International Journal of Food Science The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Nutritional Properties and Antinutritional Factors of Corn Paste (Kutukutu) Fermented by Different Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria Tue, 19 May 2015 13:25:41 +0000 The aim of this study is to reduce antinutritional factors and to improve the nutritional properties of Kutukutu during fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). For that, Kutukutu (700 g) was prepared in the laboratory and inoculated with pure cultures of LAB (109 CFU/mL). Then, preparation was incubated for 120 h. Every 24 h, Kutukutu were collected, dried at 45°C for 24 h, and analyzed. The results showed that Lactobacillus brevis G25 increased reducing sugars content to 80.7% in Kutukutu after 96 h of fermentation. Lactobacillus fermentum N33 reduced the starch content to 73.2%, while Lactobacillus brevis G11, L. brevis G25, and Lactobacillus cellobiosus M41 rather increased the protein content to 18.9%. The bioavailability of Mg and Fe increased, respectively, to 50.5% and 70.6% in the Kutukutu fermented with L. brevis G25. L. plantarum A6 reduced the tannin content to 98.8% and L. buchneri M11 reduced the phytate content to 95.5%. The principal component analysis (PCA) shows that, for a best reduction of antinutrients factors and improvement of protein content and minerals, Kutukutu must be fermented by L. brevis G25 and L. fermentum N33, respectively. These starter cultures could be used to ameliorate nutritional proprieties of Kutukutu during the fermentation. Tchikoua Roger, Tatsadjieu Ngouné Léopold, and Mbofung Carl Moses Funtong Copyright © 2015 Tchikoua Roger et al. All rights reserved. Determining the Effects of High Intensity Ultrasound on the Reduction of Microbes in Milk and Orange Juice Using Response Surface Methodology Tue, 19 May 2015 08:05:47 +0000 This study investigated the effects of high intensity ultrasound (temperature, amplitude, and time) on the inactivation of indigenous bacteria in pasteurized milk, Bacillus atrophaeus spores inoculated into sterile milk, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculated into sterile orange juice using response surface methodology. The variables investigated were sonication temperature (range from 0 to 84°C), amplitude (range from 0 to 216 μm), and time (range from 0.17 to 5 min) on the response, log microbe reduction. Data were analyzed by statistical analysis system software and three models were developed, each for bacteria, spore, and yeast reduction. Regression analysis identified sonication temperature and amplitude to be significant variables on microbe reduction. Optimization of the inactivation of microbes was found to be at 84.8°C, 216 μm amplitude, and 5.8 min. In addition, the predicted log reductions of microbes at common processing conditions (72°C for 20 sec) using 216 μm amplitude were computed. The experimental responses for bacteria, spore, and yeast reductions fell within the predicted levels, confirming the accuracy of the models. Balasubramanian Ganesan, Silvana Martini, Jonathan Solorio, and Marie K. Walsh Copyright © 2015 Balasubramanian Ganesan et al. All rights reserved. Thermal Oxidation Induces Lipid Peroxidation and Changes in the Physicochemical Properties and β-Carotene Content of Arachis Oil Tue, 03 Mar 2015 14:19:47 +0000 This study sought to investigate the effect of thermal oxidation on the physicochemical properties, malondialdehyde, and β-carotene content of arachis oil. Pure arachis oil was heated for 20 mins with a corresponding temperature of 220°C. Thereafter, changes in the physicochemical properties (acid, iodine, and peroxide values) of the oil samples were determined. Subsequently, the level of lipid peroxidation was determined using change in malondialdehyde content. Then, the total carotenoid and β-carotene contents were evaluated using spectrophotometric method and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. The results of the study revealed a significant increase in the acid and peroxide values and malondialdehyde concentration of the heated oil when compared with the fresh arachis oil. In contrast, a significant decrease was observed in the iodine value, total carotenoid, 13-cis-, 15-cis-, trans-, and 9-cis-β-carotene, and total β-carotene content of the heated oil. Hence, thermal oxidation induced lipid peroxidation and caused changes in the physicochemical properties and carotenoid contents of arachis oil, thereby reducing its nutritive value and health benefit. Therefore, cooking and frying with arachis oil for a long period might not be appropriate as this might lead to a loss of significant amount of the insignificant β-carotene in arachis oil. Ayodeji Osmund Falade and Ganiyu Oboh Copyright © 2015 Ayodeji Osmund Falade and Ganiyu Oboh. All rights reserved. Benzene as a Chemical Hazard in Processed Foods Wed, 18 Feb 2015 09:16:08 +0000 This paper presents a literature review on benzene in foods, including toxicological aspects, occurrence, formation mechanisms, and mitigation measures and analyzes data reporting benzene levels in foods. Benzene is recognized by the IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer) as carcinogenic to humans, and its presence in foods has been attributed to various potential sources: packaging, storage environment, contaminated drinking water, cooking processes, irradiation processes, and degradation of food preservatives such as benzoates. Since there are no specific limits for benzene levels in beverages and food in general studies have adopted references for drinking water in a range from 1–10 ppb. The presence of benzene has been reported in various food/beverage substances with soft drinks often reported in the literature. Although the analyses reported low levels of benzene in most of the samples studied, some exceeded permissible limits. The available data on dietary exposure to benzene is minimal from the viewpoint of public health. Often benzene levels were low as to be considered negligible and not a consumer health risk, but there is still a need of more studies for a better understanding of their effects on human health through the ingestion of contaminated food. Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos, Andréa Medeiros Salgado, Alexandre Guedes Torres, and Karen Signori Pereira Copyright © 2015 Vânia Paula Salviano dos Santos et al. All rights reserved. Indigenous Starter Cultures to Improve Quality of Artisanal Dry Fermented Sausages from Chaco (Argentina) Sat, 31 Jan 2015 09:16:53 +0000 Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and coagulase negative cocci (CNC) were isolated from artisanal dry sausages sampled from the northeastern region of Chaco, Argentina. In order to evaluate their performance in situ and considering technological features of the isolated strains, two mixed selected autochthonous starter cultures (SAS) were designed: (i) SAS-1 (Lactobacillus sakei 487 + Staphylococcus vitulinus C2) and (ii) SAS-2 (L. sakei 442 + S. xylosus C8). Cultures were introduced into dry sausage manufacturing process at a local small-scale facility. Microbiological and physicochemical parameters were monitored throughout fermentation and ripening periods, while sensory attributes of the final products were evaluated by a trained panel. Lactic acid bacteria revealed their ability to colonize and adapt properly to the meat matrix, inhibiting the growth of spontaneous microflora and enhancing safety and hygienic profile of the products. Both SAS showed a beneficial effect on lipid oxidation and texture of the final products. Staphylococcus vitulinus C2, from SAS-1, promoted a better redness of the final product. Sensory profile revealed that SAS addition preserved typical sensory attributes. Introduction of these cultures could provide an additional tool to standardize manufacturing processes aiming to enhance safety and quality while keeping typical sensory attributes of regional dry fermented sausages. Noelia Z. Palavecino Prpich, Marcela P. Castro, María E. Cayré, Oscar A. Garro, and Graciela M. Vignolo Copyright © 2015 Noelia Z. Palavecino Prpich et al. All rights reserved. Food Safety Training Is Associated with Improved Knowledge and Behaviours among Foodservice Establishments’ Workers Mon, 26 Jan 2015 06:45:30 +0000 Though several studies have evaluated the association between food safety training and behavior, little has investigated different training components in association with food handlers’ performance. Foodservice workers () with at least two years’ experience were willing to participate and were selected from major foodservice establishments in Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria, and completed a survey to evaluate the association between training, training area, duration, and refresher training and food safety knowledge and practices. We observed an association between training and knowledge () as well as practices () of food safety while different training areas contributed similarly to food handlers’ knowledge () and practices (). However, there was a significant decline in knowledge () and practices () with an increase in training duration. Furthermore, foodservice employees with refresher training demonstrated significantly higher knowledge () and practice () levels than those without, being about 45 and 14 times more likely to, respectively, improve their knowledge (OR = 45; 95% CI: 3.47–584.34) and practice (OR = 13.5; 95% CI: 2.01–90.69). Researchers should always consider varying training components before making assertions regarding effectiveness of training on foodservice workers’ behaviour. Hezekiah Kehinde Adesokan, Victor Oluwatoyin Akinseye, and Grace Abiodun Adesokan Copyright © 2015 Hezekiah Kehinde Adesokan et al. All rights reserved. Evolution of Volatile Flavour Compounds during Fermentation of African Oil Bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) Seeds for “Ugba” Production Tue, 20 Jan 2015 08:05:16 +0000 Fermented African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seed is a successful and well studied seasoning and snack in parts of Western Africa. GC-MS analysis of fermenting seeds revealed a mixture of several volatile aroma compounds which changed with time and starter organism. During natural mixed culture process 36 volatile compounds including 12 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 5 alcohols, 2 phenols, 2 ketones, and one each of furan, amine, acid, thiophene, and lactone were identified. When Bacillus subtilis was used in pure culture, 30 compounds comprising 10 hydrocarbons, 8 esters, 3 alcohols, 2 amines, 2 sulfur compounds, and one of each of acid, aldehyde, phenol, ketone, and furan were identified. Sample fermented with B. megaterium produced 29 aroma compounds comprising 9 hydrocarbons, 10 esters, 2 nitrogenous compounds, 2 ketones, 3 alcohols, and one of each of lactone, aldehyde, furan, and amine. Methyl esters of various long chain fatty acids may be key aroma compounds, based on consistency and persistence. Qualitative or quantitative contribution of individual compounds may only be determined following flavour threshold analysis. C. O. Nwokeleme and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi Copyright © 2015 C. O. Nwokeleme and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi. All rights reserved. Shelf Life Determination of Fresh Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) Stored under Controlled Atmosphere and Ozone Thu, 15 Jan 2015 14:08:32 +0000 Fresh blueberries are commonly stored and transported by refrigeration in controlled atmospheres to protect shelf life for long periods of storage. Ozone is an antimicrobial gas that can extend shelf life and protect fruit from microbial contamination. Shelf life of fresh highbush blueberries was determined over 10-day storage in isolated cabinets at 4°C or 12°C under different atmosphere conditions, including air (control); 5% O2 : 15% CO2 : 80% N2 (controlled atmosphere storage (CAS)); and ozone gas (O3) 4 ppm at 4°C or 2.5 ppm at 12°C, at high relative humidity (90–95%). Samples were evaluated for yeast and molds growth, weight loss, and firmness. CAS and O3 did not delay or inhibit yeast and molds growth in blueberries after 10 days at both temperatures. Fruit stored at 4°C showed lower weight loss values compared with 12°C. Blueberries stored under O3 atmosphere showed reduced weight loss at 12°C by day 10 and loss of firmness when compared to the other treatments. Low concentrations of ozone gas together with proper refrigeration temperature can help protect fresh blueberries quality during storage. Anibal Concha-Meyer, Joseph D. Eifert, Robert C. Williams, Joseph E. Marcy, and Gregory E. Welbaum Copyright © 2015 Anibal Concha-Meyer et al. All rights reserved. Food Processing and Maillard Reaction Products: Effect on Human Health and Nutrition Thu, 08 Jan 2015 14:17:47 +0000 Maillard reaction produces flavour and aroma during cooking process; and it is used almost everywhere from the baking industry to our day to day life to make food tasty. It is often called nonenzymatic browning reaction since it takes place in the absence of enzyme. When foods are being processed or cooked at high temperature, chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars leads to the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs). Depending on the way the food is being processed, both beneficial and toxic MRPs can be produced. Therefore, there is a need to understand the different types of MRPs and their positive or negative health effects. In this review we have summarized how food processing effects MRP formation in some of the very common foods. Nahid Tamanna and Niaz Mahmood Copyright © 2015 Nahid Tamanna and Niaz Mahmood. All rights reserved. Antiglycation Activity of Iridoids and Their Food Sources Mon, 29 Dec 2014 09:23:41 +0000 Iridoids are dietary phytochemicals that may have the ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Three studies were conducted to investigate this anti-AGE potential. First, the inhibition of fluorescence intensity by food-derived iridoids, after 4 days of incubation with bovine serum albumin, glucose, and fructose, was used to evaluate in vitro antiglycation activity. Next, an 8-week open-label pilot study used the AGE Reader to measure changes in the skin autofluorescence of 34 overweight adults who consumed daily a beverage containing food sources of iridoids. Finally, a cross-sectional population study with 3913 people analyzed the relationship between daily iridoid intake and AGE accumulation, as measured by skin autofluorescence with the TruAge scanner. In the in vitro test, deacetylasperulosidic acid and loganic acid both inhibited glycation in a concentration-dependent manner, with respective IC50 values of 3.55 and 2.69 mM. In the pilot study, average skin autofluorescence measurements decreased by 0.12 units (). The cross-sectional population survey revealed that, for every mg of iridoids consumed, there is a corresponding decline in AGE associated age of 0.017 years (). These results suggest that consumption of dietary sources of iridoids may be a useful antiaging strategy. Brett J. West, Akemi Uwaya, Fumiyuki Isami, Shixin Deng, Sanae Nakajima, and C. Jarakae Jensen Copyright © 2014 Brett J. West et al. All rights reserved. Determining Food Insecurity: An Application of the Rasch Model with Household Survey Data in Uganda Mon, 29 Dec 2014 00:10:25 +0000 The inexplicable nature of food insecurity in parts of Uganda and worldwide necessitated an investigation into the nature, extent, and differentials of household food security. The main objective of this study was to examine the food security dynamics and model household food insecurity. The Rasch modelling approach was employed on a dataset from a sample of 1175 (Tororo = 577; Busia = 598) randomly selected households in the year 2010. All households provided responses to the food security questions and none was omitted from the analysis. At 5 percent level of significance the analysis indicated that Tororo district average food security assessment (0.137 ± 0.181) was lower than that for Busia district (0.768 ± 0.177). All the mean square fit statistics were in the range of 0.5 to 1.5, and none of them showed any signs of distortion, degradation, or less productivity for measurement. This confirmed that items used in this study were very productive for measurement of food security in the study area. The study recommends further analysis where item responses are ordered polytomous rather than the dichotomous item response functions used. Furthermore, consideration should be given to fit models that allow for different latent distributions for households with children and those without children and possibly other subgroups of respondents. Abraham Owino, Ronald Wesonga, and Fabian Nabugoomu Copyright © 2014 Abraham Owino et al. All rights reserved. Cooking Chicken Breast Reduces Dialyzable Iron Resulting from Digestion of Muscle Proteins Sun, 28 Dec 2014 09:46:57 +0000 The purpose of this research was to study the effect of cooking chicken breast on the production of dialyzable iron (an in vitro indicator of bioavailable iron) from added ferric iron. Chicken breast muscle was cooked by boiling, baking, sautéing, or deep-frying. Cooked samples were mixed with ferric iron and either extracted with acid or digested with pepsin and pancreatin. Total and ferrous dialyzable iron was measured after extraction or digestion and compared to raw chicken samples. For uncooked samples, dialyzable iron was significantly enhanced after both extraction and digestion. All cooking methods led to markedly reduced levels of dialyzable iron both by extraction and digestion. In most cooked, digested samples dialyzable iron was no greater than the iron-only (no sample) control. Cooked samples showed lower levels of histidine and sulfhydryls but protein digestibility was not reduced, except for the sautéed sample. The results showed that, after cooking, little if any dialyzable iron results from digestion of muscle proteins. Our research indicates that, in cooked chicken, residual acid-extractable components are the most important source of dialyzable iron. Aditya S. Gokhale and Raymond R. Mahoney Copyright © 2014 Aditya S. Gokhale and Raymond R. Mahoney. All rights reserved. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch Thu, 11 Dec 2014 06:37:47 +0000 Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. Ritika Puri, Balmeet Singh Gill, and Yogesh Khetra Copyright © 2014 Ritika Puri et al. All rights reserved. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro Thu, 04 Dec 2014 12:34:39 +0000 Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM) and Capsicum chinense (RO)) and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference () in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher () ABTS scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher () ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated. Omodesola O. Ogunruku, Ganiyu Oboh, and Ayokunle O. Ademosun Copyright © 2014 Omodesola O. Ogunruku et al. All rights reserved. Spray Drying of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. Flavonoids Extract: Optimization and Physicochemical, Morphological, and Antioxidant Properties Thu, 04 Dec 2014 12:05:25 +0000 The optimal condition of spray drying purified flavonoids extract from R. tomentosa berries was studied by response surface methodology. The optimized condition for microencapsulation was of maltodextrin to gum Arabic ratio 1 : 1.3, total solid content 27.4%, glycerol monostearate content 0.25%, and core to coating material ratio 3 : 7, resulting in EE 91.75%. Prepared at the optimized condition, the flavonoids extract microcapsules (FEMs) were irregularly spherical particles with low moisture content (3.27%), high solubility (92.35%), and high bulk density (0.346 g/cm3). DPPH radical scavenging activity of FEMs was not decreased after spray drying () and higher than those in citric acid and rutin at the same concentration. Moreover, FEMs effectively retarded the oxidation of fresh lard during the 10-day storage period compared with vitamin C, nonencapsulated flavonoids extract, and rutin. Therefore, FEMs produced at the optimized condition could be used as powder ingredients with antioxidant capacities. Pingping Wu, Qian Deng, Guangzhi Ma, Nianghui Li, Yanyan Yin, Baojun Zhu, Meiling Chen, and Ruqiang Huang Copyright © 2014 Pingping Wu et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana Tue, 02 Dec 2014 12:54:09 +0000 Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities). Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (100 to 150 μg/mL) was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures. Fortune Akabanda, James Owusu-Kwarteng, Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Charles Parkouda, and Lene Jespersen Copyright © 2014 Fortune Akabanda et al. All rights reserved. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach Mon, 17 Nov 2014 11:59:57 +0000 Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong) were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO) at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L) might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L) demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future. Shaoying Zhang, Ying Li, and Fei Pei Copyright © 2014 Shaoying Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Moisture Sorption Behaviour and Mould Ecology of Trade Garri Sold in South Eastern Nigeria Sun, 16 Nov 2014 09:13:02 +0000 Garri is a creamy white or yellow starchy grit produced by roasting to gelatinization and dryness of peeled, washed, mashed, and fermented dewatered cassava roots. It is the most important product of cassava in West and Central Africa. Mean moisture content of yellow and white garri was 11.11% and 10.81% within 24 hrs of sampling from the market, increasing to 17.27% and 16.14%, respectively, following 3 months of storage at room temperature. The water activity of samples varied from initial 0.587 to 0.934 following storage. Moisture sorption isotherms, determined by static gravimetric techniques at 20° and 30°C, showed temperature dependent BET Sigmoidal type II behaviour typical of carbohydrate rich foods but modulated very slightly by the content of palm oil. Equilibrium moisture content decreased with increase in temperature at constant water activity. A total of 10 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Rhizopus, and Paecilomyces were identified, with range increasing with water activity of samples. Tochukwu Samuel and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi Copyright © 2014 Tochukwu Samuel and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi. All rights reserved. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety) Mon, 10 Nov 2014 11:17:11 +0000 Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had % oleic acid and a TOTOX value of , lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value  mg/mL), total phenol ( mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power ( mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value  mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). Probir Kumar Ghosh, Paramita Bhattacharjee, Souvik Mitra, and Mousumi Poddar-Sarkar Copyright © 2014 Probir Kumar Ghosh et al. All rights reserved. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. Kamal Rai Aneja, Romika Dhiman, Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal, Vikas Kumar, and Manpreeet Kaur Copyright © 2014 Kamal Rai Aneja et al. All rights reserved. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria Thu, 16 Oct 2014 08:30:18 +0000 The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  %), Albizia lebbeck  %), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  %). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food. Adewale Adewuyi and Rotimi Ayodele Oderinde Copyright © 2014 Adewale Adewuyi and Rotimi Ayodele Oderinde. All rights reserved. Rheology of Indian Honey: Effect of Temperature and Gamma Radiation Wed, 15 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Honey brands commonly available in Indian market were characterized for their rheological and thermal properties. Viscosity of all the honey samples belonging to different commercial brands was found to decrease with increase in temperature (5–40°C) and their sensitivity towards temperature varied significantly as explained by calculating activation energy based on Arrhenius model and ranged from 54.0 to 89.0 kJ/mol. However, shear rate was not found to alter the viscosity of honey indicating their Newtonian character and the shear stress varied linearly with shear rate for all honey samples. Honey is known to contain pathogenic microbial spores and in our earlier study gamma radiation was found to be effective in achieving microbial decontamination of honey. The effect of gamma radiation (5–15 kGy) on rheological properties of honey was assessed, and it was found to remain unchanged upon radiation treatment. The glass transition temperatures () of these honey analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry varied from −44.1 to −54.1°C and remained unchanged upon gamma radiation treatment. The results provide information about some key physical properties of commercial Indian honey. Radiation treatment which is useful for ensuring microbial safety of honey does not alter these properties. Sudhanshu Saxena, Lata Panicker, and Satyendra Gautam Copyright © 2014 Sudhanshu Saxena et al. All rights reserved. Cashew Nut Quality as Influenced by Microwave Heating Used for Stored Grain Insect Control Thu, 09 Oct 2014 08:31:23 +0000 The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of microwave power levels (240, 360, and 480 W) and exposure time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 s) on various properties of cashew nuts being used for disinfestation. The nuts were analyzed for moisture content, temperature rise, colour, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV). Experiments were conducted according to the response surface methodology. Increase in microwave power level and exposure time caused a decrease in moisture content, increase in temperature, and change in colour. Microwave treatment to target temperatures of 50–55°C (unfavorable for insect survival) made the PV of cashew nut decrease to 1.10 to 1.66 meq O2/Kg (from an initial value of 2.08 ± 0.05) and FFA value to 0.11 to 0.51% (from an initial value of 0.68 ± 0.03). Though PV and FFA values of microwave treated cashew nut were found to increase after 6 months of storage at room conditions, the values were within the limits for acceptable quality. Microwave treated cashew nuts were free from infestation and rancidity even after 6 months of storage while the untreated nuts were found to be heavily infested at the end of 1 month of storage. Ipsita Das, Narendra G. Shah, and Girish Kumar Copyright © 2014 Ipsita Das et al. All rights reserved. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions Tue, 07 Oct 2014 12:52:12 +0000 Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. Custódio Lobo Roriz, Lillian Barros, Ana Maria Carvalho, and Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Custódio Lobo Roriz et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack Tue, 30 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly different from the control. In general, no significant difference in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions. Naveen Vadukapuram, Clifford Hall III, Mehmet Tulbek, and Mary Niehaus Copyright © 2014 Naveen Vadukapuram et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia Sun, 28 Sep 2014 10:01:43 +0000 We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases. L. C. Cruz, J. E. S. Batista, A. P. P. Zemolin, M. E. M. Nunes, D. B. Lippert, L. F. F. Royes, F. A. Soares, A. B. Pereira, T. Posser, and J. L. Franco Copyright © 2014 L. C. Cruz et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Commercial Saturated Monoglyceride, Mono-/Diglycerides Mixtures, Vegetable Oil, Stirring Speed, and Temperature on the Physical Properties of Organogels Sun, 21 Sep 2014 06:07:13 +0000 The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelator, vegetable oil, stirring speed, and temperature on the physical properties of obtained organogels. They were prepared under varying independent conditions and applying a fractional experimental design. From there a rheological characterization was developed. The physical characterization also included polarized light microscopy and calorimetric analysis. Once these data were obtained, X-Ray diffraction was applied to selected samples and a microstructure lattice was confirmed. Commonly, the only conditions that affect crystallization have been analyzed (temperature, solvent, gelator, and cooling rate). We found that stirring speed is the most important parameter in the organogel preparation. Omar Gerardo Rocha-Amador, Jose Alberto Gallegos-Infante, Qingrong Huang, Nuria Elizabeth Rocha-Guzman, Martha Rocio Moreno-Jimenez, and Ruben F. Gonzalez-Laredo Copyright © 2014 Omar Gerardo Rocha-Amador et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:34:15 +0000 The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%). The lightness in terms of hunter value decreased significantly () during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C. Tanushree Maity, A. S. Bawa, and P. S. Raju Copyright © 2014 Tanushree Maity et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads Sun, 14 Sep 2014 13:10:43 +0000 Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW) breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), and lecithin (LC); and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin) were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50). Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13%) and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27%) compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking. Maria Eduardo, Ulf Svanberg, and Lilia Ahrné Copyright © 2014 Maria Eduardo et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Quality and the Shelf Life of the High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Veal by Superficial Spraying with Dihydroquercetin Solution Wed, 10 Sep 2014 06:17:01 +0000 The improvement of quality and the shelf life of veal by combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions was studied. The control samples C, air packaged only, D, air packaged sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, MAP, modified atmosphere packaging only, BMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene solution, and DMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, were measured. The best results were obtained in modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution. Comparisons with control samples were expressed as reduction in acid value with 27.72%, peroxide value with 64.74%, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with 65.71%, and the pH with 6.18%. The acid and peroxide values, TBARS, and pH were decreased linearly in response when applying the combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions . The changes of amino nitrogen content of modified atmosphere packaging veal were not influenced statistically significantly by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution . According to results obtained it was concluded that 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaged veal stored at °C after 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution treatment can preserve its quality and shelf life to 15 d postmortem. Stefan Georgiev Dragoev, Alexandar Stoyanov Staykov, Kiril Petrov Vassilev, Dessislav Kostadinov Balev, and Dessislava Borislavova Vlahova-Vangelova Copyright © 2014 Stefan Georgiev Dragoev et al. All rights reserved.