International Journal of Food Science The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran Wed, 16 Apr 2014 14:20:10 +0000 A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages . Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly , while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages . The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages . Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran . The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran. Fatemeh Malekian, Margarita Khachaturyan, Sebhatu Gebrelul, and James F. Henson Copyright © 2014 Fatemeh Malekian et al. All rights reserved. Food Safety Challenges towards Safe, Healthy, and Nutritious Street Foods in Bangladesh Tue, 08 Apr 2014 09:05:10 +0000 The street foods play an important socioeconomic role in meeting food and nutritional requirements of city consumers at affordable prices to the lower and middle income people. The number of food poisoning notifications rose steadily worldwide since the inception of E. coli O157:H7 outbreak in the 1980s to date. This may be partly attributed to improved surveillance, increased global trade and travel, changes in modern food production, the impact of modern lifestyles, changes in food consumption, and the emergence of new pathogens. Consumer’s knowledge and attitude may influence food safety behavior and practice. For the sake of public health, it is important to understand the epidemiology of foodborne illnesses that help in prevention and control efforts, appropriately allocating resources to control foodborne illness, monitoring and evaluation of food safety measures, development of new food safety standards, and assessment of the cost-effectiveness of interventions. This review paper described the sociodemographic characteristics, common hazards, and occupational hazards of street food vendors, microbial risk associated with street food, food safety interventions and control measures, regulatory aspects and legal requirements, financial constraints, and attitudes. Md. Khairuzzaman, Fatema Moni Chowdhury, Sharmin Zaman, Arafat Al Mamun, and Md. Latiful Bari Copyright © 2014 Md. Khairuzzaman et al. All rights reserved. Chemical and Functional Properties of Chia Seed (Salvia hispanica L.) Gum Sun, 23 Mar 2014 15:28:01 +0000 Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) constitutes a potential alternative raw material and ingredient in food industry applications due to its dietary fiber content. Gum can be extracted from its dietary fiber fractions for use as an additive to control viscosity, stability, texture, and consistency in food systems. The gum extracted from chia seeds was characterized to determine their quality and potential as functional food additives. The extracted chia gum contained 26.2% fat and a portion was submitted to fat extraction, producing two fractions: gum with fat (FCG) and gum partly defatted (PDCG). Proximal composition and physicochemical characterization showed these fractions to be different (). The PDCG had higher protein, ash, and carbohydrates content than the FCG, in addition to higher water-holding (110.5 g water/g fiber) and water-binding capacities (0.84 g water/g fiber). The FCG had greater oil-holding capacity (25.7 g oil/g fiber) and water absorption capacity (44 g water/g fiber). In dispersion trials, the gums exhibited a non-Newtonian fluid behavior, specifically shear thinning or pseudoplastic type. PDCG had more viscosity than FCG. Chia seed is an excellent natural source of gum with good physicochemical and functional qualities, and is very promising for use in food industry. Maira Rubi Segura-Campos, Norma Ciau-Solís, Gabriel Rosado-Rubio, Luis Chel-Guerrero, and David Betancur-Ancona Copyright © 2014 Maira Rubi Segura-Campos et al. All rights reserved. Arsenic Species in Edible Seaweeds Using In Vitro Biomimetic Digestion Determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Sun, 09 Mar 2014 11:17:51 +0000 Arsenite [As (III)], arsenate [As (V)], methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) in five edible seaweeds (the brown algae Laminaria japonica, red algae Porphyra yezoensis, brown algae Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, and green algae Enteromorpha prolifera) were analyzed using in vitro digestion method determined by high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that DMA was found in the water extracts of all samples; As (III) were detected in L. japonica and U. pinnatifida and about 23.0 and 0.15 mg/kg of As (V) were found in H. fusiformis and E. prolifera respectively. However, after the gastrointestinal digestion, As (V) was not detected in any of the five seaweeds. About 0.19 and 1.47 mg/kg of As (III) was detected in the gastric extracts of L. japonica and H. fusiformis, respectively, and about 0.31 and 0.10 mg/kg of As (III) were extracted from the intestinal extracts of Porphyra yezoensis and U. pinnatifida, respectively. The present results successfully reveal the differences of As species and levels in the water and biomimetic extracts of five edible seaweeds. The risk assessment of the inorganic arsenic in the five edible seaweeds based on present data showed almost no hazards to human health. Yan-Fang Zhao, Ji-Fa Wu, De-Rong Shang, Jin-Song Ning, Hai-Yan Ding, and Yu-Xiu Zhai Copyright © 2014 Yan-Fang Zhao et al. All rights reserved. Rheological and Quality Characteristics of Taftoon Bread as Affected by Salep and Persian Gums Thu, 23 Jan 2014 13:22:40 +0000 Effects of salep gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/w flour basis) and the Persian gum at concentrations of 0.5%, 1%, and 3% (w/w flour basis) and combination of the two gums at concentrations of 0.5% + 0.5%, 0.75% + 0.25%, and 0.25% + 0.75% on rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and quality of Taftoon bread were studied with regard to retardation of staling. Rheological (farinograph and extensograph) characteristics, staling, and organoleptic evaluations were performed on the dough and the resulting Taftoon bread. Statistical results showed that the salep gum at 5% and Persian gum at 3% (w/w flour basis) had a significant effect on the dough properties. Salep and Persian gums when each separately added increased and decreased dough water absorption, respectively. Both hydrocolloids increased the dough resistance to extension and decreased its extensibility. Persian gum shows dual nature in water absorption and some other baking properties. Textural studies revealed that addition of 5% salep gum (w/w flour basis) reduced the bread crumb firmness and delayed the staling process of the Taftoon bread. X-ray diffraction study also confirmed this result. M. A. Sahari, R. Mohammadi, and Z. Hamidi Esfehani Copyright © 2014 M. A. Sahari et al. All rights reserved. Quality Assessment and Physicochemical Characteristics of Bran Enriched Chapattis Thu, 02 Jan 2014 14:54:18 +0000 Cereal brans singly and in combination were blended at varying levels (5 and 10%) for development of Chapattis. Cereal bran enriched Chapattis were assessed for quality and physicochemical characteristics. On the basis of quality assessment, 10% enrichment level for Chapatti was the best. Moisture content, water activity, and free fatty acids remained stable during the study period. Quality assessment and physicochemical characteristics of bran enriched Chapattis carried out revealed that dough handling and puffing of bran enriched Chapattis prepared by 5 and 10% level of bran supplementation did not vary significantly. All types of bran enriched Chapattis except rice bran enriched Chapattis showed nonsticky behavior during dough handling. Bran enriched Chapattis exhibited full puffing character during preparation. The sensory attributes showed that both 5 and 10% bran supplemented Chapattis were acceptable. B. N. Dar, Savita Sharma, Baljit Singh, and Gurkirat Kaur Copyright © 2014 B. N. Dar et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Acidity, TSS, and Sugar Content at Different Storage Periods of the Postharvest Mango (Mangifera indica L.) Influenced by Bavistin DF Sun, 29 Dec 2013 14:20:06 +0000 A detailed study was carried out with the postharvest mangoes (namely, the Langra and the Khirshapat) treated with different levels of Bavistin DF (BDF) solution (namely, 250, 500, and 750 ppm) for obtaining results on biochemical changes as well as storability of postharvest mango. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates. The results of the experiments exhibited that only the single effect of varieties was found to be significant in most of the parameters studied. The Langra enriched a greater quantity of titratable acidity and total soluble solid (TSS) at 3rd day, over the Khirshapat. On the other hand, Khirshapat showed increased pulp pH and TSS at all the storage duration. The results explored that some physicochemical properties, namely, pulp pH, TSS, sugar (total, reducing, and nonreducing), and titratable acidity along with shelf life drastically decreased from untreated mangoes. Bavistin DF with the doses of 750 ppm showed better results in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and extended shelf life. Md. Khairul Islam, M. Z. H. Khan, M. A. R. Sarkar, Nurul Absar, and S. K. Sarkar Copyright © 2013 Md. Khairul Islam et al. All rights reserved. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup Tue, 24 Dec 2013 08:59:58 +0000 Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world’s high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of %. The SPSS had significantly higher () mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups’ peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth. Brunson Dominque, Peter N. Gichuhi, Vijay Rangari, and Adelia C. Bovell-Benjamin Copyright © 2013 Brunson Dominque et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics Mon, 07 Oct 2013 18:25:58 +0000 This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina). Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour) and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina) were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C) but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU). Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45%) when compared with control (44.9%) as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N) when compared with control (2.304 N), and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta. B. Dhiraj and P. Prabhasankar Copyright © 2013 B. Dhiraj and P. Prabhasankar. All rights reserved. Predicting the Quality of Pasteurized Vegetables Using Kinetic Models: A Review Thu, 26 Sep 2013 10:41:20 +0000 A resurgence in interest examining thermal pasteurization technologies has been driven by demands for “cleaner” labeling and the need of organic and natural foods markets for suitable preventive measures to impede microbial growth and extend shelf life of minimally processed foods and ready-to-eat foods with a concomitant reduction in the use of chemical preservatives. This review describes the effects of thermal pasteurization on vegetable quality attributes including altering flavor and texture to improve consumer acceptability, stabilizing color, improving digestibility, palatability and retaining bioavailability of important nutrients, and bioactive compounds. Here, we provide kinetic parameters for inactivation of viral and bacterial pathogens and their surrogates and marker enzymes used to monitor process effectiveness in a variety of plant food items. Data on thermal processing protocols leading to higher retention and bioactivity are also presented. Thermal inactivation of foodborne viruses and pathogenic bacteria, specifically at lower pasteurization temperatures or via new technologies such as dielectric heating, can lead to greater retention of “fresh-like” properties. Muhammad Aamir, Mahmoudreza Ovissipour, Shyam S. Sablani, and Barbara Rasco Copyright © 2013 Muhammad Aamir et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Sat, 14 Sep 2013 10:59:26 +0000 Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium) were exposed to surfactants (single and combined) in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium) with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies. Paula A. Araújo, Madalena Lemos, Filipe Mergulhão, Luís Melo, and Manuel Simões Copyright © 2013 Paula A. Araújo et al. All rights reserved. Survivability of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Cooked Rice, Coffee, and Tea Thu, 25 Jul 2013 10:31:26 +0000 This study aimed to investigate the survival of Vibrio cholerae O1 in 3 types of preparation for cooked rice, Oryza sativa L., (plain rice, rice with coconut milk, and rice with ginger); coffee, Coffea canephora, (plain coffee, coffee with sugar, and coffee with sweetened condensed milk); and tea, Camellia sinensis, (plain tea, tea with sugar, and tea with sweetened condensed milk) held at room temperature (27°C). The survival of V. cholerae O1 was determined by spread plate method on TCBS agar. Initial cultures of 8.00 log CFU/mL were inoculated into each food sample. After 6 h incubation, significant growth was only detected in rice with coconut milk (9.67 log CFU/mL; ). However, all 3 types of rice preparation showed significant growth of V. cholerae after 24 h (). For coffee and tea preparations, V. cholerae survived up to 6 h in tea with condensed milk (4.72 log CFU/mL) but not in similar preparation of coffee. This study showed evidence for the survivability of V. cholerae in rice, coffee, and tea. Thus, holding these food and beverages for an extended period of time at room temperature should be avoided. John Yew Huat Tang, Bariah Ibrahim Izenty, Ahmad Juanda Nur’ Izzati, Siti Rahmah Masran, Chew Chieng Yeo, Arshad Roslan, and Che Abdullah Abu Bakar Copyright © 2013 John Yew Huat Tang et al. All rights reserved. Peanut Allergy, Allergen Composition, and Methods of Reducing Allergenicity: A Review Sun, 21 Jul 2013 13:55:30 +0000 Peanut allergy affects 1-2% of the world's population. It is dangerous, and usually lifelong, and it greatly decreases the life quality of peanut-allergic individuals and their families. In a word, peanut allergy has become a major health concern worldwide. Thirteen peanut allergens are identified, and they are briefly introduced in this paper. Although there is no feasible solution to peanut allergy at present, many methods have shown great promise. This paper reviews methods of reducing peanut allergenicity, including physical methods (heat and pressure, PUV), chemical methods (tannic acid and magnetic beads), and biological methods (conventional breeding, irradiation breeding, genetic engineering, enzymatic treatment, and fermentation). Yang Zhou, Jin-shui Wang, Xiao-jia Yang, Dan-hua Lin, Yun-fang Gao, Yin-jie Su, Sen Yang, Yan-jie Zhang, and Jing-jing Zheng Copyright © 2013 Yang Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Fermented Cassava Flour “Lafun” Available in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria Tue, 09 Jul 2013 10:30:29 +0000 The microorganisms involved in the fermentation and spoilage of fermented cassava flour were investigated. The water samples used at the different processing sites were also investigated to determine their safety status. There was predominance of Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus spp., and Escherichia coli in all samples. Coliforms were observed to be present in all of the processing water. In the fermented cassava flour, the total bacterial count ranged between  cfu/mL from Eleso, Bakatari, and Oja Odan processing sites and  cfu/mL in Eruku processing site. The majority of the microorganisms involved in the spoilage of “lafun” were found to be Aspergillus niger which ranged between  cfu/mL in Eleso and  cfu/mL in Kila. The control sample prepared in the laboratory had a low microbial load compared to samples collected from various sites and markets. A. O. Adebayo-Oyetoro, O. B. Oyewole, A. O. Obadina, and M. A. Omemu Copyright © 2013 A. O. Adebayo-Oyetoro et al. All rights reserved. Bioactivity of Nonedible Parts of Punica granatum L.: A Potential Source of Functional Ingredients Mon, 08 Jul 2013 15:56:09 +0000 Punica granatum L. has a long standing culinary and medicinal traditional use in Mauritius. This prompted a comparative study to determine the bioefficacy of the flower, peel, leaf, stem, and seed extracts of the Mauritian P. granatum. The flower and peel extracts resulting from organic solvent extraction exhibited strong antioxidant activities which correlated with the high levels of total phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The peel extract had the most potent scavenging capacity reflected by high Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity value ( μmol/g air dry weight), very low IC50 values for hypochlorous acid ( mg air dry weight/mL), and hydroxyl radicals scavenging ( mg air dry weight/mL). Peel extracts also significantly inhibited S. mutans (), S. mitis (), and L. acidophilus () growth compared to ciprofloxacin. The flower extract exhibited high ferric reducing, nitric oxide scavenging, and iron (II) ions chelation and significantly inhibited microsomal lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, it showed a dose-dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase with an IC50 value of  mg air dry weight/mL. This study showed that nonedible parts of cultivated pomegranates, that are generally discarded, are bioactive in multiassay systems thereby suggesting their potential use as natural prophylactics and in food applications. Nawraj Rummun, Jhoti Somanah, Srishti Ramsaha, Theeshan Bahorun, and Vidushi S. Neergheen-Bhujun Copyright © 2013 Nawraj Rummun et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cholesterol Removal Processing Using β-Cyclodextrin on Main Components of Milk Tue, 25 Jun 2013 16:58:23 +0000 Various concentrations (0%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) of β-CD were mixed with different fat contents (1%, 2.5% and 3%) of raw (unhomogenized) and homogenized milk at two mixing temperatures of 8 and 20°C. The cholesterol residue, fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat (SNF), density, and ash content of milk were measured for each treatment. The results statistically analysed and showed that the cholesterol content of milk remarkably decreased as the β-CD was increased particularly in homogenized milk at 20°C. However, the reduction rate of cholesterol was decreased when extra β-CD was added due to its intermolecular reactions. The maximum cholesterol reduction was achieved at the level of 1% β-CD. The fat content, SNF, protein, lactose, and density content were decreased with increasing β-CD whereas it did not affect ash content. A. M. Maskooki, S. H. R. Beheshti, S. Valibeigi, and J. Feizi Copyright © 2013 A. M. Maskooki et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Production of Xylitol from Corncob by Pachysolen tannophilus Using Response Surface Methodology Wed, 19 Jun 2013 14:00:05 +0000 Optimization of the culture medium and process variables for xylitol production using corncob hemicellulose hydrolysate by Pachysolen tannophilus (MTTC 1077) was performed with statistical methodology based on experimental designs. The screening of nine nutrients for their influence on xylitol production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. Peptone, xylose, MgSO4·7H2O, and yeast extract were selected based on their positive influence on xylitol production. The selected components were optimized with Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum levels (g/L) were peptone: 6.03, xylose: 10.62, MgSO4·7H2O: 1.39, yeast extract: 4.66. The influence of various process variables on the xylitol production was evaluated. The optimal levels of these variables were quantified by the central composite design using RSM, for establishment of a significant mathematical model with a coefficient determination of . The validation experimental was consistent with the prediction model. The optimum levels of process variables were temperature (36.56°C), pH (7.27), substrate concentration (3.55 g/L), inoculum size (3.69 mL), and agitation speed (194.44 rpm). These conditions were validated experimentally which revealed an enhanced xylitol yield of 0.80 g/g. S. Ramesh, R. Muthuvelayudham, R. Rajesh Kannan, and T. Viruthagiri Copyright © 2013 S. Ramesh et al. All rights reserved. Retrogradation of Waxy Rice Starch Gel in the Vicinity of the Glass Transition Temperature Thu, 06 Jun 2013 11:33:39 +0000 The retrogradation rate of waxy rice starch gel was investigated during storage at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition temperature of a maximally concentrated system (), as it was hypothesized that such temperatures might cause different effects on retrogradation. The value of fully gelatinized waxy rice starch gel with 50% water content and the enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin in the gels were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. Starch gels were frozen to −30°C and stored at 4, 0, −3, −5, and −8°C for 5 days. The results indicated that the value of gelatinized starch gel annealed at −7°C for 15 min was −3.5°C. Waxy rice starch gels retrograded significantly when stored at 4°C with a decrease in the enthalpy of melting retrograded starch in samples stored for 5 days at −3, −5, and −8°C, respectively, perhaps due to the more rigid glass matrix and less molecular mobility facilitating starch chain recrystallization at temperatures below . This suggests that retardation of retrogradation of waxy rice starch gel can be achieved at temperature below . Sanguansri Charoenrein and Sunsanee Udomrati Copyright © 2013 Sanguansri Charoenrein and Sunsanee Udomrati. All rights reserved. Identification of Imitation Cheese and Imitation Ice Cream Based on Vegetable Fat Using NMR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics Thu, 06 Jun 2013 09:35:59 +0000 Vegetable oils and fats may be used as cheap substitutes for milk fat to manufacture imitation cheese or imitation ice cream. In this study, 400 MHz nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the fat fraction of the products was used in the context of food surveillance to validate the labeling of milk-based products. For sample preparation, the fat was extracted using an automated Weibull-Stoldt methodology. Using principal component analysis (PCA), imitation products can be easily detected. In both cheese and ice cream, a differentiation according to the type of raw material (milk fat and vegetable fat) was possible. The loadings plot shows that imitation products were distinguishable by differences in their fatty acid ratios. Furthermore, a differentiation of several types of cheese (Edamer, Gouda, Emmentaler, and Feta) was possible. Quantitative data regarding the composition of the investigated products can also be predicted from the same spectra using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models obtained for 13 compounds in cheese ( 0.75–0.95) and 17 compounds in ice cream ( 0.83–0.99) (e.g., fatty acids and esters) were suitable for a screening analysis. NMR spectroscopy was judged as suitable for the routine analysis of dairy products based on milk or on vegetable fat substitutes. Yulia B. Monakhova, Rolf Godelmann, Claudia Andlauer, Thomas Kuballa, and Dirk W. Lachenmeier Copyright © 2013 Yulia B. Monakhova et al. All rights reserved. Polydextrose Enhances Calcium Absorption and Bone Retention in Ovariectomized Rats Sat, 25 May 2013 15:54:04 +0000 Purpose. To evaluate the effect of polydextrose (PDX) on Ca bioavailability and prevention of loss of bone mass. Methods. Twenty-four two-month-old ovariectomized rats were fed three isocaloric diets only varied in fiber source and content up to 60 days (FOS group, a commercial mixture of short- and long-chain fructooligosaccharide, OVX group fed AIN 93 diet, and PDX group). A SHAM group was included as control. Apparent Ca absorption percentage (%ABS), changes in total skeleton bone mineral content (tsBMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) and femur BMD, % Bone Volume, Ca and organic femur content, caecal weight, and pH were evaluated. Results. %ABS and caecum weight of PDX and FOS were higher, and caecum pH was lower compared to OVX and SHAM. PDX reached a higher pH and lower caecum weight than FOS possibly because PDX is not completely fermented in the colon. Changes in tsBMC and femur BMD in FOS and PDX were significant lower than SHAM but significantly higher than OVX. % Bone Volume and femur % of Ca in PDX were significantly higher than OVX and FOS but lower than SHAM. Conclusions. PDX increased Ca absorption and prevented bone loss in OVX rats. Adriana R. Weisstaub, Victoria Abdala, Macarena Gonzales Chaves, Patricia Mandalunis, Ángela Zuleta, and Susana Zeni Copyright © 2013 Adriana R. Weisstaub et al. All rights reserved. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains Thu, 23 May 2013 17:59:31 +0000 The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27%) were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C) and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19%) on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC), radial expansion (), specific volume (SV), water absorption (WA), and solubility () were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp.) than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g) and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g). Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18). Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution. Rolando José González, Elena Pastor Cavada, Javier Vioque Peña, Roberto Luis Torres, Dardo Mario De Greef, and Silvina Rosa Drago Copyright © 2013 Rolando José González et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Dried Plum Puree, Rosemary Extract, and BHA/BHT as Antioxidants in Irradiated Ground Beef Patties Thu, 23 May 2013 17:56:50 +0000 Fresh ground beef patties with (1) no antioxidant (control), (2) 0.02% butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene (BHA/BHT), (3) 3% dried plum puree, or (4) 0.25% rosemary extract were aerobically packaged, irradiated at target doses of 0, 1.5, or 2.0 kGy (1.7 and 2.3 kGy actual doses), and stored at C. The samples were evaluated for lipid oxidation on 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage after irradiation. When compared to the control, all antioxidant treatments were effective in retarding () irradiation-induced lipid oxidation during storage as determined by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) values. Rosemary extracts had the same antioxidant effect () as BHA/BHT in irradiated and nonirradiated beef patties, followed by the dried plum puree treatment. Irradiation increased TBARs values, but no differences were noted in oxidation between irradiation dose levels. Iulia Movileanu, Máryuri T. Núñez de González, Brian Hafley, Rhonda K. Miller, and Jimmy T. Keeton Copyright © 2013 Iulia Movileanu et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Extraction Conditions on the Antioxidant Activity of Olive Wood Extracts Tue, 21 May 2013 11:18:46 +0000 An investigation to optimize the extraction yield and the radical scavenging activity from the agricultural by-product olive tree wood (Olea europaea L., cultivar Picual) using six different extraction protocols was carried out. Four olive wood samples from different geographical origin, and harvesting time have been used for comparison purposes. Among the fifty olive wood extracts obtained in this study, the most active ones were those prepared with ethyl acetate, either through direct extraction or by successive liquid-liquid partitioning procedures, the main components being the secoiridoids oleuropein and ligustroside. An acid hydrolysis pretreatment of olive wood samples before extractions did not improve the results. In the course of this study, two compounds were isolated from the ethanolic extracts of olive wood collected during the olives’ harvesting season and identified as (7′′R)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (1) and (7′′S)-7′′-ethoxyoleuropein (2). Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla, Sofía Salido, Adolfo Sánchez, Teris A. van Beek, and Joaquín Altarejos Copyright © 2013 Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla et al. All rights reserved. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides of Chia (Salvia hispanica) Produced by Enzymatic Hydrolysis Tue, 21 May 2013 09:53:47 +0000 Synthetic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibitors can have undesirable side effects, while natural inhibitors have no side effects and are potential nutraceuticals. A protein-rich fraction from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed was hydrolyzed with an Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequential system and the hydrolysate ultrafiltered through four molecular weight cut-off membranes (1 kDa, 3 kDa, 5 kDa, and 10 kDa). ACE-I inhibitory activity was quantified in the hydrolysate and ultrafiltered fractions. The hydrolysate was extensive (DH = 51.64%) and had 58.46% ACE-inhibitory activity. Inhibition ranged from 53.84% to 69.31% in the five ultrafiltered fractions and was highest in the <1 kDa fraction (69.31%). This fraction’s amino acid composition was identified and then it was purified by gel filtration chromatography and ACE-I inhibition measured in the purified fractions. Amino acid composition suggested that hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to chia peptide ACE-I inhibitory strength, probably by blocking angiotensin II production. Inhibitory activity ranged from 48.41% to 62.58% in the purified fractions, but fraction F1 (1.5–2.5 kDa) exhibited the highest inhibition (IC50 = 3.97 μg/mL; 427–455 mL elution volume). The results point out the possibility of obtaining bioactive peptides from chia proteins by means of a controlled protein hydrolysis using Alcalase-Flavourzyme sequentional system. Maira Rubi Segura Campos, Fanny Peralta González, Luis Chel Guerrero, and David Betancur Ancona Copyright © 2013 Maira Rubi Segura Campos et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types Mon, 20 May 2013 13:06:23 +0000 Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin) added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w) according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread. Maria Eduardo, Ulf Svanberg, Jorge Oliveira, and Lilia Ahrné Copyright © 2013 Maria Eduardo et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Maltodextrins on the Rheological Properties of Potato Starch Pastes and Gels Mon, 20 May 2013 09:38:27 +0000 The study examines the effects of maltodextrins saccharified to various degrees on some rheological properties of potato starch dispersions. Pasting characteristics, flow curves, and mechanical spectra were determined for native potato starch and for its blends with potato maltodextrins having dextrose equivalents (DE) of 10.5, 18.4, and 26.5. The results showed that medium-saccharified maltodextrin (DE = 18.4) gave the strongest effect, manifesting itself as a considerable reduction in the viscosity at pasting, a decrease in apparent viscosity during flow, and a decrease in the storage and loss moduli. Addition of high-(DE = 26.5) or low-(DE = 10.5) saccharified maltodextrins had a markedly smaller effect on the rheological properties of starch. The differences in the effects produced by the maltodextrins are closely connected to the degree of polymerisation of the maltooligosaccharides in the systems. Lesław Juszczak, Dorota Gałkowska, Teresa Witczak, and Teresa Fortuna Copyright © 2013 Lesław Juszczak et al. All rights reserved. Mineral Properties and Dietary Value of Raw and Processed Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) Thu, 16 May 2013 14:39:44 +0000 Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) has a long history of usage and is currently receiving attention as a source of fiber and alternative medicine. In many cultures, nettle is also eaten as a leafy vegetable. In this study, we focused on nettle yield (edible portion) and processing effects on nutritive and dietary properties. Actively growing shoots were harvested from field plots and leaves separated from stems. Leaf portions (200 g) were washed and processed by blanching (1 min at 96–98°C) or cooking (7 min at 98-99°C) with or without salt (5 g·). Samples were cooled immediately after cooking and kept in frozen storage before analysis. Proximate composition, mineral, amino acid, and vitamin contents were determined, and nutritive value was estimated based on 100 g serving portions in a 2000 calorie diet. Results show that processed nettle can supply 90%–100% of vitamin A (including vitamin A as β-carotene) and is a good source of dietary calcium, iron, and protein. We recommend fresh or processed nettle as a high-protein, low-calorie source of essential nutrients, minerals, and vitamins particularly in vegetarian, diabetic, or other specialized diets. Laban K. Rutto, Yixiang Xu, Elizabeth Ramirez, and Michael Brandt Copyright © 2013 Laban K. Rutto et al. All rights reserved. Development of Low-Fat Soft Dough Biscuits Using Carbohydrate-Based Fat Replacers Tue, 30 Apr 2013 11:24:33 +0000 Experiments were conducted to develop low-fat soft dough biscuits using carbohydrate-based fat replacers (maltodextrin and guar gum). A central composite rotatable design was used to optimise the level of sugar 24–36%, composite fat (fat 10.5–24.5%, maltodextrin 10.4–24%, and guar gum 0.1–0.5%), ammonium bicarbonate 0.5–2.5%, and water 20–24% for production of low-fat biscuits. Diameter and stress-strain ratio decreased significantly with increase in the amount of sugar. There was a significant decrease in spread ratio at high amount of water. Hardness was significantly affected by the interactions of ammonium bicarbonate with sugar and fat . The optimum level of ingredients obtained for low-fat biscuits was sugar 31.7 g, fat 13.55 g, maltodextrin 21.15 g, guar gum 0.3 g, ammonium bicarbonate 2.21 g, and water 21 mL based on 100 g flour. The fat level in the optimised low-fat biscuit formulation was found to be 8.48% as compared to 22.65% in control; therefore, the reduction in fat was 62.5%. Bhawna Chugh, Gurmukh Singh, and B. K. Kumbhar Copyright © 2013 Bhawna Chugh et al. All rights reserved. Ethoxyquin: An Antioxidant Used in Animal Feed Tue, 30 Apr 2013 08:16:43 +0000 Ethoxyquin (EQ, 6-ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline) is widely used in animal feed in order to protect it against lipid peroxidation. EQ cannot be used in any food for human consumption (except spices, e.g., chili), but it can pass from feed to farmed fish, poultry, and eggs, so human beings can be exposed to this antioxidant. The manufacturer Monsanto Company (USA) performed a series of tests on ethoxyquin which showed its safety. Nevertheless, some harmful effects in animals and people occupationally exposed to it were observed in 1980’s which resulted in the new studies undertaken to reevaluate its toxicity. Here, we present the characteristics of the compound and results of the research, concerning, for example, products of its metabolism and oxidation or searching for new antioxidants on the EQ backbone. Alina Błaszczyk, Aleksandra Augustyniak, and Janusz Skolimowski Copyright © 2013 Alina Błaszczyk et al. All rights reserved. Microwave Heating as an Alternative Quarantine Method for Disinfestation of Stored Food Grains Mon, 22 Apr 2013 16:15:26 +0000 Insects and pests constitute a major threat to food supplies all over the world. Some estimates put the loss of food grains because of infestation to about 40% of the world production. Contemporary disinfestation methods are chemical fumigation, ionizing radiation, controlled atmosphere, conventional hot air treatment, and dielectric heating, that is, radio frequency and microwave energy, and so forth. Though chemical fumigation is being used extensively in stored food grains, regulatory issues, insect resistance, and environmental concerns demand technically effective and environmentally sound quarantine methods. Recent studies have indicated that microwave treatment is a potential means of replacing other techniques because of selective heating, pollution free environment, equivalent or better quality retention, energy minimization, and so forth. The current paper reviews the recent advances in Microwave (MW) disinfestation of stored food products and its principle and experimental results from previous studies in order to establish the usefulness of this technology. Ipsita Das, Girish Kumar, and Narendra G. Shah Copyright © 2013 Ipsita Das et al. 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