- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 170974, 10 pages
The Effects of Selective Logging Behaviors on Forest Fragmentation and Recovery
1Percy FitzPatrick Institute, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7701, South Africa
2Center for Latin American Studies, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
3School of Natural Resources and Environment, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
4Department of Geography, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Received 10 February 2012; Revised 10 May 2012; Accepted 11 May 2012
Academic Editor: Todd S. Fredericksen
Copyright © 2012 Xanic J. Rondon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. Veldkamp and L. O. Fresco, “CLUE: a conceptual model to study the conversion of land use and its effects,” Ecological Modelling, vol. 85, no. 2-3, pp. 253–270, 1996.
- E. F. X. Lambin, N. Baulies, G. Bockstael, et al., “Land-use and land-cover change implementation plan,” Tech. Rep., LUCC International Project Office, University of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 1999.
- C. H. Wood and R. Porro, Eds., Deforestation and Land Use in the Amazon, University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2002.
- S. A. Levin, “The problem of pattern and scale in ecology,” Ecology, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 1943–1967, 1992.
- S. A. Levin, “Multiple scales and the maintenance of biodiversity,” Ecosystems, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 498–506, 2000.
- E. Lambin, “Modelling deforestation processes: a review,” Research Report 1, European Commission, Office for Official Publications of the European Community, European Commission Joint Research Centre and the European Space Agency, Luxembourg, 1994.
- B. Mertens and E. F. Lambin, “Spatial modelling of deforestation in southern Cameroon: spatial disaggregation of diverse deforestation processes,” Applied Geography, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 143–162, 1997.
- D. Kaimowitz and A. Angelsen, Economic Models of Tropical Deforestation: A Review, Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia, 1998.
- M. G. Turner, V. H. Dale, and R. H. Gardner, “Predicting across scales: theory development and testing,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 3, no. 3-4, pp. 245–252, 1989.
- C. Agarwal, G. M. Green, J. M. Grove, T. P. Evans, and C. M. Schweik, “Review and assessment of land-use change models: dynamics of space, time, and human choice,” GTR NE-297, Newton Square, Pa, USA, 2002.
- D. G. Brown, R. Walker, S. Manson, and K. Seto, “Modeling land use and land cover change,” in Land Change Science: Observing, Monitoring, and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the Earth's Surface, G. Gutman, A. Janetos, and C. Justice, Eds., pp. 395–409, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2004.
- E. F. Lambin, H. J. Geist, and E. Lepers, “Dynamics of land-use and land-cover change in tropical regions,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, vol. 28, pp. 205–241, 2003.
- P. H. Verburg, “Simulating feedbacks in land use and land cover change models,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1171–1183, 2006.
- S. R. Carpenter and M. G. Turner, “Hares and tortoises: interactions of fast and slow variables in ecosystems,” Ecosystems, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 495–497, 2000.
- L. Gunderson and C. Holling, Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2002.
- D. P. C. Peters, R. A. Pielke Sr., B. T. Bestelmeyer, C. D. Allen, S. Munson-McGee, and K. M. Havstad, “Cross-scale interactions, nonlinearities, and forecasting catastrophic events,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 42, pp. 15130–15135, 2004.
- J. A. Ludwig, J. A. Wiens, and D. J. Tongway, “A scaling rule for landscape patches and how it applies to conserving soil resources in Savannas,” Ecosystems, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 84–97, 2000.
- N. S. Diffenbaugh, J. S. Pal, R. J. Trapp, and F. Giorgi, “Fine-scale processes regulate the response of extreme events to global climate change,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 44, pp. 15774–15778, 2005.
- D. P. C. Peters, B. T. Bestelmeyer, and M. G. Turner, “Cross-scale interactions and changing pattern-process relationships: consequences for system dynamics,” Ecosystems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 790–796, 2007.
- D. C. Parker, S. M. Manson, M. A. Janssen, M. J. Hoffmann, and P. Deadman, “Multi-agent systems for the simulation of land-use and land-cover change: a review,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 314–337, 2003.
- M. Bürgi, A. M. Hersperger, and N. Schneeberger, “Driving forces of landscape change—current and new directions,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 857–868, 2005.
- C. Gascon, G. B. Williamson, and G. A. B. Da Fonseca, “Receding forest edges and vanishing reserves,” Science, vol. 288, no. 5470, pp. 1356–1358, 2000.
- W. F. Laurance, “Do edge effects occur over large spatial scales?” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 134–135, 2000.
- E. N. Broadbent, G. P. Asner, M. Keller, D. E. Knapp, P. J. C. Oliveira, and J. N. Silva, “Forest fragmentation and edge effects from deforestation and selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon,” Biological Conservation, vol. 141, no. 7, pp. 1745–1757, 2008.
- D. C. Nepstad, A. Veríssimo, A. Alencar et al., “Large-scale impoverishment of amazonian forests by logging and fire,” Nature, vol. 398, no. 6727, pp. 505–508, 1999.
- G. Asner, M. Keller, R. Pereira, and J. Zweede, “Remote sensing of selective logging in Amazonia: Assessing limitations based on detailed field observations, Landsat ETM+, and textural analysis,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 80, pp. 483–496, 2002.
- G. P. Asner, M. Keller, R. Pereira, J. C. Zweede, and J. N. M. Silva, “Canopy damage and recovery after selective logging in Amazonia: field and satellite studies,” Ecological Applications, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. S280–S298, 2004.
- Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: A Framework for Assessment, Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2003.
- J. A. Foley, G. P. Asner, M. H. Costa et al., “Amazonia revealed: forest degradation and loss of ecosystem goods and services in the Amazon Basin,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 25–32, 2007.
- D. C. Nepstad, C. M. Stickler, B. Soares-Filho, and F. Merry, “Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, vol. 363, no. 1498, pp. 1737–1746, 2008.
- S. R. Carpenter, “Regime shifts in lake ecosystems: pattern and variation,” Excellence in Ecology, vol. 15, 2003.
- J. A. Foley, M. T. Coe, M. Scheffer, and G. Wang, “Regime shifts in the Sahara and Sahel: interactions between ecological and climatic systems in Northern Africa,” Ecosystems, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 524–539, 2003.
- C. Folke, S. Carpenter, B. Walker et al., “Regime shifts, resilience, and biodiversity in ecosystem management,” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 35, pp. 557–581, 2004.
- L. K. Snook, Stand dynamics of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) and associated species after fire and hurricane in the tropical forests of the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico [PhD. dissertation], Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, New Haven, Conn, USA, 1993.
- R. E. Gullison, S. N. Panfil, J. J. Strouse, and S. P. Hubbell, “Ecology and management of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King) in the Chimanes Forest, Beni, Bolivia,” Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 9–34, 1996.
- I. Lombardi and P. Huerta, “Monitoring mahogany,” ITTO Tropical Forest Update, vol. 17, pp. 5–9, 2007.
- I. Lombardi, V. Barrena, C. Vargas, et al., “Evaluación de las existencias comerciales y estrategia para el manejo sostenible de la caoba (Swietenia macrophylla) en el Perú,” Informe técnico, Universidad nacional Agraria La Molina, 2006.
- G. P. Asner, D. E. Knapp, E. N. Broadbent, P. J. C. Oliveira, M. Keller, and J. N. Silva, “Ecology: selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon,” Science, vol. 310, no. 5747, pp. 480–482, 2005.
- R. Pereira Jr., J. Zweede, G. P. Asner, and M. Keller, “Forest canopy damage and recovery in reduced-impact and conventional selective logging in eastern Para, Brazil,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 168, no. 1-3, pp. 77–89, 2002.
- G. P. Asner, E. N. Broadbent, P. J. C. Oliveira, M. Keller, D. E. Knapp, and J. M. M. Silva, “Condition and fate of logged forests in the Brazilian Amazon,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 103, no. 34, pp. 12947–12950, 2006.
- C. M. Pringle and J. P. Benstead, “The effects of logging on tropical river ecosystems,” in The Cutting Edge: Conserving Wildlife in Logged Tropical forests, R. A. Fimbel, A. Grajal, and J. G. Robinson, Eds., pp. 305–325, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2001.
- M. A. Cochrane, “Synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and fire in evergreen tropical forests,” Conservation Biology, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1515–1521, 2001.
- D. C. Nepstad, I. F. Brown, L. Luz, A. Alechandre, and V. Viana, “Biotic impoverishment of Amazonian forests by rubber tappers, loggers, and cattle ranchers,” Advances in Economic Botany, pp. 1–14, 1992.
- R. E. Cossío, Capacity for timber management among private small-medium forest enterprises in Madre de Dios [Ph.D. dissertation], University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla, USA, 2009.
- K. N. Suding, K. L. Gross, and G. R. Houseman, “Alternative states and positive sustainable development in imperfect economies,” Environmental and Resource Economics, vol. 26, pp. 647–685, 2004.
- R. J. W. Brienen, P. A. Zuidema, and H. J. During, “Autocorrelated growth of tropical forest trees: unraveling patterns and quantifying consequences,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 237, no. 1–3, pp. 179–190, 2006.
- S. N. Panfil and R. E. Gullison, “Short term impacts of experimental timber harvest intensity on forest structure and composition in the Chimanes Forest, Bolivia,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 102, no. 2-3, pp. 235–243, 1998.
- A. Verissimo, P. Barreto, R. Tarifa, and C. Uhl, “Extraction of a high-value natural resource in Amazonia: the case of mahogany,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 39–60, 1995.
- J. Grogan and M. Schulze, “Estimating the number of trees and forest area necessary to supply internationally traded volumes of big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) in Amazonia,” Environmental Conservation, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 26–35, 2008.
- A. J. Lotka, Elements of Physical Biology, Williams Sc Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1925.
- V. Volterra, “Fluctuations in the abundance of a species considered mathematically,” Nature, vol. 118, no. 2972, pp. 558–560, 1926.
- A. E. Lugo, “Point-counterpoints on the conservation of big-leaf mahogany,” Tech. Rep. WO-64, USDA Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, 1999.
- C. Uhl, A. Veríssimo, M. M. Mattos, Z. Brandino, and I. C. Guimarães Vieira, “Social, economic, and ecological consequences of selective logging in an Amazon frontier: the case of Tailândia,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 46, no. 3-4, pp. 243–273, 1991.
- J. von Neumann, Theory of self-reproducing automata, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Ill, USA, 1966.
- D. Tilman and P. Kareiva, Spatial Ecology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1997.
- H. Caswell, “Community structure: a neutral model analysis,” Ecological Monographs, vol. 46, pp. 327–354, 1976.
- R. H. Gardner, B. T. Milne, M. G. Turnei, and R. V. O'Neill, “Neutral models for the analysis of broad-scale landscape pattern,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 19–28, 1987.
- W. A. Duerr, Fundamentals of Forestry Economics, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, NY, USA, 1960.
- K. McGarigal, S. A. Cushman, M. C. Neel, and E.. Ene, “FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical Maps,” University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass, USA, http://www.tcshelp.com.
- R. K. Didham and J. H. Lawton, “Edge structure determines the magnitude of changes in microclimate and vegetation structure in tropical forest fragments,” Biotropica, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 17–30, 1999.
- J. F. Franklin and R. T. T. Forman, “Creating landscape patterns by forest cutting: ecological consequences and principles,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 5–18, 1987.
- H. Li, J. F. Franklin, F. J. Swanson, and T. A. Spies, “Developing alternative forest cutting patterns: a simulation approach,” Landscape Ecology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 63–75, 1993.
- E. J. Gustafson and T. R. Crow, “Simulating spatial and temporal context of forest management using hypothetical landscapes,” Environmental Management, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 777–787, 1998.
- P. Sist, T. Nolan, J. G. Bertault, and D. Dykstra, “Harvesting intensity versus sustainability in Indonesia,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 251–260, 1998.
- F. E. Putz, G. M. Blate, K. H. Redford, R. Fimbel, and J. Robinson, “Tropical forest management and conservation of biodiversity: an overview,” Conservation Biology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 7–20, 2001.
- J. J. Gerwing, “Degradation of forests through logging and fire in the eastern Brazilian Amazon,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 157, no. 1–3, pp. 131–141, 2002.
- A. M. Z. Martini, A. N. De Rosa, and C. Uhl, “An attempt to predict which Amazonian tree species may be threatened by logging activities,” Environmental Conservation, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 152–162, 1994.
- A. C. Barros and C. Uhl, “Logging along the Amazon River and estuary: patterns, problems and potential,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 77, no. 1-3, pp. 87–105, 1995.
- P. Turchin, “Does population ecology have general laws?” Oikos, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 17–26, 2001.
- M. L. Rosenzweig, “Paradox of enrichment: destabilization of exploitation ecosystems in ecological time,” Science, vol. 171, no. 3969, pp. 385–387, 1971.
- C. Barber, S. D'Angelo, and T. Fernandes, “The future of the Brazilian Amazon,” Science, vol. 291, pp. 438–439, 2001.
- J. A. Brander and M. S. Taylor, “The simple economics of Easter Island: a Ricardo-Malthus model of renewable resource use,” American Economic Review, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 119–138, 1998.
- J. M. Anderies, “On modeling human behavior and institutions in simple ecological economic systems,” Ecological Economics, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 393–412, 2000.
- C. S. Fletcher and D. W. Hilbert, “Resilience in landscape exploitation systems,” Ecological Modelling, vol. 201, no. 3-4, pp. 440–452, 2007.
- M. Pinedo-Vasquez, D. Zarin, and P. Jipp, “Economic returns from forest conversion in the Peruvian Amazon,” Ecological Economics, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 163–173, 1992.
- R. T. Walker, A. Homma, A. Conto, et al., “Farming systems and economic performance in the Brazilian Amazon,” in Proceedings of the Congresso Brasileiro sobre Sistemas Agroflorestais, pp. 415–429, Annais, EMBRAPA, Colombo, Brazil, 1994.
- C. D. Allen, “Interactions across spatial scales among forest dieback, fire, and erosion in northern New Mexico landscapes,” Ecosystems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 797–808, 2007.
- D. A. Falk, C. Miller, D. McKenzie, and A. E. Black, “Cross-scale analysis of fire regimes,” Ecosystems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 809–823, 2007.
- R. L. Schooley and L. C. Branch, “Spatial heterogeneity in habitat quality and cross-scale interactions in metapopulations,” Ecosystems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 846–853, 2007.
- M. R. Willig, C. P. Bloch, N. Brokaw, C. Higgins, J. Thompson, and C. R. Zimmermann, “Cross-scale responses of biodiversity to hurricane and anthropogenic disturbance in a tropical forest,” Ecosystems, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 824–838, 2007.
- E. Y. Arima, R. T. Walker, S. G. Perz, and M. Caldas, “Loggers and forest fragmentation: behavioral models of road building in the Amazon basin,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 525–541, 2005.
- G. S. Amacher, F. D. Merry, and M. S. Bowman, “Smallholder timber sale decisions on the Amazon frontier,” Ecological Economics, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1787–1796, 2009.
- M. A. Cochrane, “Fire science for rainforests,” Nature, vol. 421, no. 6926, pp. 913–919, 2003.
- R. Walker, S. A. Drzyzga, Y. Li et al., “A behavioral model of landscape change in the Amazon basin: the colonist case,” Ecological Applications, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. S299–S312, 2004.