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Comparative and Functional Genomics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 164690, 13 pages
Research Article

Genomewide Analysis of Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenases in Unicellular and Filamentous Cyanobacteria

1The Coastal Zone Bio-Resource Laboratory, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai 264003, China
2Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Received 30 August 2011; Revised 7 November 2011; Accepted 21 November 2011

Academic Editor: Diego Pasini

Copyright © 2012 Hongli Cui et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidative cleavage steps from carotenoids to various carotenoid cleavage products. Some ccd genes have been identified and encoded enzymes functionally characterized in many higher plants, but little in cyanobacteria. We performed a comparative analysis of ccd sequences and explored their distribution, classification, phylogeny, evolution, and structure among 37 cyanobacteria. Totally 61 putative ccd sequences were identified, which are abundant in Acaryochloris marina MBIC 11017, filamentous N2-fixing cyanobacteria, and unicellular cyanobacterial Cyanothece. According to phylogenetic trees of 16S rDNA and CCD, nced and ccd8 genes occur later than the divergence of ccd7, apco, and ccd1. All CCD enzymes share conserved basic structure domains constituted by a single loop formed with seven β-strands and one helix. In this paper, a general framework of sequence-function-evolution connection for the ccd has been revealed, which may provide new insight for functional investigation.