the genetic-based resistance of Eucalyptus globulus to a mammalian herbivore and on plant defensive chemistry,” Oecologia, vol. 142, no. 4, pp. 597–605, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. E. Hartley, K. Nelson, and M. Gorman, “The effect of fertiliser and shading on plant-chemical composition and palatability to Orkney voles, Microtus arvalis orcadensis,” Oikos, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 79–87, 1995. View at Scopus
  23. J. Koricheva, S. Larsson, E. Haukioja, and M. Keinanen, “Regulation of woody plant secondary metabolism by resource availability: hypothesis testing by means of meta-analysis,” Oikos, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 212–226, 1998. View at Scopus
  24. J. S. Powell and K. F. Raffa, “Sources of variation in concentration and composition of foliar monoterpenes in tamarack (Larix laricina) seedlings: roles of nutrient availability, time of season, and plant architecture,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 25, no. 8, pp. 1771–1797, 1999. View at Scopus
  25. E. Ormeño, V. Baldy, C. Ballini, and C. Fernandez, “Production and diversity of volatile terpenes from plants on calcareous and siliceous soils: effect of soil nutrients,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1219–1229, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. Vourc'h, B. Vila, D. Gillon et al., “Disentangling the causes of damage variation by deer browsing on young Thuja plicata,” Oikos, vol. 98, no. 2, pp. 271–283, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Vourc'h, M. Garine-Wichatitsky, A. Labbé, D. Rosolowski, J. L. Martin, and H. Fritz, “Monoterpene effect on feeding choice by deer,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 2411–2427, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. A. Kimball, J. H. Russell, D. L. Griffin, and J. J. Johnston, “Response factor considerations for the quantitative analysis of western redcedar (Thuja plicata) foliar monoterpenes,” Journal of Chromatographic Science, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 253–258, 2005. View at Scopus
  29. SAS/STAT, SAS. 9.2, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA, 2008.
  30. Y. Benjamini and Y. Hochberg, “Controlling the false discovery rate—a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing,” Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: B, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 289–300, 1995.
  31. B. A. Kimball, W. M. Arjo, and J. J. Johnston, “Single point calibration with a non-linear detector: carbohydrate analysis of conifer needles by hydrophic interaction chromatography-evaporative light-scattering detection (HIC-ELSD),” Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1835–1848, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. F. D. Provenza, “Acquired aversions as the basis for varied diets of ruminants foraging on rangelands,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 74, no. 8, pp. 2010–2020, 1996. View at Scopus
  33. J. J. Villalba and F. D. Provenza, “Foraging in chemically diverse environments: energy, protein, and alternative foods influence ingestion of plant secondary metabolites by lambs,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 123–138, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. A. Kimball and D. L. Nolte, “Herbivore experience with plant defense compounds influences acquisition of new flavor aversions,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol. 91, no. 1-2, pp. 17–34, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. A. Kimball, F. D. Provenza, and E. A. Burritt, “Importance of alternative foods on the persistence of flavor aversions: implications for applied flavor avoidance learning,” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 249–258, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. A. Kimball and V. Billings, “Do herbivores associate flavours with specific consequences in flavour aversion learning?” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, vol. 107, no. 3-4, pp. 252–261, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Elliott and A. Loudon, “Effects of monoterpene odors on food selection by red deer calves (Cervus -Elaphus),” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1343–1349, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. W. Hanover, “Genetics of terpenes. I. Gene control of monoterpene levels in Pinus monticola dougl,” Heredity, vol. 21, pp. 73–84, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. S. V. Kossuth, E. Mccall, J. Ledbetter, et al., “Clone certification by use of cortical monoterpenes as biochemical markers,” Silvae Genetica, vol. 37, pp. 73–76, 1988.
  40. K. M. Stewart, T. E. Fulbright, and D. L. Drawe, “White-tailed deer use of clearings relative to forage availability,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 733–741, 2000. View at Scopus
  41. D. P. W. Huber, S. Ralph, and J. Bohlmann, “Genomic hardwiring and phenotypic plasticity of terpenoid-based defenses in conifers,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2399–2418, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. J. Moore and H. J. G. Jung, “Lignin and fiber digestion,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 420–430, 2001. View at Scopus
  43. J. P. Bryant, F. D. Provenza, J. Pastor, P. B. Reichardt, T. P. Clausen, and J. T. Dutoit, “Interactions between woody-plants and browsing mammals mediated by secondary metabolites,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, vol. 22, pp. 431–446, 1991.
  44. F. D. Provenza, J. A. Pfister, and C. D. Cheney, “Mechanisms of learning in diet selection with reference to phytotoxicosis in herbivores,” Journal of Range Management, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 36–45, 1992. View at Scopus
  45. J. Kamler, M. Homolka, M. Barančeková, and J. Krojerová-Prokešová, “Reduction of herbivore density as a tool for reduction of herbivore browsing on palatable tree species,” European Journal of Forest Research, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 155–162, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus