Table 4: Estimated combined indirect effects (i.e., all possible indirect paths) on the endogenous latent variables in the overstory-understory SR model, along with corresponding standard errors and values.

Path modelIndirect effectStandard error valuec

Late-seral herb cover (LSHERB) =
  Overstory cover (TREE)−0.0530.0570.353
  Tree size (QMD)−0.0280.0230.235
  Tree density (ln(TPH) × 10)−0.2770.0910.003
  Stand age (AGE)0.0050.0060.478
  Aspect (ASPECT × 10)0.3020.1260.017
  Coarse litter (CLITTER)−0.0560.0530.295
  Understory cover (UNDER)0.0200.0140.165

Fine litter (FLITTER) =
  Overstory cover (TREE)−0.0360.0160.022
  Tree density (ln(TPH) × 10)−0.0740.0280.007
  Stand age (AGE)−0.0010.0010.327
  Aspect (ASPECT × 10)0.1110.0370.003
  Coarse litter (CLITTER)−0.0200.0200.296

Understory cover (UNDER) =
  Tree density (ln(TPH) × 10)−0.0480.0470.308
  Stand age (AGE)−0.0090.0090.338

cStatistical tests were based on a -distribution with 1180 degree of freedom, with adjustments for the effects of the nested sampling structure on standard errors.