International Journal of Food Science The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effect of Hydroxypropylation on Functional Properties of Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato Starch in Sri Lanka Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:46:32 +0000 Starches obtained from different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly consumed in Sri Lanka, were chemically modified with hydroxypropyl substitution, to analyze the changes in the physicochemical properties. Significant changes () in the crude digestibility level, thermal properties, and the water separation (syneresis) of starch gels (7.0% db) during cold and frozen storage were observed due to the modification. Hydroxypropylation increased the gel stability, water solubility, digestibility, and storage stability of the native starches in the cold storage to a significant level. Lowered gelatinization and retrogradation enthalpies as well as gelatinization temperature were observed for derivatized starches compared to the native starch. Low levels of pasting stability with increased levels of breakdown and reduced cold paste viscosity were observed in the hydroxypropylated starch samples except for the Malaysian cultivar (S5). Chemically modified starch gels stored under cold storage did not show a syneresis for two weeks in the cycle and the frozen storage showed much improved stability in the starch gels within the four-week cycle. Chemical modification of sweet potato starch with hydroxyl propyl substitution can enhance the functional characteristics of the native starch which will improve its potential application in the food industry. Suraji Senanayake, Anil Gunaratne, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, and Arthur Bamunuarachchi Copyright © 2014 Suraji Senanayake et al. All rights reserved. Rheological Characterization of Isabgol Husk, Gum Katira Hydrocolloids, and Their Blends Mon, 25 Aug 2014 08:03:14 +0000 The rheological parameters of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends were determined in different media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The blend properties of Isabgol husk and gum katira were measured for four different percentage compositions in order to understand their compatibility in dispersion form such as 00 : 100, 25 : 50, 50 : 50, 75 : 25, and 100 : 00 in the gel strength of 1 mass%. The miscibility of blends was determined by calculating Isabgol husk-gum katira interaction parameters by Krigbaum and Wall equation. Other rheological properties were analyzed by Bingham, Power, Casson, Casson chocolate, and IPC paste analysis. The study revealed that the power flow index “p” was less than “1” in all concentrations of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends dispersions indicating the shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. All blends followed pseudoplastic behavior at thermal conditions as 298.15, 313.15, and 333.15°K and in dispersion media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Moreover, the study indicated the applicability of these blends in the development of drug delivery systems and in industries, for example, ice-cream, paste, nutraceutical, and so forth. Vipin Kumar Sharma, Bhaskar Mazumder, and Vinod Nautiyal Copyright © 2014 Vipin Kumar Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:32:39 +0000 Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. Pushkala Ramachandran and Srividya Nagarajan Copyright © 2014 Pushkala Ramachandran and Srividya Nagarajan. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition Tue, 12 Aug 2014 13:13:24 +0000 Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. Roksana Huque, M. Kamruzzaman Munshi, Afifa Khatun, Mahfuza Islam, Afzal Hossain, Arzina Hossain, Shirin Akter, Jamiul Kabir, Yeasmin Nahar Jolly, and Ashraful Islam Copyright © 2014 Roksana Huque et al. All rights reserved. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends Mon, 11 Aug 2014 08:08:12 +0000 Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah, Helen Shnada Auta, Mercy Oluwayemisi Aduloju, and Sesan Abiodun Aransiola Copyright © 2014 Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah et al. All rights reserved. Spray Dried Extract of Phormidium valderianum as a Promising Source of Natural Antioxidant Sun, 10 Aug 2014 11:23:55 +0000 Microencapsulation of antioxidant-rich fraction obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (at 50°C, 500 bar with extraction time of 90 min, and flow rate of CO2 at 2 L/min) of lyophilized biomass of Phormidium valderianum was carried out in a spray dryer using maltodextrin and gum arabic. Microencapsulation conditions that provided the best combination of phytochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and reducing power with reasonable powder yield were an inlet temperature of 130°C and wall material composition as maltodextrin: gum arabic = 70 : 30. Toxicological study reported that the Anatoxin-a content of this encapsulated powder was below the limit of detection of HPLC. Storage study established that encapsulation of this antioxidant-rich algal extract resulted in eight times enhancement of half-life () values. The release profile of microencapsulated antioxidant-rich fraction from the encapsulated powder was found to follow first order anomalous transport kinetics. Therefore, this microencapsulated algal extract with minimum toxicity is a source of natural antioxidant and could have promising use as novel dietary supplement. Dipan Chatterjee, Paramita Bhattacharjee, Gour Gopal Satpati, and Ruma Pal Copyright © 2014 Dipan Chatterjee et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species Mon, 23 Jun 2014 07:55:39 +0000 This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. Negero Gemeda, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Daniel Asrat, and Asfaw Debella Copyright © 2014 Negero Gemeda et al. All rights reserved. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods Thu, 12 Jun 2014 08:41:03 +0000 The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO), chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS) or duodenum secretions (DS) at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm) as compared to the larger (2.5 mm) ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides) used in the development of functional foods. Yves Raymond and Claude P. Champagne Copyright © 2014 Yves Raymond and Claude P. Champagne. All rights reserved. Determination of Trace Metals and Essential Minerals in Selected Fruit Juices in Minna, Nigeria Thu, 12 Jun 2014 07:13:50 +0000 Levels of trace metals and essential minerals in selected fruit juice samples purchased from Minna were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and Flame photometer. From the obtained result, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were present in all the samples, while Cd, Pb, and Cr were not detectable in all the samples. Concentrations of K range between 1.31 ± 0.10 and 41.20 ± 0.10 mg/100 mL, Na between 15.47 ± 0.15 and 3.50 ± 0.20 mg/100 mL, Mn between Nd and 0.27 ± 0.08 mg/100 mL, Fe between Nd and 0.90 ± 0.05 mg/100 mL, Cu between Nd-0.60 ± 0.00 mg/100 mL, and Zn between Nd-0.09 ± 0.01 mg/100 mL, respectively. The trace metal levels in all the samples were within permissible limit as recommended by WHO for edible foods and drinks and could therefore be taken to compliment the deficiency of these essential minerals from other food sources. A. I. Ajai, S. S. Ochigbo, Z. Abdullahi, and P. I. Anigboro Copyright © 2014 A. I. Ajai et al. All rights reserved. Ripening of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara) Cheese Manufactured from Raw or Pasteurized Milk: Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on the Physicochemical Properties Thu, 22 May 2014 12:32:51 +0000 The objective of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of heat treatment (raw or pasteurized milk), ripening in salted whey (SW) and storage period for up to 3 months on the physicochemical properties of Sudanese braided cheese (SBC). Braided cheeses were manufactured from raw (BCRM) and pasteurized (BCPM) milk and ripened in SW (0%, 5%, and 10% salt) for up to 90 days. All the treatments significantly () affected the physicochemical characteristics of SBC. The total solid, protein, and fat contents of BCRM or BCPM decreased (), whereas their TA, SN, and salt contents increased significantly () as storage period and the salt level of the whey were elevated. Both FRI and SRI of BCRM and BCPM increased with the increase in storage period and the salt level of the whey. For SN, FRI, SRI, pH, and moisture contents the magnitude of the change was more pronounced in BCRM than in BCPM, while for protein, fat, salt, and TS contents, the opposite was true; that is, the magnitude of the change was more pronounced in BCPM than in BCRM. Further studies are required to standardize muddaffara cheese manufacturing procedure particularly in rural areas. Mohamed O. E. Altahir, Elgasim A. Elgasim, and Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Mohamed O. E. Altahir et al. All rights reserved. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities Sun, 04 May 2014 12:49:07 +0000 Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20%) has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious. Lemuel M. Diamante, Xue Bai, and Janette Busch Copyright © 2014 Lemuel M. Diamante et al. All rights reserved. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran Wed, 16 Apr 2014 14:20:10 +0000 A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages . Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly , while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages . The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages . Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran . The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran. Fatemeh Malekian, Margarita Khachaturyan, Sebhatu Gebrelul, and James F. Henson Copyright © 2014 Fatemeh Malekian et al. All rights reserved. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh Tue, 08 Apr 2014 09:05:10 +0000 The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer’s knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes. Md. Khairuzzaman, Fatema Moni Chowdhury, Sharmin Zaman, Arafat Al Mamun, and Md. Latiful Bari Copyright © 2014 Md. Khairuzzaman et al. All rights reserved. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum Sun, 23 Mar 2014 15:28:01 +0000 Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. Maira Rubi Segura-Campos, Norma Ciau-Solís, Gabriel Rosado-Rubio, Luis Chel-Guerrero, and David Betancur-Ancona Copyright © 2014 Maira Rubi Segura-Campos et al. All rights reserved. Arsenic Species in Edible Seaweeds Using In Vitro Biomimetic Digestion Determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Sun, 09 Mar 2014 11:17:51 +0000 Arsenite [As (III)], arsenate [As (V)], methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) in five edible seaweeds (the brown algae Laminaria japonica, red algae Porphyra yezoensis, brown algae Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, and green algae Enteromorpha prolifera) were analyzed using in vitro digestion method determined by high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that DMA was found in the water extracts of all samples; As (III) were detected in L. japonica and U. pinnatifida and about 23.0 and 0.15 mg/kg of As (V) were found in H. fusiformis and E. prolifera respectively. However, after the gastrointestinal digestion, As (V) was not detected in any of the five seaweeds. About 0.19 and 1.47 mg/kg of As (III) was detected in the gastric extracts of L. japonica and H. fusiformis, respectively, and about 0.31 and 0.10 mg/kg of As (III) were extracted from the intestinal extracts of Porphyra yezoensis and U. pinnatifida, respectively. The present results successfully reveal the differences of As species and levels in the water and biomimetic extracts of five edible seaweeds. The risk assessment of the inorganic arsenic in the five edible seaweeds based on present data showed almost no hazards to human health. Yan-Fang Zhao, Ji-Fa Wu, De-Rong Shang, Jin-Song Ning, Hai-Yan Ding, and Yu-Xiu Zhai Copyright © 2014 Yan-Fang Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums Thu, 23 Jan 2014 13:22:40 +0000 Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result. M. A. Sahari, R. Mohammadi, and Z. Hamidi Esfehani Copyright © 2014 M. A. Sahari et al. All rights reserved. Quality Assessment and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bran Enriched Chapattis Thu, 02 Jan 2014 14:54:18 +0000 Cereal brans singly and in combination were blended at varying levels (5 and 10%) for development of Chapattis. Cereal bran enriched Chapattis were assessed for quality and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of quality assessment, 10% enrichment level for Chapatti was the best. Moisture content, water activity, and free fatty acids remained stable during the study period. Quality assessment and physicochemical characteristics of bran enriched Chapattis carried out revealed that dough handling and puffing of bran enriched Chapattis prepared by 5 and 10% level of bran supplementation did not vary significantly. All types of bran enriched Chapattis except rice bran enriched Chapattis showed nonsticky behavior during dough handling. Bran enriched Chapattis exhibited full puffing character during preparation. The sensory attributes showed that both 5 and 10% bran supplemented Chapattis were acceptable. B. N. Dar, Savita Sharma, Baljit Singh, and Gurkirat Kaur Copyright © 2014 B. N. Dar et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Acidity, TSS, and Sugar Content at Different Storage Periods of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Influenced by Bavistin DF Sun, 29 Dec 2013 14:20:06 +0000 A detailed study was carried out with the postharvest mangoes (namely, the Langra and the Khirshapat) treated with different levels of Bavistin DF (BDF) solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 ppm) for obtaining results on biochemical changes as well as storability of postharvest mango. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of titratable acidity and total soluble solid (TSS) at 3rd day, over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat showed increased pulp pH and TSS at all the storage duration. The results explored that some physicochemical properties, namely, pulp pH, TSS, sugar (total, reducing, and nonreducing), and titratable acidity along with shelf life drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. Bavistin DF with the doses of 750 ppm showed better results in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and extended shelf life. Md. Khairul Islam, M. Z. H. Khan, M. A. R. Sarkar, Nurul Absar, and S. K. Sarkar Copyright © 2013 Md. Khairul Islam et al. All rights reserved. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup Tue, 24 Dec 2013 08:59:58 +0000 Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world’s high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of %. The SPSS had significantly higher () mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups’ peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth. Brunson Dominque, Peter N. Gichuhi, Vijay Rangari, and Adelia C. Bovell-Benjamin Copyright © 2013 Brunson Dominque et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics Mon, 07 Oct 2013 18:25:58 +0000 This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina). Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour) and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina) were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C) but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU). Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45%) when compared with control (44.9%) as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N) when compared with control (2.304 N), and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta. B. Dhiraj and P. Prabhasankar Copyright © 2013 B. Dhiraj and P. Prabhasankar. All rights reserved. Predicting the Quality of Pasteurized Vegetables Using Kinetic Models: A Review Thu, 26 Sep 2013 10:41:20 +0000 A resurgence in interest examining thermal pasteurization technologies has been driven by demands for “cleaner” labeling and the need of organic and natural foods markets for suitable preventive measures to impede microbial growth and extend shelf life of minimally processed foods and ready-to-eat foods with a concomitant reduction in the use of chemical preservatives. This review describes the effects of thermal pasteurization on vegetable quality attributes including altering flavor and texture to improve consumer acceptability, stabilizing color, improving digestibility, palatability and retaining bioavailability of important nutrients, and bioactive compounds. Here, we provide kinetic parameters for inactivation of viral and bacterial pathogens and their surrogates and marker enzymes used to monitor process effectiveness in a variety of plant food items. Data on thermal processing protocols leading to higher retention and bioactivity are also presented. Thermal inactivation of foodborne viruses and pathogenic bacteria, specifically at lower pasteurization temperatures or via new technologies such as dielectric heating, can lead to greater retention of “fresh-like” properties. Muhammad Aamir, Mahmoudreza Ovissipour, Shyam S. Sablani, and Barbara Rasco Copyright © 2013 Muhammad Aamir et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Sat, 14 Sep 2013 10:59:26 +0000 Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium) were exposed to surfactants (single and combined) in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium) with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies. Paula A. Araújo, Madalena Lemos, Filipe Mergulhão, Luís Melo, and Manuel Simões Copyright © 2013 Paula A. Araújo et al. All rights reserved. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea Thu, 25 Jul 2013 10:31:26 +0000 This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk) held at room temperature (27°C). The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; ). However, all 3 types of rice preparation showed significant growth of V. cholerae after 24 h (). For coffee and tea preparations, V. cholerae survived up to 6 h in tea with condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL) but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided. John Yew Huat Tang, Bariah Ibrahim Izenty, Ahmad Juanda Nur’ Izzati, Siti Rahmah Masran, Chew Chieng Yeo, Arshad Roslan, and Che Abdullah Abu Bakar Copyright © 2013 John Yew Huat Tang et al. All rights reserved. Peanut Allergy, Allergen Composition, and Methods of Reducing Allergenicity: A Review Sun, 21 Jul 2013 13:55:30 +0000 Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV), chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads), and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation). Yang Zhou, Jin-shui Wang, Xiao-jia Yang, Dan-hua Lin, Yun-fang Gao, Yin-jie Su, Sen Yang, Yan-jie Zhang, and Jing-jing Zheng Copyright © 2013 Yang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Fermented Cassava Flour “Lafun” Available in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria Tue, 09 Jul 2013 10:30:29 +0000 The microorganisms involved in the fermentation and spoilage of fermented cassava flour were investigated. The water samples used at the different processing sites were also investigated to determine their safety status. There was predominance of Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus spp., and Escherichia coli in all samples. Coliforms were observed to be present in all of the processing water. In the fermented cassava flour, the total bacterial count ranged between  cfu/mL from Eleso, Bakatari, and Oja Odan processing sites and  cfu/mL in Eruku processing site. The majority of the microorganisms involved in the spoilage of “lafun” were found to be Aspergillus niger which ranged between  cfu/mL in Eleso and  cfu/mL in Kila. The control sample prepared in the laboratory had a low microbial load compared to samples collected from various sites and markets. A. O. Adebayo-Oyetoro, O. B. Oyewole, A. O. Obadina, and M. A. Omemu Copyright © 2013 A. O. Adebayo-Oyetoro et al. All rights reserved. Bioactivity of Nonedible Parts of Punica granatum L.: A Potential Source of Functional Ingredients Mon, 08 Jul 2013 15:56:09 +0000 Punica granatum L. has a long standing culinary and medicinal traditional use in Mauritius. This prompted a comparative study to determine the bioefficacy of the flower, peel, leaf, stem, and seed extracts of the Mauritian P. granatum. The flower and peel extracts resulting from organic solvent extraction exhibited strong antioxidant activities which correlated with the high levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The peel extract had the most potent scavenging capacity reflected by high Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value ( μmol/g air dry weight), very low IC50 values for hypochlorous acid ( mg air dry weight/mL), and hydroxyl radicals scavenging ( mg air dry weight/mL). Peel extracts also significantly inhibited S. mutans (), S. mitis (), and L. acidophilus () growth compared to ciprofloxacin. The flower extract exhibited high ferric reducing, nitric oxide scavenging, and iron (II) ions chelation and significantly inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it showed a dose-dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase with an IC50 value of  mg air dry weight/mL. This study showed that nonedible parts of cultivated pomegranates, that are generally discarded, are bioactive in multiassay systems thereby suggesting their potential use as natural prophylactics and in food applications. Nawraj Rummun, Jhoti Somanah, Srishti Ramsaha, Theeshan Bahorun, and Vidushi S. Neergheen-Bhujun Copyright © 2013 Nawraj Rummun et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cholesterol Removal Processing Using β-Cyclodextrin on Main Components of Milk Tue, 25 Jun 2013 16:58:23 +0000 Various concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) of β-CD were mixed with different fat contents (1%, 2.5% and 3%) of raw (unhomogenized) and homogenized milk at two mixing temperatures of 8 and 20°C. The cholesterol residue, fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat (SNF), density, and ash content of milk were measured for each treatment. The results statistically analysed and showed that the cholesterol content of milk remarkably decreased as the β-CD was increased particularly in homogenized milk at 20°C. However, the reduction rate of cholesterol was decreased when extra β-CD was added due to its intermolecular reactions. The maximum cholesterol reduction was achieved at the level of 1% β-CD. The fat content, SNF, protein, lactose, and density content were decreased with increasing β-CD whereas it did not affect ash content. A. M. Maskooki, S. H. R. Beheshti, S. Valibeigi, and J. Feizi Copyright © 2013 A. M. Maskooki et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Production of Xylitol from Corncob by Pachysolen tannophilus Using Response Surface Methodology Wed, 19 Jun 2013 14:00:05 +0000 Optimization of the culture medium and process variables for xylitol production using corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pachysolen tannophilus (MTTC 1077) was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on xylitol production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. Peptone, xylose, MgSO4·7H2O, and yeast extract were selected based on their positive influence on xylitol production. The selected components were optimized with Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum levels (g/L) were peptone: 6.03, xylose: 10.62, MgSO4·7H2O: 1.39, yeast extract: 4.66. The influence of various process variables on the xylitol production was evaluated. The optimal levels of these variables were quantified by the central composite design using RSM, for establishment of a significant mathematical model with a coefficient determination of . The validation experimental was consistent with the prediction model. The optimum levels of process variables were temperature (36.56°C), pH (7.27), substrate concentration (3.55 g/L), inoculum size (3.69 mL), and agitation speed (194.44 rpm). These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced xylitol yield of 0.80 g/g. S. Ramesh, R. Muthuvelayudham, R. Rajesh Kannan, and T. Viruthagiri Copyright © 2013 S. Ramesh et al. All rights reserved. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature Thu, 06 Jun 2013 11:33:39 +0000 The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (), as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to −30°C and stored at 4, 0, −3, −5, and −8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at −7°C for 15 min was −3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at −3, −5, and −8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below . This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below . Sanguansri Charoenrein and Sunsanee Udomrati Copyright © 2013 Sanguansri Charoenrein and Sunsanee Udomrati. All rights reserved. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Thu, 06 Jun 2013 09:35:59 +0000 Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese ( 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream ( 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. Yulia B. Monakhova, Rolf Godelmann, Claudia Andlauer, Thomas Kuballa, and Dirk W. Lachenmeier Copyright © 2013 Yulia B. Monakhova et al. All rights reserved.