- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Forestry Research
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 529197, 8 pages
Trends in Snag Populations in Drought-Stressed Mixed-Conifer and Ponderosa Pine Forests (1997–2007)
Rocky Mountain Research Station, US Forest Service, 2500 S. Pine Knoll, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA
Received 16 June 2011; Revised 16 November 2011; Accepted 6 December 2011
Academic Editor: Andrew Gray
Copyright © 2012 Joseph L. Ganey and Scott C. Vojta. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. E. Harmon, J. F. Franklin, F. J. Swanson et al., “Ecology of coarse woody debris in temperate ecosystems,” Advances in Ecological Research, vol. 15, pp. 133–302, 1986.
- E. L. Bull, C. G. Parks, and T. R. Torgersen, “Trees and logs important to wildlife in the interior Columbia River basin,” Tech. Rep. PNW-391, USDA Forest Service, 1997.
- W. McComb and D. Lindenmayer, “Dying, dead, and down trees,” in Maintaining Biodiversity in Forest Ecosystems, M. L. Hunter Jr., Ed., pp. 335–372, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999.
- W. F. Laudenslayer Jr., P. J. Shea, B. E. Valentine, C. P. Weatherspoon, and T. E. Lisle, “Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology and management of dead wood in western forests,” Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181, USDA Forest Service, 2002.
- M. L. Morrison, M. F. Dedon, M. G. Raphael, and M. P. Yoder-Williams, “Snag requirements of cavity-nesting birds: are USDA Forest Service guidelines being met?” Western Journal of Applied Forestry, vol. 1, pp. 38–40, 1986.
- K. Mellen, B. G. Marcot, J. L. Ohmann, et al., “DecAID: a decaying wood advisory model for Oregon and Washington,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on the Ecology and Management of Dead Wood in Western Forest, W. F. Laudenslayer Jr., P. J. Shea, B. E. Valentine, C. P. Weatherspoon, and T. E. Lisle, Eds., USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-181, pp. 527–533, 2002.
- R. L. Hutto, “Toward meaningful snag-management guidelines for postfire salvage logging in North American conifer forests,” Conservation Biology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 984–993, 2006.
- B. G. Marcot, J. L. Ohmann, K. L. Mellen-McLean, and K. L. Waddell, “Synthesis of regional wildlife and vegetation field studies to guide management of standing and down dead trees,” Forest Science, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 391–404, 2010.
- R. Everett, J. Lehmkuhl, R. Schellhaas et al., “Snag dynamics in a chronosequence of 26 wildfires on the east slope of the Cascade Range in Washington State, USA,” International Journal of Wildland Fire, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 223–234, 2000.
- M. G. Raphael and M. L. Morrison, “Decay and dynamics of snags in the Sierra Nevada, California,” Forest Science, vol. 33, pp. 774–783, 1987.
- M. L. Morrison and M. G. Raphael, “Modeling the dynamics of snags,” Ecological Applications, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 322–330, 1993.
- D. D. Breshears, N. S. Cobb, P. M. Rich et al., “Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 42, pp. 15144–15148, 2005.
- J. L. Weiss, C. L. Castro, and J. T. Overpeck, “Distinguishing pronounced droughts in the southwestern United States: seasonality and effects of warmer temperatures,” Journal of Climate, vol. 22, no. 22, pp. 5918–5932, 2009.
- A. P. Williams, C. D. Allen, C. I. Millar et al., “Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 50, pp. 21289–21294, 2010.
- J. L. Ganey and S. C. Vojta, “Tree mortality in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, Arizona, USA,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 261, no. 1, pp. 162–168, 2011.
- J. L. Ganey and S. C. Vojta, “Changes in snag populations in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests, 1997–2002,” Forest Science, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 396–405, 2005.
- M. W. Salzer and K. F. Kipfmueller, “Reconstructed temperature and precipitation on a millennial timescale from tree-rings in the southern Colorado Plateau, U.S.A,” Climatic Change, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 465–487, 2005.
- D. F. Koepke, T. E. Kolb, and H. D. Adams, “Variation in woody plant mortality and dieback from severe drought among soils, plant groups, and species within a northern Arizona ecotone,” Oecologia, vol. 163, no. 4, pp. 1079–1090, 2010.
- R. Seager, M. Ting, I. Held et al., “Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America,” Science, vol. 316, no. 5828, pp. 1181–1184, 2007.
- R. Seager and G. A. Vecchi, “Greenhouse warming and the 21st century hydroclimate of southwestern North America,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 50, pp. 21277–21282, 2010.
- D. E. Brown, C. H. Lowe, and C. P. Pase, “A digitized systematic classification for ecosystems with an illustrated summary of the natural vegetation of North America,” Tech. Rep. RM-73, USDA Forest Service, 1980.
- J. L. Ganey, “Snag density and composition of snag populations on two National Forests in northern Arizona,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 117, no. 1–3, pp. 169–178, 1999.
- R. P. Balda, “The relationship of secondary cavity nesters to snag densities in western coniferous forests,” Wildlife Habitat Technical Bulletin 1, USDA Forest Service, Southwestern Region, Albuquerque, NM, USA, 1975.
- V. E. Scott, “Characteristics of ponderosa pine snags used by cavity-nesting birds,” Journal of Forestry, vol. 76, pp. 26–28, 1987.
- J. B. Cunningham, R. P. Balda, and W. S. Gaud, “Selection and use of snags by secondary cavity-nesting birds of the ponderosa pine forest,” Tech. Rep. RM-222, USDA Forest Service, 1980.
- P. Li and T. E. Martin, “Nest-site selection and nesting success of cavity-nesting birds in high-elevation forest drainages,” Auk, vol. 108, pp. 405–418, 1991.
- C. J. Conway and T. E. Martin, “Habitat suitability for Williamsons's sapsuckers in mixed-conifer forests,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 322–328, 1993.
- M. J. Rabe, T. E. Morrell, H. Green, J. C. Devos, and C. Richard Miller, “Characteristics of ponderosa pine snag roosts used by reproductive bats in northern Arizona,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 612–621, 1998.
- D. A. Bernardos, C. L. Chambers, and M. J. Rabe, “Selection of Gambel oak roosts by southwestern myotis in ponderosa pine-dominated forests, northern Arizona,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 595–601, 2004.
- B. G. Solvesky and C. L. Chambers, “Roosts of Allen's lappet-browed bat in Northern Arizona,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 73, no. 5, pp. 677–682, 2009.
- M. G. Raphael and M. White, “Use of snags by cavity-nesting birds in the Sierra Nevada,” Wildlife Monographs, vol. 86, pp. 1–66, 1984.
- W. J. Conover, Practical Nonparametric Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1980.
- J. H. Zar, Biostatistical Analysis, Prentice-Hall, Inglewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 2nd edition, 1984.
- USDA Forest Service, “Forest insect and disease conditions in the southwestern Region, 2008,” . Forestry and Forest Health PR-R3-16-5. USDA Forest Service, Southwestern Region. Albuquerque, NM, USA, October 2009, http://www.fs.fed.us/r3/publications/documents/fidc2008.pdf.
- D. D. Breshears, O. B. Myers, C. W. Meyer et al., “Tree die-off in response to global change-type drought: mortality insights from a decade of plant water potential measurements,” Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 185–189, 2009.
- H. D. Adams, M. Guardiola-Claramonte, G. A. Barron-Gafford et al., “Temperature sensitivity of drought-induced tree mortality portends increased regional die-off under global-change-type drought,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 106, no. 17, pp. 7063–7066, 2009.
- J. F. Negrón, J. D. McMillin, J. A. Anhold, and D. Coulson, “Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 257, no. 4, pp. 1353–1362, 2009.
- C. D. Allen, A. K. Macalady, H. Chenchouni et al., “A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 259, no. 4, pp. 660–684, 2010.
- J. L. Blackford, “Woodpecker concentration in burned forest,” Condor, vol. 57, pp. 28–30, 1955.
- J. R. Koplin, “The numerical response of woodpeckers to insect prey in a subalpine forest in Colorado,” Condor, vol. 74, pp. 436–438, 1969.
- C. L. Chambers and J. N. Mast, “Ponderosa pine snag dynamics and cavity excavation following wildfire in northern Arizona,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 216, no. 1–3, pp. 227–240, 2005.
- K. L. Farris and S. Zack, “Woodpecker-snag interactions: an overview of current knowledge in ponderosa pine systems,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Ponderosa Pine: Issues,. Trends, and Management, M. W. Ritchie, D. A. Maguire, and A. Youngblood, Eds., pp. 183–195, USDA Forest Service, 2005, USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-198.
- K. A. Covert-Bratland, W. M. Block, and T. C. Theimer, “Hairy woodpecker winter ecology in ponderosa pine forests representing different ages since wildfire,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 1379–1392, 2006.
- K. Martin, A. Norris, and M. Drever, “Effects of bark beetle outbreaks on avian biodiversity in the British Columbia interior: implications for critical habitat management,” BC Journal of Ecosystems and Management, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 10–24, 2006.
- C. T. Hanson and M. P. North, “Postfire woodpecker foraging in salvage-logged and unlogged forests of the Sierra Nevada,” Condor, vol. 110, no. 4, pp. 777–782, 2008.
- V. A. Saab, R. E. Russell, and J. G. Dudley, “Nest-site selection by cavity-nesting birds in relation to postfire salvage logging,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 257, no. 1, pp. 151–159, 2009.
- J. L. Ganey and S. C. Vojta, “Characteristics of snags containing excavated cavities in northern Arizona mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 199, no. 2-3, pp. 323–332, 2004.
- J. D. Brawn and R. P. Balda, “Population biology of cavity nesters in northern Arizona: do nest sites limit breeding densities?” Condor, vol. 90, pp. 61–71, 1988.
- S. P. Horton and R. W. Mannan, “Effects of prescribed fire on snags and cavity-nesting birds in southeastern Arizona pine forests,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 1988.
- W. E. Stone, The impact of a mountain pine beetle epidemic on wildlife habitat and communities in post-epidemic stands of a lodgepole pine forest in northern Utah, Ph.D. thesis, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, USA, 1995.
- M. Simard, W. H. Romme, J. M. Griffin, and M. G. Turner, “Do mountain pine beetle outbreaks change the probability of active crown fire in lodgepole pine forests?” Ecological Monographs, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 3–24, 2011.
- R. E. Russell, V. A. Saab, J. G. Dudley, and J. J. Rotella, “Snag longevity in relation to wildfire and postfire salvage logging,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 232, no. 1–3, pp. 179–187, 2006.
- R. L. Peters, “Effects of global warming on forests,” Forest Ecology and Management, vol. 35, no. 1-2, pp. 13–33, 1990.
- D. McKenzie, Z. Gedalof, D. L. Peterson, and P. Mote, “Climatic change, wildfire, and conservation,” Conservation Biology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 890–902, 2004.
- T. J. Parker, K. M. Clancy, and R. L. Mathiasen, “Interactions among fire, insects and pathogens in coniferous forests of the interior western United States and Canada,” Agricultural and Forest Entomology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 167–189, 2006.