Table 2: List of recommended environmental indicators for bioenergy sustainability (derived from [4]).

CategoryIndicatorUnits

Soil quality(1) Total organic carbon (TOC)Mg/ha
(2) Total nitrogen (N)Mg/ha
(3) Extractable phosphorus (P)Mg/ha
(4) Bulk densityg/cm3

Water quality and quantity(5) Nitrate concentration in streams (and export)concentration: mg/L; export: kg/ha/yr
(6) Total phosphorus (P) concentration in streams (and export)concentration: mg/L; export: kg/ha/yr
(7) Suspended sediment concentration in streams (and export)concentration: mg/L; export: kg/ha/yr
(8) Herbicide concentration in streams (and export)concentration: mg/L; export: kg/ha/yr
(9) Peak storm flowL/s
(10) Minimum base flowL/s
(11) Consumptive water use (incorporates base flow)feedstock production: m3/ha/day; biorefinery: m3/day

Greenhouse gases(12) CO2 equivalent emissions (CO2 and N2O)kgCeq/GJ

Biodiversity(13) Presence of taxa of special concernPresence
(14) Habitat area of taxa of special concernHa

Air quality(15) Tropospheric ozonePpb
(16) Carbon monoxidePpm
(17) Total particulate matter less than 2.5 μm diameter (PM2.5)μg/m3
(18) Total particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10)μg/m3

Productivity(19) Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP)/YieldgC/m2/year