International Journal of Food Science The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effect of Acacia Gum, NaCl, and Sucrose on Physical Properties of Lotus Stem Starch Thu, 11 Dec 2014 06:37:47 +0000 Consumer preferences in east Asian part of the world pave the way for consumption of lotus stem starch (LSS) in preparations such as breakfast meals, fast foods, and traditional confectioneries. The present study envisaged the investigation and optimization of additives, that is, acacia gum, sodium chloride (NaCl), and sucrose, on water absorption (WA), water absorption index (WAI), and water solubility index (WSI) of LSS employing response surface methodology (RSM). Acacia gum resulted in increased water uptake and swelling of starch; however, NaCl reduced the swelling power of starch by making water unavailable to starch and also due to starch-ion electrostatic interaction. Sucrose restricted the water absorption by binding free water and decreased amylose leaching by building bridges with starch chains and thus forming rigid structure. Ritika Puri, Balmeet Singh Gill, and Yogesh Khetra Copyright © 2014 Ritika Puri et al. All rights reserved. Water Extractable Phytochemicals from Peppers (Capsicum spp.) Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Activities and Prooxidants Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro Thu, 04 Dec 2014 12:34:39 +0000 Background. This study sought to investigate antioxidant capacity of aqueous extracts of two pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum var. accuminatum (SM) and Capsicum chinense (RO)) and their inhibitory effect on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities. Methods. The antioxidant capacity of the peppers was evaluated by the 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging ability and ferric reducing antioxidant property. The inhibition of prooxidant induced lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase activities in rat brain homogenates was also evaluated. Results. There was no significant difference () in the total phenol contents of the unripe and ripe Capsicum spp. extracts. Ripe and unripe SM samples had significantly higher () ABTS scavenging ability than RO samples, while the ripe fruits had significantly higher () ferric reducing properties in the varieties. Furthermore, the extracts inhibited Fe2+ and quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rats brain homogenates in a dose-dependent manner. Ripe and unripe samples from SM had significantly higher AChE inhibitory abilities than RO samples, while there was no significant difference in the BuChE inhibitory abilities of the pepper samples. Conclusion. The antioxidant and anticholinesterase properties of Capsicum spp. may be a possible dietary means by which oxidative stress and symptomatic cognitive decline associated with neurodegenerative conditions could be alleviated. Omodesola O. Ogunruku, Ganiyu Oboh, and Ayokunle O. Ademosun Copyright © 2014 Omodesola O. Ogunruku et al. All rights reserved. Spray Drying of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Ait.) Hassk. Flavonoids Extract: Optimization and Physicochemical, Morphological, and Antioxidant Properties Thu, 04 Dec 2014 12:05:25 +0000 The optimal condition of spray drying purified flavonoids extract from R. tomentosa berries was studied by response surface methodology. The optimized condition for microencapsulation was of maltodextrin to gum Arabic ratio 1 : 1.3, total solid content 27.4%, glycerol monostearate content 0.25%, and core to coating material ratio 3 : 7, resulting in EE 91.75%. Prepared at the optimized condition, the flavonoids extract microcapsules (FEMs) were irregularly spherical particles with low moisture content (3.27%), high solubility (92.35%), and high bulk density (0.346 g/cm3). DPPH radical scavenging activity of FEMs was not decreased after spray drying () and higher than those in citric acid and rutin at the same concentration. Moreover, FEMs effectively retarded the oxidation of fresh lard during the 10-day storage period compared with vitamin C, nonencapsulated flavonoids extract, and rutin. Therefore, FEMs produced at the optimized condition could be used as powder ingredients with antioxidant capacities. Pingping Wu, Qian Deng, Guangzhi Ma, Nianghui Li, Yanyan Yin, Baojun Zhu, Meiling Chen, and Ruqiang Huang Copyright © 2014 Pingping Wu et al. All rights reserved. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana Tue, 02 Dec 2014 12:54:09 +0000 Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities). Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (100 to 150 μg/mL) was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures. Fortune Akabanda, James Owusu-Kwarteng, Kwaku Tano-Debrah, Charles Parkouda, and Lene Jespersen Copyright © 2014 Fortune Akabanda et al. All rights reserved. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach Mon, 17 Nov 2014 11:59:57 +0000 Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong) were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO) at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L) might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L) demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future. Shaoying Zhang, Ying Li, and Fei Pei Copyright © 2014 Shaoying Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Moisture Sorption Behaviour and Mould Ecology of Trade Garri Sold in South Eastern Nigeria Sun, 16 Nov 2014 09:13:02 +0000 Garri is a creamy white or yellow starchy grit produced by roasting to gelatinization and dryness of peeled, washed, mashed, and fermented dewatered cassava roots. It is the most important product of cassava in West and Central Africa. Mean moisture content of yellow and white garri was 11.11% and 10.81% within 24 hrs of sampling from the market, increasing to 17.27% and 16.14%, respectively, following 3 months of storage at room temperature. The water activity of samples varied from initial 0.587 to 0.934 following storage. Moisture sorption isotherms, determined by static gravimetric techniques at 20° and 30°C, showed temperature dependent BET Sigmoidal type II behaviour typical of carbohydrate rich foods but modulated very slightly by the content of palm oil. Equilibrium moisture content decreased with increase in temperature at constant water activity. A total of 10 fungal species belonging to the genera Mucor, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Scopulariopsis, Rhizopus, and Paecilomyces were identified, with range increasing with water activity of samples. Tochukwu Samuel and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi Copyright © 2014 Tochukwu Samuel and J. Obeta Ugwuanyi. All rights reserved. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety) Mon, 10 Nov 2014 11:17:11 +0000 Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had % oleic acid and a TOTOX value of , lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value  mg/mL), total phenol ( mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power ( mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value  mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). Probir Kumar Ghosh, Paramita Bhattacharjee, Souvik Mitra, and Mousumi Poddar-Sarkar Copyright © 2014 Probir Kumar Ghosh et al. All rights reserved. Microbes Associated with Freshly Prepared Juices of Citrus and Carrots Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. They contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. In the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. A total of 30 juice samples were examined for their microbiological quality. Twenty-five microbial species including 9 bacterial isolates, 5 yeast isolates, and 11 mould isolates were isolated from juices. Yeasts and moulds were the main cause of spoilage of juices. Aspergillus flavus and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were observed in the maximum number of juice samples. Among bacteria Bacillus cereus and Serratia were dominant. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in few samples. Candida sp., Curvularia, Colletotrichum, and Acetobacter were observed only in citrus juice samples. Alternaria, Aspergillus terreus, A. niger, Cladosporium, and Fusarium were also observed in tested juice samples. Some of the microorganisms detected in these juice samples can cause disease in human beings, so there is need for some guidelines that can improve the quality of fruit juices. Kamal Rai Aneja, Romika Dhiman, Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal, Vikas Kumar, and Manpreeet Kaur Copyright © 2014 Kamal Rai Aneja et al. All rights reserved. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria Thu, 16 Oct 2014 08:30:18 +0000 The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  %), Albizia lebbeck  %), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  %). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food. Adewale Adewuyi and Rotimi Ayodele Oderinde Copyright © 2014 Adewale Adewuyi and Rotimi Ayodele Oderinde. All rights reserved. Rheology of Indian Honey: Effect of Temperature and Gamma Radiation Wed, 15 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Honey brands commonly available in Indian market were characterized for their rheological and thermal properties. Viscosity of all the honey samples belonging to different commercial brands was found to decrease with increase in temperature (5–40°C) and their sensitivity towards temperature varied significantly as explained by calculating activation energy based on Arrhenius model and ranged from 54.0 to 89.0 kJ/mol. However, shear rate was not found to alter the viscosity of honey indicating their Newtonian character and the shear stress varied linearly with shear rate for all honey samples. Honey is known to contain pathogenic microbial spores and in our earlier study gamma radiation was found to be effective in achieving microbial decontamination of honey. The effect of gamma radiation (5–15 kGy) on rheological properties of honey was assessed, and it was found to remain unchanged upon radiation treatment. The glass transition temperatures () of these honey analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry varied from −44.1 to −54.1°C and remained unchanged upon gamma radiation treatment. The results provide information about some key physical properties of commercial Indian honey. Radiation treatment which is useful for ensuring microbial safety of honey does not alter these properties. Sudhanshu Saxena, Lata Panicker, and Satyendra Gautam Copyright © 2014 Sudhanshu Saxena et al. All rights reserved. Cashew Nut Quality as Influenced by Microwave Heating Used for Stored Grain Insect Control Thu, 09 Oct 2014 08:31:23 +0000 The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of microwave power levels (240, 360, and 480 W) and exposure time (30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 s) on various properties of cashew nuts being used for disinfestation. The nuts were analyzed for moisture content, temperature rise, colour, free fatty acid (FFA) and peroxide value (PV). Experiments were conducted according to the response surface methodology. Increase in microwave power level and exposure time caused a decrease in moisture content, increase in temperature, and change in colour. Microwave treatment to target temperatures of 50–55°C (unfavorable for insect survival) made the PV of cashew nut decrease to 1.10 to 1.66 meq O2/Kg (from an initial value of 2.08 ± 0.05) and FFA value to 0.11 to 0.51% (from an initial value of 0.68 ± 0.03). Though PV and FFA values of microwave treated cashew nut were found to increase after 6 months of storage at room conditions, the values were within the limits for acceptable quality. Microwave treated cashew nuts were free from infestation and rancidity even after 6 months of storage while the untreated nuts were found to be heavily infested at the end of 1 month of storage. Ipsita Das, Narendra G. Shah, and Girish Kumar Copyright © 2014 Ipsita Das et al. All rights reserved. HPLC-Profiles of Tocopherols, Sugars, and Organic Acids in Three Medicinal Plants Consumed as Infusions Tue, 07 Oct 2014 12:52:12 +0000 Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk, Gomphrena globosa L., and Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf are medicinal plants that require a more detailed chemical characterization, given the importance of their consumption as infusions. Therefore, the individual profiles in tocopherols, free sugars, and organic acids were obtained by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to different detectors (fluorescence, refraction index, and photodiode array, resp.). C. citratus revealed the highest content of α-, and total tocopherols, glucose, sucrose, succinic, and ascorbic acids. P. tridentatum presented the highest fructose and total sugars content. Otherwise, G. globosa showed the highest organic acids concentration. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the mentioned chemical compounds in G. globosa and C. citratus. Custódio Lobo Roriz, Lillian Barros, Ana Maria Carvalho, and Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira Copyright © 2014 Custódio Lobo Roriz et al. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack Tue, 30 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly different from the control. In general, no significant difference in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions. Naveen Vadukapuram, Clifford Hall III, Mehmet Tulbek, and Mary Niehaus Copyright © 2014 Naveen Vadukapuram et al. All rights reserved. A Study on the Quality and Identity of Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey: Evidences for Its Beneficial Effects against Oxidative Stress and Hyperglycemia Sun, 28 Sep 2014 10:01:43 +0000 We characterized, for the first time, the quality and identity of Brazilian Pampa biome honey and its antioxidant properties in vitro (FRAP, DDPH and ABTS). The potential protective effect of honey against oxidative stress induced by iron (Fe) and paraquat, (PQ) in a Drosophila melanogaster model (in vivo) was also tested. The results indicated that all honey samples tested showed antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies treated with honey showed increased lifespan and were protected against oxidative stress induced by Fe and PQ. Despite the high concentration of sugars in honey (approximately 70–80%), our results demonstrate a hypoglycemic-like effect of honey in Drosophila. Thus, this study demonstrates the high quality of Brazilian Pampa biome honey as well as its significant antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, pointing to the potential use of this natural product as an alternative in the therapy of oxidative stress-associated diseases. L. C. Cruz, J. E. S. Batista, A. P. P. Zemolin, M. E. M. Nunes, D. B. Lippert, L. F. F. Royes, F. A. Soares, A. B. Pereira, T. Posser, and J. L. Franco Copyright © 2014 L. C. Cruz et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Commercial Saturated Monoglyceride, Mono-/Diglycerides Mixtures, Vegetable Oil, Stirring Speed, and Temperature on the Physical Properties of Organogels Sun, 21 Sep 2014 06:07:13 +0000 The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of gelator, vegetable oil, stirring speed, and temperature on the physical properties of obtained organogels. They were prepared under varying independent conditions and applying a fractional experimental design. From there a rheological characterization was developed. The physical characterization also included polarized light microscopy and calorimetric analysis. Once these data were obtained, X-Ray diffraction was applied to selected samples and a microstructure lattice was confirmed. Commonly, the only conditions that affect crystallization have been analyzed (temperature, solvent, gelator, and cooling rate). We found that stirring speed is the most important parameter in the organogel preparation. Omar Gerardo Rocha-Amador, Jose Alberto Gallegos-Infante, Qingrong Huang, Nuria Elizabeth Rocha-Guzman, Martha Rocio Moreno-Jimenez, and Ruben F. Gonzalez-Laredo Copyright © 2014 Omar Gerardo Rocha-Amador et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Vacuum Frying on Changes in Quality Attributes of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Bulb Slices Wed, 17 Sep 2014 10:34:15 +0000 The effect of frying temperatures and durations on the quality of vacuum fried jackfruit (JF) chips was evaluated. Moisture content and breaking force of JF chips decreased with increase in frying temperature and time during vacuum frying whereas the oil content increased. The frying time for JF chips was found to be 30, 25, and 20 minutes at 80, 90, and 100°C, respectively. JF chips fried at higher temperature resulted in maximum shrinkage (48%). The lightness in terms of hunter value decreased significantly () during frying. Sensory evaluation showed maximum acceptability for JF chips fried at 90°C for 25 min. Frying under vacuum at lower temperatures was found to retain bioactive compounds such as total phenolics, total flavonoids, and total carotenoids in JF chips. Almost 90% of carotenoids were lost from the samples after 30 min of frying at 100°C. Tanushree Maity, A. S. Bawa, and P. S. Raju Copyright © 2014 Tanushree Maity et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads Sun, 14 Sep 2014 13:10:43 +0000 Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW) breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), and lecithin (LC); and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin) were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50). Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13%) and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27%) compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking. Maria Eduardo, Ulf Svanberg, and Lilia Ahrné Copyright © 2014 Maria Eduardo et al. All rights reserved. Improvement of the Quality and the Shelf Life of the High Oxygen Modified Atmosphere Packaged Veal by Superficial Spraying with Dihydroquercetin Solution Wed, 10 Sep 2014 06:17:01 +0000 The improvement of quality and the shelf life of veal by combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions was studied. The control samples C, air packaged only, D, air packaged sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, MAP, modified atmosphere packaging only, BMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% butylated hydroxytoluene solution, and DMAP, modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution, were measured. The best results were obtained in modified atmosphere packaging sprayed by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution. Comparisons with control samples were expressed as reduction in acid value with 27.72%, peroxide value with 64.74%, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with 65.71%, and the pH with 6.18%. The acid and peroxide values, TBARS, and pH were decreased linearly in response when applying the combination of 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaging and superficial spraying with 0.02% dihydroquercetin solutions . The changes of amino nitrogen content of modified atmosphere packaging veal were not influenced statistically significantly by 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution . According to results obtained it was concluded that 80%O2/20%CO2 modified atmosphere packaged veal stored at °C after 0.02% dihydroquercetin solution treatment can preserve its quality and shelf life to 15 d postmortem. Stefan Georgiev Dragoev, Alexandar Stoyanov Staykov, Kiril Petrov Vassilev, Dessislav Kostadinov Balev, and Dessislava Borislavova Vlahova-Vangelova Copyright © 2014 Stefan Georgiev Dragoev et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Vision Sensing System for Tomato Quality Detection Thu, 04 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Producing tomato is a daunting task as the crop of tomato is exposed to attacks from various microorganisms. The symptoms of the attacks are usually changed in color, bacterial spots, special kind of specks, and sunken areas with concentric rings having different colors on the tomato outer surface. This paper addresses a vision sensing based system for tomato quality inspection. A novel approach has been developed for tomato fruit detection and disease detection. Developed system consists of USB based camera module having 12.0 megapixel interfaced with ARM-9 processor. Zigbee module has been interfaced with developed system for wireless transmission from host system to PC based server for further processing. Algorithm development consists of three major steps, preprocessing steps like noise rejection, segmentation and scaling, classification and recognition, and automatic disease detection and classification. Tomato samples have been collected from local market and data acquisition has been performed for data base preparation and various processing steps. Developed system can detect as well as classify the various diseases in tomato samples. Various pattern recognition and soft computing techniques have been implemented for data analysis as well as different parameters prediction like shelf life of the tomato, quality index based on disease detection and classification, freshness detection, maturity index detection, and different suggestions for detected diseases. Results are validated with aroma sensing technique using commercial Alpha Mos 3000 system. Accuracy has been calculated from extracted results, which is around 92%. Satyam Srivastava, Sachin Boyat, and Shashikant Sadistap Copyright © 2014 Satyam Srivastava et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Hydroxypropylation on Functional Properties of Different Cultivars of Sweet Potato Starch in Sri Lanka Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:46:32 +0000 Starches obtained from different cultivars of sweet potatoes commonly consumed in Sri Lanka, were chemically modified with hydroxypropyl substitution, to analyze the changes in the physicochemical properties. Significant changes () in the crude digestibility level, thermal properties, and the water separation (syneresis) of starch gels (7.0% db) during cold and frozen storage were observed due to the modification. Hydroxypropylation increased the gel stability, water solubility, digestibility, and storage stability of the native starches in the cold storage to a significant level. Lowered gelatinization and retrogradation enthalpies as well as gelatinization temperature were observed for derivatized starches compared to the native starch. Low levels of pasting stability with increased levels of breakdown and reduced cold paste viscosity were observed in the hydroxypropylated starch samples except for the Malaysian cultivar (S5). Chemically modified starch gels stored under cold storage did not show a syneresis for two weeks in the cycle and the frozen storage showed much improved stability in the starch gels within the four-week cycle. Chemical modification of sweet potato starch with hydroxyl propyl substitution can enhance the functional characteristics of the native starch which will improve its potential application in the food industry. Suraji Senanayake, Anil Gunaratne, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, and Arthur Bamunuarachchi Copyright © 2014 Suraji Senanayake et al. All rights reserved. Rheological Characterization of Isabgol Husk, Gum Katira Hydrocolloids, and Their Blends Mon, 25 Aug 2014 08:03:14 +0000 The rheological parameters of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends were determined in different media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The blend properties of Isabgol husk and gum katira were measured for four different percentage compositions in order to understand their compatibility in dispersion form such as 00 : 100, 25 : 50, 50 : 50, 75 : 25, and 100 : 00 in the gel strength of 1 mass%. The miscibility of blends was determined by calculating Isabgol husk-gum katira interaction parameters by Krigbaum and Wall equation. Other rheological properties were analyzed by Bingham, Power, Casson, Casson chocolate, and IPC paste analysis. The study revealed that the power flow index “p” was less than “1” in all concentrations of Isabgol husk, gum katira, and their blends dispersions indicating the shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behavior. All blends followed pseudoplastic behavior at thermal conditions as 298.15, 313.15, and 333.15°K and in dispersion media such as distilled water, 0.1 N HCl, and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Moreover, the study indicated the applicability of these blends in the development of drug delivery systems and in industries, for example, ice-cream, paste, nutraceutical, and so forth. Vipin Kumar Sharma, Bhaskar Mazumder, and Vinod Nautiyal Copyright © 2014 Vipin Kumar Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:32:39 +0000 Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. Pushkala Ramachandran and Srividya Nagarajan Copyright © 2014 Pushkala Ramachandran and Srividya Nagarajan. All rights reserved. Comparative Study of Raw and Boiled Silver Pomfret Fish from Coastal Area and Retail Market in Relation to Trace Metals and Proximate Composition Tue, 12 Aug 2014 13:13:24 +0000 Trace metals concentration and proximate composition of raw and boiled silver pomfret (Pampus argenteus) from coastal area and retail market were determined to gain the knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with indiscriminate consumption of marine fishes. The effects of cooking (boiling) on trace metal and proximate composition of silver pomfret fish were also investigated. Trace element results were determined by the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer wherein fish samples from both areas exceeded the standard limits set by FAO/WHO for manganese, lead, cadmiumm and chromium and boiling has no significant effects on these three metal concentrations. Long-term intake of these contaminated fish samples can pose a health risk to humans who consume them. Roksana Huque, M. Kamruzzaman Munshi, Afifa Khatun, Mahfuza Islam, Afzal Hossain, Arzina Hossain, Shirin Akter, Jamiul Kabir, Yeasmin Nahar Jolly, and Ashraful Islam Copyright © 2014 Roksana Huque et al. All rights reserved. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends Mon, 11 Aug 2014 08:08:12 +0000 Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah, Helen Shnada Auta, Mercy Oluwayemisi Aduloju, and Sesan Abiodun Aransiola Copyright © 2014 Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah et al. All rights reserved. Spray Dried Extract of Phormidium valderianum as a Promising Source of Natural Antioxidant Sun, 10 Aug 2014 11:23:55 +0000 Microencapsulation of antioxidant-rich fraction obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (at 50°C, 500 bar with extraction time of 90 min, and flow rate of CO2 at 2 L/min) of lyophilized biomass of Phormidium valderianum was carried out in a spray dryer using maltodextrin and gum arabic. Microencapsulation conditions that provided the best combination of phytochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and reducing power with reasonable powder yield were an inlet temperature of 130°C and wall material composition as maltodextrin: gum arabic = 70 : 30. Toxicological study reported that the Anatoxin-a content of this encapsulated powder was below the limit of detection of HPLC. Storage study established that encapsulation of this antioxidant-rich algal extract resulted in eight times enhancement of half-life () values. The release profile of microencapsulated antioxidant-rich fraction from the encapsulated powder was found to follow first order anomalous transport kinetics. Therefore, this microencapsulated algal extract with minimum toxicity is a source of natural antioxidant and could have promising use as novel dietary supplement. Dipan Chatterjee, Paramita Bhattacharjee, Gour Gopal Satpati, and Ruma Pal Copyright © 2014 Dipan Chatterjee et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species Mon, 23 Jun 2014 07:55:39 +0000 This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. Negero Gemeda, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Daniel Asrat, and Asfaw Debella Copyright © 2014 Negero Gemeda et al. All rights reserved. Dissolution of Lipid-Based Matrices in Simulated Gastrointestinal Solutions to Evaluate Their Potential for the Encapsulation of Bioactive Ingredients for Foods Thu, 12 Jun 2014 08:41:03 +0000 The goal of the study was to compare the dissolution of chocolate to other lipid-based matrices suitable for the microencapsulation of bioactive ingredients in simulated gastrointestinal solutions. Particles having approximately 750 μm or 2.5 mm were prepared from the following lipid-based matrices: cocoa butter, fractionated palm kernel oil (FPKO), chocolate, beeswax, carnauba wax, and paraffin. They were added to solutions designed to simulate gastric secretions (GS) or duodenum secretions (DS) at 37°C. Paraffin, carnauba wax, and bees wax did not dissolve in either the GS or DS media. Cocoa butter, FPKO, and chocolate dissolved in the DS medium. Cocoa butter, and to a lesser extent chocolate, also dissolved in the GS medium. With chocolate, dissolution was twice as fast as that with small particles (750 μm) as compared to the larger (2.5 mm) ones. With 750 μm particle sizes, 90% dissolution of chocolate beads was attained after only 60 minutes in the DS medium, while it took 120 minutes for 70% of FPKO beads to dissolve in the same conditions. The data are discussed from the perspective of controlled release in the gastrointestinal tract of encapsulated ingredients (minerals, oils, probiotic bacteria, enzymes, vitamins, and peptides) used in the development of functional foods. Yves Raymond and Claude P. Champagne Copyright © 2014 Yves Raymond and Claude P. Champagne. All rights reserved. Determination of Trace Metals and Essential Minerals in Selected Fruit Juices in Minna, Nigeria Thu, 12 Jun 2014 07:13:50 +0000 Levels of trace metals and essential minerals in selected fruit juice samples purchased from Minna were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and Flame photometer. From the obtained result, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were present in all the samples, while Cd, Pb, and Cr were not detectable in all the samples. Concentrations of K range between 1.31 ± 0.10 and 41.20 ± 0.10 mg/100 mL, Na between 15.47 ± 0.15 and 3.50 ± 0.20 mg/100 mL, Mn between Nd and 0.27 ± 0.08 mg/100 mL, Fe between Nd and 0.90 ± 0.05 mg/100 mL, Cu between Nd-0.60 ± 0.00 mg/100 mL, and Zn between Nd-0.09 ± 0.01 mg/100 mL, respectively. The trace metal levels in all the samples were within permissible limit as recommended by WHO for edible foods and drinks and could therefore be taken to compliment the deficiency of these essential minerals from other food sources. A. I. Ajai, S. S. Ochigbo, Z. Abdullahi, and P. I. Anigboro Copyright © 2014 A. I. Ajai et al. All rights reserved. Ripening of Sudanese Braided (Muddaffara) Cheese Manufactured from Raw or Pasteurized Milk: Effect of Heat Treatment and Salt Concentration on the Physicochemical Properties Thu, 22 May 2014 12:32:51 +0000 The objective of the study was to investigate the interactive effect of heat treatment (raw or pasteurized milk), ripening in salted whey (SW) and storage period for up to 3 months on the physicochemical properties of Sudanese braided cheese (SBC). Braided cheeses were manufactured from raw (BCRM) and pasteurized (BCPM) milk and ripened in SW (0%, 5%, and 10% salt) for up to 90 days. All the treatments significantly () affected the physicochemical characteristics of SBC. The total solid, protein, and fat contents of BCRM or BCPM decreased (), whereas their TA, SN, and salt contents increased significantly () as storage period and the salt level of the whey were elevated. Both FRI and SRI of BCRM and BCPM increased with the increase in storage period and the salt level of the whey. For SN, FRI, SRI, pH, and moisture contents the magnitude of the change was more pronounced in BCRM than in BCPM, while for protein, fat, salt, and TS contents, the opposite was true; that is, the magnitude of the change was more pronounced in BCPM than in BCRM. Further studies are required to standardize muddaffara cheese manufacturing procedure particularly in rural areas. Mohamed O. E. Altahir, Elgasim A. Elgasim, and Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Mohamed O. E. Altahir et al. All rights reserved. Fruit Leathers: Method of Preparation and Effect of Different Conditions on Qualities Sun, 04 May 2014 12:49:07 +0000 Fruit leathers are dehydrated fruit products which are eaten as snacks or desserts. They are flexible sheets that have a concentrated fruit flavor and nutritional aspects. Most fruit leathers are prepared by mixing fruit puree and other additives like sugar, pectin, acid, glucose syrup, color, and potassium metabisulphite and then dehydrating them under specific conditions. Various drying systems including combined convective and far-infrared drying, hot air drying, microwave drying, solar drying, and sun drying have been used to make fruit leathers. Most fruit leathers are dried at 30 to 80°C for up to 24 hours until the target final moisture content (12–20%) has been reached. Research about fruit leathers began in the 1970s. This work has reviewed published papers on fruit leathers in order to summarize useful information about fruit leathers on methods of preparation, effects of drying condition, and effects of packaging and storage, which will be useful to many in the food industry and consumers who are health-conscious. Lemuel M. Diamante, Xue Bai, and Janette Busch Copyright © 2014 Lemuel M. Diamante et al. All rights reserved.