Table 3: Constraints to on-farm management of shea trees ( ).

Constraints in the management of V. paradoxa % response

Land shortage and insecure tree tenure45.0
Pests and disease incidences38.8
Shortage of planting materials30.0
Weak law enforcement in the area20.0
Inadequate skills/advisory services for shea management15.0
Frequent displacement due to insecurity10.0
Bush fire occurrences07.5
High poverty levels06.3
Long juvenile period before fruiting06.3
High demand for shea charcoal05.1
Destruction by grazing animals02.5