International Journal of Forestry Research The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Step Prior to REDD+ Implementation: A Socioeconomic Study Mon, 01 Sep 2014 07:53:22 +0000 Phase 2 of the United Nations’ REDD+ climate change mitigation initiative is underway in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Meanwhile, activities are being implemented to assess the reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. REDD+ projects need to include a social dimension; thus, the aim of this research was to understand how land-use relationships vary across communities in an area where a REDD+ project is planned. Specifically, we aimed to identify the primary income-generating activities, the variation in access to land, the potential for the development of community projects, and the implementation of alternative income-generating activities. In the summer of 2013, we assessed a REDD+ pilot project in and around the Luki Biosphere Reserve, Bas-Congo Province. We used participatory rural appraisal (PRA) methods in four communities located both inside and outside the reserve. We found that current subsistence income activities led to the destruction of forest habitat due to population pressure and a lack of alternative income-generating activities. Customary land tenures overlay statutory rights, which can often mean that community rights are threatened. To achieve their targets, REDD+ projects should consider the actual land-use patterns of local communities in order to generate sustainable income from the land. Anne Bernard and Nancy Gélinas Copyright © 2014 Anne Bernard and Nancy Gélinas. All rights reserved. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians Thu, 28 Aug 2014 11:23:53 +0000 The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI) are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score) for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas. Andrew Evans, Richard Odom, Lynn Resler, W. Mark Ford, and Steve Prisley Copyright © 2014 Andrew Evans et al. All rights reserved. Using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA to Assess Genetic Diversity and Structure of Natural Calophyllum brasiliense (Clusiaceae) Populations in Riparian Forests Thu, 21 Aug 2014 06:23:56 +0000 The objective of this study was to assess the genetic variability in two natural populations of Calophyllum brasiliense located along two different rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using RAPD molecular markers. Eighty-two polymorphic fragments were amplified using 27 primers. The values obtained for Shannon index () were 0.513 and 0.530 for the populations located on the margins of the Rio Grande and Rio das Mortes, respectively, demonstrating the high genetic diversity in the studied populations. Nei’s genetic diversity () was 0.341 for the Rio Grande population and 0.357 for the Rio das Mortes population. These results were not significantly different between populations and suggest a large proportion of heterozygote individuals within both populations. AMOVA showed that 70.42% of the genetic variability is found within populations and 29.58% is found among populations (). The analysis of kinship coefficients detected the existence of family structures in both populations. Average kinship coefficients between neighboring individuals were 0.053 () in Rio das Mortes and 0.040 () in Rio Grande. This could be due to restricted pollen and seed dispersal and the history of anthropogenic disturbance in the area. These factors are likely to contribute to the relatedness observed among these genotypes. Evânia Galvão Mendonça, Anderson Marcos de Souza, Fábio de Almeida Vieira, Regiane Abjaud Estopa, Cristiane Aparecida Fioravante Reis, and Dulcinéia de Carvalho Copyright © 2014 Evânia Galvão Mendonça et al. All rights reserved. The Cost of Managing Forest Carbon under REDD+ Initiatives: A Case of Kolo Hills Forests in Kondoa District, Dodoma, Tanzania Wed, 20 Aug 2014 08:50:37 +0000 Countries considering participating in a REDD+ mechanism need information on what it would cost them to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This study was conducted to estimate the cost of managing forest carbon under REDD+ initiatives in Kolo Hills Forest, Kondoa, Tanzania. Socioeconomic and biophysical information was collected through structured questionnaires, focus group discussions, and forest inventory, respectively. Results show that the community participated in managing the forest by undertaking a range of activities such as tree planting, patrolling, and fire protection. The estimated total cost was USD 418,349.38 while the average cost was USD 79.06/ha. The average carbon stored was 19.75 tC ha−1, which is equivalent to 72.48 tCO2 ha−1. Costs incurred by managing the forest in relation to tCO2 stored were USD 1.0485 tCO2 e−1ha−1. The project was found to be economically feasible at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% discount rates with NPVs of USD 107,102,331.83, USD 33,986,255.86, USD 10,312,945, and USD 1,245,905.11, respectively. The internal rate of return was 21.21% which is much higher than the World Bank rate of 15.8% and the Tanzania rate of 14.8%. We therefore conclude that the decision to undertake this REDD+ project was worthwhile and should be favoured against the “do nothing” alternative. Kabura John, Dos Santos A. Silayo, and Arild Vatn Copyright © 2014 Kabura John et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Different Pretreatments to the Seed on Seedling Emergence and Growth of Acacia polyacantha Wed, 06 Aug 2014 11:35:53 +0000 Acacia polyacantha Willd. is a multipurpose tree species prioritised as one of the agroforestry tree species in Malawi. However, its use in agroforestry practices is limited by the low seedling growth and survival at the nursery stage. A study was conducted to evaluate the seedling growth and survival of Acacia polyacantha as affected by different pretreatments on the seeds at Malawi College of Forestry and Wildlife nursery, Malawi. Seeds were subjected to five presowing seed treatments methods, namely, immersion in cold water at room temperature for 24 hours, immersion in hot water (100°C) for 5 minutes, immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid (0.3 M H2SO4) for 20 minutes, scarification by mechanically nicking using secateurs, and a control where seeds were sown without any treatment. The results indicate that presowing seed treatments have positive influence on the seedling growth and survival percentage. Nicked seeds exhibited the highest significant () performance for vegetative characteristics of height, root collar diameter, number of leaves, and survival percentage compared to other pretreatments. Therefore, it is suggested to use nicking as a pretreatment method on Acacia polyacantha seeds in order to enhance the speed and the amount of early seedling growth at the nursery stage. Edward Missanjo, Alfred Chioza, and Chikondi Kulapani Copyright © 2014 Edward Missanjo et al. All rights reserved. Forest Sustainability in North Lebanon: A Challenging Complexity in a Changing Environment Wed, 16 Jul 2014 10:25:15 +0000 Forests sustainability is a challenging task in a complex socioeconomic context. North Lebanon is a critical zone harboring forests of key ecological value and is one of the most deprived regions in Lebanon with high poverty rates, where forests are heavily impacted by unsustainable anthropogenic practices. In the global frame of climate change scenarios, this paper tests a multistakeholder, multidisciplinary approach for forest management, combining a joint participatory methodology with stakeholders along with field ecological surveys in the upper Akkar watershed (north Lebanon). A set of participatory tools including stakeholder’s analysis, problem tree, objective tree, and scenario building are tailored to reach this goal. Results exhibit that forest management is not only related to forests per se but also very much linked to the surrounding socioeconomic situation. Involving not only strict silviculture interventions but also a definite consideration of community needs and local economy, the adoption of a multitool, multidisciplinary, multistakeholder approach combines all possible aspects of a challenging context and unfolds complementary processes which all feed back into one target. Yet, it is a time-consuming process, which can easily drown financial and temporal resources and which can sometimes raise unrealistic expectations that are difficult to meet. Rita El-Hajj, Dalia Al-Jawhary, Tala Moukaddem, and Carla Khater Copyright © 2014 Rita El-Hajj et al. All rights reserved. Ecological Features of Cultivated Stands of Aquilaria malaccensis Lam. (Thymelaeaceae), a Vulnerable Tropical Tree Species in Assamese Homegardens Tue, 08 Jul 2014 09:35:51 +0000 Research was conducted in twenty-seven selected villages located in Jorhat and Golaghat districts of upper Assam, northeast India, for population estimation, quantitative ecological analysis, and evaluation of Aquilaria malaccensis (Thymelaeaceae). Vegetation sampling was done by quadrat method and A. malaccensis is the most dominant tree species in all twenty-seven different study sites of upper Assam contributing 10–54% of the total tree density with a mean of . Density of the species varied from 6,236 individuals ha−1 to 429 individuals ha−1 with a mean of 1,609 individuals , whereas frequency of occurrence is very high ranging from 93% to 100% with a mean of in different study sites. Distribution of A. malaccensis is found contagious in all twenty-six study sites on the basis of abundance to frequency ratio except in KBG, Golaghat, where its distribution is random with 0.04 abundance to frequency ratio. The widespread cultivation of A. malaccensis in upper Assam, northeast India, offers a potential ex situ reservoir for the future conservation and management of this threatened tree. P. Saikia and M. L. Khan Copyright © 2014 P. Saikia and M. L. Khan. All rights reserved. Effects of Supply Chain Strategy on Stump Fuel Cost: A Simulation Approach Mon, 30 Jun 2014 11:23:20 +0000 In Sweden, stump fuel extraction for energy purposes is not a well-established practice and this major resource is currently left in the forest. The stump fuel supply chain is both challenging and complex, due to distance between resource and end user, material bulkiness, and the number of subprocesses involved. This study examined the impact of different aspects such as site characteristics, fuel quality, biomass losses, and machine performance on fuel cost. Two systems, including transport of comminuted and uncomminuted fuel, were studied. Discrete-event simulation was used to model systems and to analyse the dynamics of the supply chain and its various components. For a distance of 10 km, transportation of uncomminuted fuel gave the lowest costs. For distances from 30 to 70 km, site size (odt) determined whether to comminute or not before transport. For longer distances, comminution before transport proved to be necessary. Well-planned stump storage was shown to reduce the delivery costs significantly, while high moisture content (>45%) had detrimental effects on system costs per unit energy delivered. However, the most influential parameters were productivity level and site characteristics (distance and site size). Anders Eriksson, Lars Eliasson, Per-Anders Hansson, and Raida Jirjis Copyright © 2014 Anders Eriksson et al. All rights reserved. Land Use and Land Cover Change, and Woody Vegetation Diversity in Human Driven Landscape of Gilgel Tekeze Catchment, Northern Ethiopia Thu, 12 Jun 2014 06:19:44 +0000 Land use and land cover (LULC) change through inappropriate agricultural practices and high human and livestock population pressure have led to severe land degradation in the Ethiopian highlands. This has led to further degradation such as biodiversity loss, deforestation, and soil erosion. The study examined woody vegetation diversity status and the impact of drivers of change across different LULC types and agroecological zones in Gilgel Tekeze catchment, northern Ethiopian highlands. LULC dynamics were assessed using GIS techniques on 1976, 1986, and 2008 satellite images. Vegetation data were collected from 135 sample plots (20 m × 20 m) from five LULC types, namely, forest, shrub-bush, grazing, settlement, and cultivated land, in the three agroecological zones; Kolla, Weyna-Dega, and Dega. Differences in vegetation structure and composition and their relationship to agroecological zones were tested using two-way ANOVA and PCA technique. The results show that vegetation structure and composition significantly differed across all LULC types in different agroecological zones particularly in sapling density, tree height, and shrub height and in each agroecological zone between forest land, shrub-bush land, and settlement area. Overall, Weyna-Dega agroecological zone and the shrub-bush land had more structural and compositional diversity than the other agroecological zones and LULC types. Samuale Tesfaye, Etefa Guyassa, Antony Joseph Raj, Emiru Birhane, and Gebeyehu Taye Wondim Copyright © 2014 Samuale Tesfaye et al. All rights reserved. Leaf Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Dynamics Associated with Common Horticultural Cropland Agroforest Tree Species of Bangladesh Wed, 04 Jun 2014 07:40:24 +0000 Mangifera indica, Zizyphus jujuba, Litchi chinensis, and Artocarpus heterophyllus are the most common cropland agroforest horticultural tree species of Bangladesh. This study focused on leaf litter decomposition and nutrient (N, P, and K) dynamics during the decomposition process. This experiment was conducted for 180 days by using litter bag technique during dry and wet seasons. Mass loss was the highest (49% and 57%) for A. heterophyllus and the lowest (25%) was found for L. chinensis. The highest initial rates (0.75% and 2.35%/day) of decomposition were observed for Z. jujuba and the lowest (0.50% and 0.79%/day) for L. chinensis. The highest decay constant was observed for A. heterophyllus (2.14 and 2.34) and the lowest (0.88 and 0.94) for L. chinensis. Leaf litter of all the studied species showed a similar pattern (K > N > P) of nutrient release during the decomposition process. Zizyphus jujuba showed comparatively higher return of N, P, and K than others. However, a significant () higher amount of mass loss, rate of decomposition, decay constant, and amount of nutrient return from leaf litter were observed during the wet season. Md. Hasanuzzaman and Mahmood Hossain Copyright © 2014 Md. Hasanuzzaman and Mahmood Hossain. All rights reserved. Variability in Growth, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics among Various Clones of Dalbergia sissoo in a Clonal Seed Orchard Tue, 03 Jun 2014 08:45:20 +0000 Growth and physiological variability among clones of Dalbergia sissoo growing in a CSO revealed maximum height and GBH in Gonda clones (C196 and C198) and minimum growth attributes in Rajasthan clones. All biochemical constituents except sugar were also maximum in Gonda clones. Maximum chl. a, total chl., and chlorofluorescence (CF) were recorded in C235 and C123 while chl. b was maximum in C198. Among tested clones, sugar content was maximum in C60 (Chhachhrauli) while C198 (Gonda) revealed maximum protein content. Heritability estimates of 8 characters at 99% revealed strong genetic control of total chls., sugars, proteins, and chl. b; however, maximum genetic gains of 117% and 80% were recorded for sugar and protein content, respectively. Correlation matrix revealed a positive correlation between height and GBH and CF. Among biochemical constituents, chl. a, and chl. b, chl. b, and total chl. were correlated significantly at 0.1% level. Regarding contribution of different parameters to variability, height and GBH were the greatest contributors. Clustering of clones on the basis of all three parameters separated clones in one major and six minor clusters. Average distance from centroid was found to be 22.61 whereas the maximum distance from centroid was 50.75. Arvind Sharma and Meena Bakshi Copyright © 2014 Arvind Sharma and Meena Bakshi. All rights reserved. Volume and Aboveground Biomass Models for Dry Miombo Woodland in Tanzania Thu, 22 May 2014 06:04:27 +0000 Tools to accurately estimate tree volume and biomass are scarce for most forest types in East Africa, including Tanzania. Based on a sample of 142 trees and 57 shrubs from a 6,065 ha area of dry miombo woodland in Iringa rural district in Tanzania, regression models were developed for volume and biomass of three important species, Brachystegia spiciformis Benth. (), Combretum molle G. Don (), and Dalbergia arbutifolia Baker () separately, and for broader samples of trees (28 species, ), shrubs (16 species, ), and trees and shrubs combined (44 species, ). Applied independent variables were log-transformed diameter, height, and wood basic density, and in each case a range of different models were tested. The general tendency among the final models is that the fit improved when height and wood basic density were included. Also the precision and accuracy of the predictions tended to increase from general to species-specific models. Except for a few volume and biomass models developed for shrubs, all models had values of 96–99%. Thus, the models appear robust and should be applicable to forests with similar site conditions, species, and diameter ranges. Ezekiel Edward Mwakalukwa, Henrik Meilby, and Thorsten Treue Copyright © 2014 Ezekiel Edward Mwakalukwa et al. All rights reserved. Invasive Alien Species of Terrestrial Vegetation of North-Eastern Uttar Pradesh Mon, 12 May 2014 12:53:40 +0000 The vegetational landscape of north-eastern Terai region at the foot hills of Central Himalayas is a mosaic of grassland, old-field, wasteland, and forest ecosystems. Like many other parts of the country, this region is also infested with alien intruders which not only interfere with the growth and production of food crops but also exercise adverse effects on the biodiversity of native species. The present study attempts to catalogue the invasive alien species of the terrestrial vegetation of north-eastern Uttar Pradesh especially with reference to their habit, taxonomic position, and nativity. A total of 1135 plant species within 580 genera under 119 families are so far known to occur in the region. Of these, only 149 species within 100 genera under 41 families have been found to be invasive aliens as evident from their center of origin, past history, nature of aggregation, and invasion observed under field conditions. About 80% of these invaders have been introduced from neotropics. Out of 173 invasive plants across India, this region shares 149 species, out of which 66% of species have come from Tropical America, 14% from African continent, and the rest from other countries. A better planning in the form of early identification and reporting of infestation and spread of noxious weeds is needed for their control. Sumit Srivastava, Ashish Dvivedi, and Ravindra Prasad Shukla Copyright © 2014 Sumit Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Change in Soil and Forest Floor Carbon after Shelterwood Harvests in a New England Oak-Hardwood Forest, USA Tue, 06 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 There has been effort worldwide to quantify how much carbon forests contain in order to designate appropriate offset credits to forest carbon climate mitigation. Carbon pools on or immediately below the soil surface are understood to be very active in response to environmental change but are not well understood. Our study focused on the effects of shelterwood regeneration harvests in New England on the carbon stored in litter, woody debris, and surface soil carbon. Results demonstrate significant difference in surface (0–10 cm) soil carbon between control (nonharvested) and harvested sites, with higher carbon percentage on control sites. Results showed a significant difference in coarse woody debris with higher amounts of carbon per area on harvested sites. No significant difference in litter mass was recorded between harvested and control sites. When coarse woody debris and litter are included with soil carbon, total carbon did not have a significant decline over 20 years following shelterwood treatment to the forest to secure regeneration, but there was considerable variability among sites. When taking all surface soil carbon measurements together, our results suggest that for accounting purposes the measurement of below-ground carbon after shelterwood harvests is not necessary for the southern New England region. Kayanna L. Warren and Mark S. Ashton Copyright © 2014 Kayanna L. Warren and Mark S. Ashton. All rights reserved. Assessing the Influence of Summer Organic Fertilization Combined with Nitrogen Inhibitor on a Short Rotation Woody Crop in Mediterranean Environment Tue, 15 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The European Union Directive 91/676/EEC, known as Nitrates Directive, has dictated basic agronomic principles regarding the use of animal manure source as well as livestock and waste waters from small food companies. The use of nitrification inhibitors together with animal effluents as organic fertilizers could be beneficial for nutrient recycling, plant productivity, and greenhouse gas emission and could offer economic advantages as alternative to conventional fertilizers especially in the Mediterranean region. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in plant productivity between bovine effluent treatments with (or without) addition of a nitrification inhibitor (3,4 DMPP) in a short rotation woody crop system. Results of the field experiment carried out in a Mediterranean dry environment indicated that the proposed strategy could improve tree growth with indirect, beneficial effects for agroforestry systems. Anita Maienza, Giovanni Mughini, Luca Salvati, Anna Benedetti, and Maria Teresa Dell'Abate Copyright © 2014 Anita Maienza et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Seed Size of Afzelia quanzensis on Germination and Seedling Growth Wed, 26 Mar 2014 09:17:41 +0000 Afzelia quanzensis Welw is a valuable timber producing tree species in Africa. A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of seed size on seed germination and seedlings quality of Afzelia quanzensis. Seed was categorized into three groups in regard to their length, small (<1.5 cm), medium (≥ 1.5 ≤ 2.5 cm), and large (>2.5 cm). The treatments were completely randomized into four replications. Germination percentage was not significantly different between the treatments, although large seeds had the highest germination percentage of 94.9%. There were significant differences in seedling height and root collar diameter among the different seed sizes, with large seeds having the highest seedlings height and largest root collar diameter. This was attributed to differences in the food reserves. Survival of transplants from shoot dieback was significantly different such that seedlings from large seed attained the highest survival of 92%. It is therefore recommended that, for production of high quality transplants in the nursery, large seeds should be used. Kupatsa Mtambalika, Chimuleke Munthali, Dominic Gondwe, and Edward Missanjo Copyright © 2014 Kupatsa Mtambalika et al. All rights reserved. Brazil Nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) Regeneration in Logging Gaps in the Peruvian Amazon Tue, 25 Mar 2014 07:56:14 +0000 Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) extraction serves as an important economic resource in the Madre de Dios region of Peru simultaneously promoting forest conservation, yet, under current management, it cannot compete with other land uses. This study investigated the effects of logging gaps on Brazil nut natural regeneration. A total of 48 paired logging gap-understory sites were visited in Brazil nut concessions in the Tambopata province of Madre de Dios, Peru. At each site, the number of Brazil nut recruits was counted and canopy openness and gap area were measured. Significantly higher levels of recruit density were found in logging gaps than in understory sites. Additionally, recruit density was positively correlated with canopy openness. Further, in experimental plantings in paired gap and understory sites, canopy openness, height, total leaf area, and number were recorded from August 2011 to February 2012. Height, total leaf area, and leaf number were significantly higher for tree-fall gap grown seedlings, lending further evidence to improved recruitment success of Brazil nuts in forest gaps. These results suggest that multiple-use forest management could be considered as an alternative for the sustainable extraction of Brazil nuts but also highlight that further studies are required. Julian Moll-Rocek, Matthew E. Gilbert, and Eben N. Broadbent Copyright © 2014 Julian Moll-Rocek et al. All rights reserved. Remote Sensing of Aboveground Biomass in Tropical Secondary Forests: A Review Sun, 23 Mar 2014 13:47:20 +0000 Tropical landscapes are, in general, a mosaic of pasture, agriculture, and forest undergoing various stages of succession. Forest succession is comprised of continuous structural changes over time and results in increases in aboveground biomass (AGB). New remote sensing methods, including sensors, image processing, statistical methods, and uncertainty evaluations, are constantly being developed to estimate biophysical forest changes. We review 318 peer-reviewed studies related to the use of remotely sensed AGB estimations in tropical forest succession studies and summarize their geographic distribution, sensors and methods used, and their most frequent ecological inferences. Remotely sensed AGB is broadly used in forest management studies, conservation status evaluations, carbon source and sink investigations, and for studies of the relationships between environmental conditions and forest structure. Uncertainties in AGB estimations were found to be heterogeneous with biases related to sensor type, processing methodology, ground truthing availability, and forest characteristics. Remotely sensed AGB of successional forests is more reliable for the study of spatial patterns of forest succession and over large time scales than that of individual stands. Remote sensing of temporal patterns in biomass requires further study, in particular, as it is critical for understanding forest regrowth at scales useful for regional or global analyses. J. M. Barbosa, E. N. Broadbent, and M. D. Bitencourt Copyright © 2014 J. M. Barbosa et al. All rights reserved. Forest Biomass, Carbon Stocks, and Macrofungal Dynamics: A Case Study in Costa Rica Thu, 20 Mar 2014 10:05:20 +0000 There are few published studies providing information about macrofungal biology in a context of forest dynamics in tropical areas. For this study, a characterization of above-ground standing tree biomass and carbon stocks was performed for four different forest subtypes within two life zones in Costa Rica. Fungal productivity and reproductive success were estimated and analyzed in the context of the forest systems studied and results showed fungal dynamics to be a complex and challenging topic. In the present study, fungal productivity was higher in forest patches with more tree density but independent from life zones, whereas fungal biomass was higher in premontane areas with ectomycorrhizal dominant trees. Even though some observed patterns could be explained in terms of climatic differences and biotic relationships, the high fungal productivity observed in dry forests was an interesting finding and represents a topic for further studies. Carlos Rojas and Erick Calvo Copyright © 2014 Carlos Rojas and Erick Calvo. All rights reserved. The Effect of Seed Sources Variation and Presowing Treatments on the Seed Germination of Acacia catechu and Elaeocarpus floribundus Species in Bangladesh Tue, 18 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The seed germination of seed sources and presowing treatments of Acacia catechu and Elaeocarpus floribundus seeds were conducted in the nursery of Bangladesh Agricultural University. The seeds were collected from matured and healthy trees from four different locations in Bangladesh and treated with six presowing methods. The germination test was conducted in polybags with a mixture of topsoil and cow dung in a ratio of 3 : 1. The results of ANOVA showed no significant differences among seed sources but statistically significant differences among the presowing treatments for both species. Thus the presowing methods affected the germination process of seeds, and then the highest germination success was found to be 91.26% in hot water (80°C for 10 min), treatment in Acacia catechu and the highest germination success (89.81%) of Elaeocarpus floribundus was found in H2SO4 treatment followed by 86.35% and 78.42% in treatments with hot water (100°C for 12 min) and scarification. The study also revealed that the interactions between seed source variation and presowing methods effect significantly differed in seed germination percentages. Therefore, it is concluded that hot water treatment can be suggested on seed germination of both species for developing nurseries and rural Bangladesh. Niamjit Das Copyright © 2014 Niamjit Das. All rights reserved. Effects of Drought Frequency on Growth Performance and Transpiration of Young Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) Mon, 17 Mar 2014 16:40:17 +0000 Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a drought-tolerant fast growing tree, which could be an alternative to the more common tree species used in short-rotation coppice on marginal land. The plasticity of black locust in the form of ecophysiological and morphological adaptations to drought is an important precondition for its successful growth in such areas. However, adaptation to drought stress is detrimental to primary production. Furthermore, the soil water availability condition of the initial stage of development may have an impact on the tree resilience. We aimed to investigate the effect of drought stress applied during the resprouting on the drought tolerance of the plant, by examining the black locust growth patterns. We exposed young trees in lysimeters to different cycles of drought. The drought memory affected the plant growth performance and its drought tolerance: the plants resprouting under drought conditions were more drought tolerant than the well-watered ones. Black locust tolerates drastic soil water availability variations without altering its water use efficiency (2.57 g L−1), evaluated under drought stress. Due to its constant water use efficiency and the high phenotypic plasticity, black locust could become an important species to be cultivated on marginal land. Dario Mantovani, Maik Veste, and Dirk Freese Copyright © 2014 Dario Mantovani et al. All rights reserved. An Integrated Conceptual Framework for Adapting Forest Management Practices to Alternative Futures Wed, 12 Mar 2014 14:16:19 +0000 This paper proposes an integrated, conceptual framework that forest managers can use to simulate the multiple objectives/indicators of sustainability for different spatial patterns of forest management practices under alternative futures, rank feasible (affordable) treatment patterns for forested areas, and determine if and when it is advantageous to adapt or change the spatial pattern over time for each alternative future. The latter is defined in terms of three drivers: economic growth; land use policy; and climate change. Four forest management objectives are used to demonstrate the framework, minimizing wildfire risk and water pollution and maximizing expected net return from timber sales and the extent of potential wildlife habitat. The fuzzy technique for preference by similarity to the ideal solution is used to rank the feasible spatial patterns for each subperiod in a planning horizon and alternative future. The resulting rankings for subperiods are used in a passive adaptive management procedure to determine if and when it is advantageous to adapt the spatial pattern over subperiods. One of the objectives proposed for the conceptual framework is simulated for the period 2010–2059, namely, wildfire risk, as measured by expected residential losses from wildfire in the wildland-urban interface for Flathead County, Montana. Tony Prato and Travis B. Paveglio Copyright © 2014 Tony Prato and Travis B. Paveglio. All rights reserved. Opportunity Costs of REDD+ to the Communities of Mufindi District, Iringa, Tanzania Wed, 05 Mar 2014 15:29:41 +0000 The study was done to assess the opportunity costs of REDD+ to the communities of Mufindi District which is located in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania. The specific objectives were, to identify and assess the economic value of alternative land uses, the aboveground carbon stock of Idewa Forest Reserve (IFR), and the profitability of each land use as compared to REDD+ incentives. Data were collected using questionnaire survey, key informant interview, and forest inventory and data were analyzed using the Excel programme. Results showed that the main land uses were agriculture and tree planting with economic values of $2958.52 and $3272.94 per ha per year, respectively. The total aboveground carbon was 39.23 t/ha (143.97/ha). The opportunity costs of REDD+ was varying depending on the price per ton of carbon. The opportunity costs of REDD+ will be profitable if the price per tCO2e will be at least $23. It can therefore be concluded that there is no general unit price per ton of carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e), as it depends on REDD+ opportunity cost when compared with alternative land uses within a particular place. Therefore we recommend opportunity costs of REDD+ to communities be used to guide decision making on unit prices of carbon. Faraji Nuru, Jumanne Moshi Abdallah, and Yonika Mathew Ngaga Copyright © 2014 Faraji Nuru et al. All rights reserved. Assessing a Bayesian Approach for Detecting Exotic Hybrids between Plantation and Native Eucalypts Mon, 03 Mar 2014 15:48:24 +0000 Eucalyptus globulus is grown extensively in plantations outside its native range in Australia. Concerns have been raised that the species may pose a genetic risk to native eucalypt species through hybridisation and introgression. Methods for identifying hybrids are needed to enable assessment and management of this genetic risk. This paper assesses the efficiency of a Bayesian approach for identifying hybrids between the plantation species E. globulus and E. nitens and four at-risk native eucalypts. Range-wide DNA samples of E. camaldulensis, E. cypellocarpa, E. globulus, E. nitens, E. ovata and E. viminalis, and pedigreed and putative hybrids (n = 606), were genotyped with 10 microsatellite loci. Using a two-way simulation analysis (two species in the model at a time), the accuracy of identification was 98% for first and 93% for second generation hybrids. However, the accuracy of identifying simulated backcross hybrids was lower (74%). A six-way analysis (all species in the model together) showed that as the number of species increases the accuracy of hybrid identification decreases. Despite some difficulties identifying backcrosses, the two-way Bayesian modelling approach was highly effective at identifying , which, in the context of E. globulus plantations, are the primary management concern. Matthew J. Larcombe, René E. Vaillancourt, Rebecca C. Jones, and Brad M. Potts Copyright © 2014 Matthew J. Larcombe et al. All rights reserved. Does Proximity to Wetland Shrubland Increase the Habitat Value for Shrubland Birds of Small Patches of Upland Shrubland in the Northeastern United States? Thu, 20 Feb 2014 12:04:13 +0000 The loss of shrubland habitat is linked to population declines for many wildlife species, including several bird species of conservation concern. Conservation agencies in the northeastern United States encourage private landowners to clearcut patches of forest to create shrubland habitat. Many private landowners are only willing to create small clearcuts; therefore, it is important to understand how to maximize the impact of small clearcuts on bird habitat use. In this study we examined whether proximity to wetland shrubland increases the habitat value of small patches of upland shrubland. We conducted point counts at 22 sites containing small patches of upland shrubland ranging in size from 0.1 to 7 ha. Shrubland bird species richness was significantly positively correlated with the proportion of wetland shrubland habitat within 100 m of a site, and with the extent of all shrubland habitat within 100 m, but not with the proportion of upland shrubland. Occupancy modeling indicated that the size of adjacent wetland shrub patches increased occupancy at the sites for five of eight species observed with sufficient rates of detection. Our results suggest that creating clearcuts adjacent to existing areas of wetland shrubland may enhance the habitat value of the patches for shrubland birds. Bill Buffum and Richard A. McKinney Copyright © 2014 Bill Buffum and Richard A. McKinney. All rights reserved. Essential Oil Constituents and Yields from Leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunt) O. Berg and Myracrodruon urundeuva (Allemão) Collected during Daytime Mon, 17 Feb 2014 13:09:13 +0000 The purpose of this study was to evaluate the essential oil composition and yield from leaves of two Brazilian species (Myracrodruon urundeuva and Blepharocalyx salicifolius) harvested during daytime. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and had their yield determined. Blepharocalyx salicifolius presented yields of 0.049% (9 a.m.), 0.045% (1 p.m.), and 0.069% (5 p.m.). For Myracrodruon urundeuva, we found 0.13% (9 a.m.), 0.11% (1 p.m.), and 0.08% (5 p.m.). Finally, compound identification and quantification were carried out by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques, respectively. Thirteen major compounds were identified for Blepharocalyx salicifolius, representing 91.6% of the EOs, of which p-cymene (25.9%) was detected as amajor component. Nine major compounds were identified for Myracrodruon urundeuva, representing 90.3% of the EOs, whereas β-myrcene showed the greatest concentration (66.4%). Olívia Bueno da Costa, Cláudio Henrique Soares Del Menezzi, Luiz Eduardo Celino Benedito, Inês Sabioni Resck, Roberto Fontes Vieira, and Humberto Ribeiro Bizzo Copyright © 2014 Olívia Bueno da Costa et al. All rights reserved. Nontimber Forest Product Yield and Income from Thaumatococcus daniellii under a Mixed Tree Plantation System in Ghana Sun, 16 Feb 2014 11:57:45 +0000 Thaumatococcus daniellii is a wild sourced tropical understorey herb that is harvested for its foliage and fruits from which thaumatin—a proteinous sweetener—is extracted. With increased demand for natural sweeteners, uncontrolled harvesting of T. daniellii from the wild is suggested to be neither sustainable nor match industrial demands. This study determined the implication of controlled foliage harvesting of T. daniellii under a mixed indigenous tree plantation stand. T. daniellii plants within plots of dimension 3 m × 4 m were thinned to uniform foliage population of about 12 leaves/m2 and subsequently harvested at 16 weeks interval for 64 weeks at four different foliage harvesting intensities: (i) no harvesting (control), (ii) 25% harvest, (iii) 50% harvest, and (iv) 75% harvest. Data on agronomic characters and total income from the sale of fruit and harvested foliage were collected and analysed. We found that foliage harvest intensity affected number of flowers in the order: 18 (control) > 6 (25%) ≥ 1 (50%) and 0 (75%). Foliage harvest intensity also significantly influenced fruit number and ranged from 11458/ha for the control to 4583/ha for the 75% harvest. Total income from fruit and foliage sales was greatest for the 50% harvest (US $ 17,191.32), followed by 75% harvest (US $ 12, 310.24) and lowest for the no harvest treatment (US $ 107.44). Thus, proper management of T. daniellii through controlled harvesting of the foliage under mixed tree plantation system could promote sustainable yield and income to farmers. Samuel Boadi, Mark Baah-Acheamfour, Francis Ulzen-Appiah, and Ghulam Murtaza Jamro Copyright © 2014 Samuel Boadi et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Dispersal Model for Balsam Woolly Adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), to Facilitate Landscape-Level Management Planning Wed, 05 Feb 2014 08:29:05 +0000 The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae Ratzeburg) attacks subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) in eastern Washington, Oregon, and northern Idaho. Historical balsam woolly adelgid distributions present an opportunity to understand climatic factors that influence the species’ distribution at a landscape scale. The distribution data allows for creation of predictive models that detail the likelihood of occurrence and associated geographic data allow modeling of species dispersal. Predictive variables linked to the distribution of the hosts and to abiotic environmental conditions were utilized to create a spatial probability model of occurrence. Balsam woolly adelgid predominantly disperses by wind, and hence, both wind speed and wind direction were used to create a dispersal probability model. Results from wind dispersal modeling suggested that two-thirds of the new infestations were due to July and August wind direction and speed. Average July winds ranged from 0.5 to 3.27 m/s, flowing south westerly, and August winds ranged from 0.43 to 1.55 m/s, flowing north easterly. Land managers can use the results of the predictive model to better understand where current infestations are likely to expand. Prediction of where the balsam woolly adelgid might move allows managers to adjust actions to respond to future insect movement and establishment. L. W. Lass, S. P. Cook, B. Shafii, and T. S. Prather Copyright © 2014 L. W. Lass et al. All rights reserved. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Colonization Enhanced Early Growth of Mallotus paniculatus and Albizia saman under Nursery Conditions in East Kalimantan, Indonesia Tue, 28 Jan 2014 09:50:32 +0000 Forest over logging, forest fire, forest conversion, and opencast mining have promoted deforestation in Indonesia, and reforestation is needed immediately. However, reforestation is limited by low seedling quality and production, and slow seedling growth in nurseries. Native tropical tree and fast-growing species, Mallotus paniculatus and Albizia saman, are potential to promote the first rotation of reforestation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are known to promote nutrient uptake and plant growth. We examined the effects of two native AM fungi, Gigaspora decipiens and Glomus clarum, on the growth of M. paniculatus and A. saman seedlings under nursery conditions. At harvest, after six months, we determined AM colonization, shoot dry weight, and shoot N and P concentration. Approximately 90% and 50% of M. paniculatus and A. saman roots, respectively, were colonized by AM fungi, without any difference between the inoculation treatments. G. decipiens and G. clarum increased shoot height, leaf number, shoot dry weight, and shoot N and P uptake of both species. A positive correlation was observed between N and P uptake and shoot dry weight. These results suggest that AM fungi are effective in accelerating nutrient uptake and plant growth, which will, in turn, promote reforestation and sustainable forest timber production. Dewi Wulandari, Saridi, Weiguo Cheng, and Keitaro Tawaraya Copyright © 2014 Dewi Wulandari et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Forest Resources and Forest Biodiversity Evaluation System in China Sun, 29 Dec 2013 12:10:44 +0000 China is a country rich in diverse forest ecosystems due to the large span of the country, complex topography, and multiple climate regimes. In this paper, the basic information of forest resources in China was briefly introduced and the current state in the measurements of forest biodiversity and the establishment of forest biodiversity index systems in related studies were reviewed. The results showed that a lot of studies on forest biodiversity have been conducted mostly at landscape or stand level in China and the commonly used biodiversity indicators were identified and compared. Several comprehensive forest biodiversity index systems were proposed. However, there are still some problems during the construction of forest biodiversity assessment system. Due to the late establishment of biodiversity monitoring system in China, the availability of data that could be included in a forest biodiversity index system is limited, which hurdles the precise assessment of forest biodiversity. It is suggested to develop long-term monitoring stations and keep data recording consistently. Concerns should also be given to the construction of the framework of the forest biodiversity index system and the determination of the indicators’ weight. The results will provide reference for the establishment of national or regional forest biodiversity evaluation indicator systems in China. Jinzhuo Wu, Wenshu Lin, Xuanyi Peng, and Weiguo Liu Copyright © 2013 Jinzhuo Wu et al. All rights reserved.