Table 2: Emergy evaluation of eucalyptus plantation (7-year cycle); yields are for pulpwood only. | |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||

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^{†}Assuming use of wood as biomass for pulp and cellulose mills.^{§}Assuming use of pulpwood as biomass for energy; these data do not include energy in nonpulp products (bark and limbs), which might be used when energy is the principal output. UEV for evapotranspiration = 3.10 E4 sej J^{−1} [22], evapotranspiration = (7,796 mm ha^{−1}) * (1.00E4 L mm^{−1} ha) * (1 kg L^{−1}) * (4.94E3 J kg^{−1}).Topsoil loss based on the organic matter content = (5.4 E4 kcal kg^{−1} OM) * (1,28% OM)* (4.17E3 J Kcal^{−1}) * (2.4E5 sej J^{−1} [23]) = 7.18E11 sej kg^{−1}.Diesel UEV and emergy content [6] = (1.32 E8 J galão^{−1}) * (1 gallon 3.8 L^{−1}) * (1.1E5 sej J^{−1}) = 3.85E7 sej L^{−1}.(4) UEV for machinery depreciation = (6.7 E9 sej g^{−1}), [22] after [24], Per kg = (6.7E9 sej g^{−1}) * (1,000 g kg^{−1}) = 6.70E12 sej kg^{−1}.(5) UEV for labor 4.5 E6 sej J^{−1}, by [25], energy of human labor = (231.8 h) * (2500 kcal dia^{−1}) * (day 8 h^{−1}) * (4,186 J kcal^{−1}) = 3.03E8 J.(6) UEVs: K _{2}O = 2.92E9 sej g^{−1} K [6] * 83%K K_{2}O^{−1}, P_{2}O_{5} = 2.99E10 sej g^{−1} P [6] * 43,7% P , N = 7,7E9 sej g^{−1} N [6], 06-30-10 has 6% N, 30% P_{2}O_{5} and 10% K_{2}O; and 14-00-15 has 14% N and 15% K_{2}O.(7) Based on the UEV of pesticides 2.49 E10 sej g^{−1} * 1000 g kg^{−1} [25].(8) UEV: K _{2}O = 2.92E9 sej g^{−1} K [6] * 1,000 g kg^{−1}, KCl * 63% K_{2}O KCl^{−1} * 83% K-K_{2}O^{−1}.(9) UEV of a seedling is 1.6 E11 sej, from [9].(10) Water potential chemical energy (4,94 E3 J kg^{−1}) multiply by irrigation UEV (4,28E5 sej J^{−1}, [24] = 1.26E9 sej kg^{−1} or 1.26E9 sej L^{−1} H_{2}O.(11) Lime UEV (1.68 E10 sej g^{−1}) [6].(12) Yield = (41.5 m ^{3} ha^{−1} ano^{−1}) * (7 years) = 290.5 m^{3} ha^{−1}.(13) Wood energy content = (290.5 m ^{3} ha^{−1}) * (495 kg m^{−3}) * (1.5E7 J kg^{−1}) = 2.16E12 J ha^{−1}, energy content [26] from [27].*[9] considered the purchased loss of diesel oil as 783.50 L ha ^{−1} because it was accounted for to support two trucks for repair and fuel used together for two harvester and forwarders. |