International Journal of Genomics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Genetic Vectors as a Tool in Association Studies: Definitions and Application for Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis Thu, 05 Mar 2015 06:41:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/256818/ To identify putative relations between different genetic factors in the human genome in the development of common complex disease, we mapped the genetic data to an ensemble of spin chains and analysed the data as a quantum system. Each SNP is considered as a spin with three states corresponding to possible genotypes. The combined genotype represents a multispin state, described by the product of individual-spin states. Each person is characterized by a single genetic vector (GV) and individuals with identical GVs comprise the GV group. This consolidation of genotypes into GVs provides integration of multiple genetic variants for a single statistical test and excludes ambiguity of biological interpretation known for allele and haplotype associations. We analyzed two independent cohorts, with 2633 rheumatoid arthritis cases and 2108 healthy controls, and data for 6 SNPs from the HTR2A locus plus shared epitope allele. We found that GVs based on selected markers are highly informative and overlap for 98.3% of the healthy population between two cohorts. Interestingly, some of the GV groups contain either only controls or only cases, thus demonstrating extreme susceptibility or protection features. By using this new approach we confirmed previously detected univariate associations and demonstrated the most efficient selection of SNPs for combined analyses for functional studies. Igor Sandalov and Leonid Padyukov Copyright © 2015 Igor Sandalov and Leonid Padyukov. All rights reserved. Comprehensive Analysis of Transcriptome Sequencing Data in the Lung Tissues of COPD Subjects Thu, 05 Mar 2015 06:24:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/206937/ Background and Objectives. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease characterized by airflow limitation. Although airway inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be important in the pathogenesis of COPD, the mechanism underlying airflow obstruction is not fully understood. Gene expression profiling of lung tissue was performed to define the molecular pathways that are dysregulated in COPD. Methods. RNA was isolated from lung tissues obtained from 98 subjects with COPD and 91 control subjects with normal spirometry. The RNA samples were processed with RNA-seq using the HiSeq 2000 system. Genes expressed differentially between the two groups were identified using Student’s t-test. Results. After filtering for genes with zero counts and noncoding genes, 16,676 genes were evaluated. A total of 2312 genes were differentially expressed between the lung tissues of COPD and control subjects (false discovery rate corrected ). The expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation and protein catabolism was reduced and genes related to chromatin modification were dysregulated in lung tissues of COPD subjects. Conclusions. Oxidative phosphorylation, protein degradation, and chromatin modification were the most dysregulated pathways in the lung tissues of COPD subjects. These findings may have clinical and mechanistic implications in COPD. Woo Jin Kim, Jae Hyun Lim, Jae Seung Lee, Sang-Do Lee, Ju Han Kim, and Yeon-Mok Oh Copyright © 2015 Woo Jin Kim et al. All rights reserved. Reduced Representation Libraries from DNA Pools Analysed with Next Generation Semiconductor Based-Sequencing to Identify SNPs in Extreme and Divergent Pigs for Back Fat Thickness Wed, 04 Mar 2015 08:36:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/950737/ The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could be associated with back fat thickness (BFT) in pigs. To achieve this goal, we evaluated the potential and limits of an experimental design that combined several methodologies. DNA samples from two groups of Italian Large White pigs with divergent estimating breeding value (EBV) for BFT were separately pooled and sequenced, after preparation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs), on the Ion Torrent technology. Taking advantage from SNAPE for SNPs calling in sequenced DNA pools, 39,165 SNPs were identified; 1/4 of them were novel variants not reported in dbSNP. Combining sequencing data with Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip genotyping results on the same animals, 661 genomic positions overlapped with a good approximation of minor allele frequency estimation. A total of 54 SNPs showing enriched alleles in one or in the other RRLs might be potential markers associated with BFT. Some of these SNPs were close to genes involved in obesity related phenotypes. Samuele Bovo, Francesca Bertolini, Giuseppina Schiavo, Gianluca Mazzoni, Stefania Dall’Olio, and Luca Fontanesi Copyright © 2015 Samuele Bovo et al. All rights reserved. Phylogenomic and Molecular Demarcation of the Core Members of the Polyphyletic Pasteurellaceae Genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella Tue, 03 Mar 2015 15:33:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/198560/ The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the “sensu stricto” members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the “sensu stricto” clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera. Sohail Naushad, Mobolaji Adeolu, Nisha Goel, Bijendra Khadka, Aqeel Al-Dahwi, and Radhey S. Gupta Copyright © 2015 Sohail Naushad et al. All rights reserved. Validation of Simple Sequence Length Polymorphism Regions of Commonly Used Mouse Strains for Marker Assisted Speed Congenics Screening Sat, 28 Feb 2015 08:51:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/735845/ Marker assisted speed congenics technique is commonly used to facilitate backcrossing of mouse strains in nearly half the time it normally takes otherwise. Traditionally, the technique is performed by analyzing PCR amplified regions of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers between the recipient and donor strains: offspring with the highest number of markers showing the recipient genome across all chromosomes is chosen for the next generation. Although there are well-defined panels of SSLP makers established between certain pairs of mice strains, they are incomplete for most strains. The availability of well-established marker sets for speed congenic screens would enable the scientific community to transfer mutations across strain backgrounds. In this study, we tested the suitability of over 400 SSLP marker sets among 10 mouse strains commonly used for generating genetically engineered models. The panel of markers presented here can readily identify the specified strains and will be quite useful in marker assisted speed congenic screens. Moreover, unlike newer single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array methods which require sophisticated equipment, the SSLP markers panel described here only uses PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified products; therefore it can be performed in most research laboratories. Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Poonam S. Joshi, Scott G. Kurz, Masato Ohtsuka, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, and K. C. Kent Lloyd Copyright © 2015 Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy et al. All rights reserved. First Genomic Analysis of Dendritic Cells from Lung and Draining Lymph Nodes in Murine Asthma Wed, 25 Feb 2015 06:10:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/638032/ Asthma is the consequence of allergic inflammation in the lung compartments and lung-draining lymph nodes. Dendritic cells initiate and promote T cell response and drive it to immunity or allergy. However, their modes of action during asthma are poorly understood. In this study, an allergic inflammation with ovalbumin was induced in 38 mice versus 42 control animals. After ovalbumin aerosol challenge, conventional dendritic cells (CD11c/MHCII/CD8) were isolated from the lungs and the draining lymph nodes by means of magnetic cell sorting followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. A comparative transcriptional analysis was performed using gene arrays. In general, many transcripts are up- and downregulated in the CD8− dendritic cells of the allergic inflamed lung tissue, whereas few genes are regulated in CD8+ dendritic cells. The dendritic cells of the lymph nodes also showed minor transcriptional changes. The data support the relevance of the CD8− conventional dendritic cells but do not exclude distinct functions of the small population of CD8+ dendritic cells, such as cross presentation of external antigen. So far, this is the first approach performing gene arrays in dendritic cells obtained from lung tissue and lung-draining lymph nodes of asthmatic-like mice. Thomas Tschernig, Christina Hartwig, Andreas Jeron, Quoc Thai Dinh, Marcus Gereke, and Dunja Bruder Copyright © 2015 Thomas Tschernig et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Background Modulates lncRNA-Coordinated Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Mon, 23 Feb 2015 11:21:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/461038/ Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of diverse cell functions and processes. However, the relevance of lncRNAs in the cell and tissue response to ionizing radiation has not yet been characterized. Here we used microarray profiling to determine lncRNA and mRNA expression in mammary glands of BALB/c and SPRET/EiJ mice after low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) exposure. We found that unirradiated mammary tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of 290 lncRNAs. LDIR exposure (10 cGy) induced a significant change in the expression of many lncRNAs. The vast majority of lncRNAs identified to be differentially expressed after LDIR in either BALB/c or SPRET/EiJ had a significantly correlated expression pattern with at least one LDIR responsive mRNA. Functional analysis revealed that the response to LDIR in BALB/c mice is highly dynamic with enrichment for genes involved in tissue injury, inflammatory responses, and mammary gland development at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after LDIR, respectively. Our study demonstrates that genetic background strongly influences the expression of lncRNAs and their response to radiation and that lncRNAs may coordinate the tissue response to LDIR exposure via regulation of coding mRNAs. Jonathan Tang, Yurong Huang, David H. Nguyen, Sylvain V. Costes, Antoine M. Snijders, and Jian-Hua Mao Copyright © 2015 Jonathan Tang et al. All rights reserved. A Classification of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors of Soybean Wed, 11 Feb 2015 09:12:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/603182/ The complete genome sequence of soybean allows an unprecedented opportunity for the discovery of the genes controlling important traits. In particular, the potential functions of regulatory genes are a priority for analysis. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors is known to be involved in controlling a wide range of systems critical for crop adaptation and quality, including photosynthesis, light signalling, pigment biosynthesis, and seed pod development. Using a hidden Markov model search algorithm, 319 genes with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor domains were identified within the soybean genome sequence. These were classified with respect to their predicted DNA binding potential, intron/exon structure, and the phylogeny of the bHLH domain. Evidence is presented that the vast majority (281) of these 319 soybean bHLH genes are expressed at the mRNA level. Of these soybean bHLH genes, 67% were found to exist in two or more homeologous copies. This dataset provides a framework for future studies on bHLH gene function in soybean. The challenge for future research remains to define functions for the bHLH factors encoded in the soybean genome, which may allow greater flexibility for genetic selection of growth and environmental adaptation in this widely grown crop. Karen A. Hudson and Matthew E. Hudson Copyright © 2015 Karen A. Hudson and Matthew E. Hudson. All rights reserved. Helicobacter pylori: Genomic Insight into the Host-Pathogen Interaction Thu, 05 Feb 2015 06:15:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/386905/ The advent of genomic analyses has revolutionized the study of human health. Infectious disease research in particular has experienced an explosion of bacterial genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data complementing the phenotypic methods employed in traditional bacteriology. Together, these techniques have revealed novel virulence determinants in numerous pathogens and have provided information for potential chemotherapeutics. The bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori, has been recognized as a class 1 carcinogen and contributes to chronic inflammation within the gastric niche. Genomic analyses have uncovered remarkable coevolution between the human host and H. pylori. Perturbation of this coevolution results in dysregulation of the host-pathogen interaction, leading to oncogenic effects. This review discusses the relationship of H. pylori with the human host and environment and the contribution of each of these factors to disease progression, with an emphasis on features that have been illuminated by genomic tools. Kathryn P. Haley and Jennifer A. Gaddy Copyright © 2015 Kathryn P. Haley and Jennifer A. Gaddy. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Thinopyrum elongatum Transcriptome under Water Deficit Stress Wed, 04 Feb 2015 14:06:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/265791/ The transcriptome of Thinopyrum elongatum under water deficit stress was analyzed using RNA-Seq technology. The results showed that genes involved in processes of amplification of stress signaling, reductions in oxidative damage, creation of protectants, and roots development were expressed differently, which played an important role in the response to water deficit. The Th. elongatum transcriptome research highlights the activation of a large set of water deficit-related genes in this species and provides a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in the water deficit stress response. Yongjun Shu, Jun Zhang, You Ao, Lili Song, and Changhong Guo Copyright © 2015 Yongjun Shu et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray Wed, 31 Dec 2014 14:16:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/204969/ The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin) and yellow leaves (Wheessen) were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE), lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB) were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6) were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8) that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants. Hee-Jeong Jung, Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jong-In Park, Mi-Young Chung, Jeongyeo Lee, Yong-Pyo Lim, Yoonkang Hur, and Ill-Sup Nou Copyright © 2014 Hee-Jeong Jung et al. All rights reserved. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp Sun, 30 Nov 2014 09:17:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/639687/ Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp. Ermeng Yu, Jun Xie, Guangjun Wang, Deguang Yu, Wangbao Gong, Zhifei Li, Haiying Wang, Yun Xia, and Nan Wei Copyright © 2014 Ermeng Yu et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Salt-Stress-Induced Genes from the RNA-Seq Data of Reaumuria trigyna Using Differential-Display Reverse Transcription PCR Wed, 26 Nov 2014 14:09:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/381501/ Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been used to generate huge amounts of sequencing data from many organisms. However, the correct choice of candidate genes and prevention of false-positive results computed from digital gene expression (DGE) of RNA-seq data are vital when using these genetic resources. We indirectly identified 18 salt-stress-induced Reaumuria trigyna transcripts from the transcriptome sequencing data using differential-display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) combined with local BLAST searches. Highly consistent with the DGE results, the quantitative real-time PCR expression patterns of these transcripts showed strong upregulation by salt stress, suggesting that these genes may play important roles in R. trigyna’s survival under high-salt environments. The method presented here successfully identified responsive genes from the massive amount of RNA-seq data. Thus, we suggest that DDRT-PCR could be employed to mine NGS data in a wide range of applications in transcriptomic studies. In addition, the genes identified in the present study are promising candidates for further elucidation of the salt tolerance mechanisms in R. trigyna. Zhen-hua Dang, Qi Qi, Hui-rong Zhang, Hao-yu Li, Shu-Biao Wu, and Ying-chun Wang Copyright © 2014 Zhen-hua Dang et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 Alpha and the Vitamin D Receptor in Mexican Mestizo Patients with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:40:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/302568/ Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with back pain, a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. Several conditions, such as occupational activities, gender, age, and obesity, have been associated with IDD. However, the development of this disease has strong genetic determinants. In this study, we explore the possible association between rs1800587 (c.-949C>T) of interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and rs2228570 (c.2T>V) and rs731236 (c.1056T>C) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the development of IDD in northwestern Mexican Mestizo population. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in two groups matched by age and gender: patients with symptomatic lumbar IDD and subjects with normal lumbar-spine MRI-scans . Distribution of the mutated alleles in patients and controls was 27.0% versus 28.0% for T of rs1800587 (IL1A); 53.0% versus 58.0% for V of rs2228570 (VDR); and 18.0% versus 21.0% for C of rs731236 (VDR). Our results showed no association between the studied polymorphisms and IDD in this population. This is the first report on the contribution of gene polymorphisms on IDD in a Mexican population. Salvador Cervin Serrano, Dalia González Villareal, Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Jose Guillermo Romero-Navarro, Jose Geovanni Romero Quintana, Eliakym Arámbula Meraz, Ignacio Osuna Ramírez, Veronica Picos-Cárdenas, Julio Granados, Iris Estrada-García, Guzman Sánchez-Schmitz, and Rosalío Ramos-Payán Copyright © 2014 Salvador Cervin Serrano et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach Thu, 13 Nov 2014 14:13:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/679437/ The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carcass weight of  kg) immediately after slaughter. The total mRNA from muscle, IMA, and subcutaneous adipose and omental adipose tissues were isolated and sequenced. The reads that passed quality control were mapped onto the bovine reference genome (build bosTau6), and differentially expressed genes across tissues were identified. The KEGG pathway enrichment tests revealed the opposite direction of metabolic regulation between muscle and IMA. Metabolic gene network analysis clearly indicated that oxidative metabolism was upregulated in muscle and downregulated in IMA. Interestingly, pathways for regulating cell adhesion, structure, and integrity and chemokine signaling pathway were upregulated in IMA and downregulated in muscle. It is thus inferred that IMA may play an important role in the regulation of development and structure of the LD tissues and muscle/adipose communication. Hyun-Jeong Lee, Hye-Sun Park, Woonsu Kim, Duhak Yoon, and Seongwon Seo Copyright © 2014 Hyun-Jeong Lee et al. All rights reserved. Facile, High Quality Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes from Small Amounts of DNA Thu, 13 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/434575/ Sequencing bacterial genomes has traditionally required large amounts of genomic DNA (~1 g). There have been few studies to determine the effects of the input DNA amount or library preparation method on the quality of sequencing data. Several new commercially available library preparation methods enable shotgun sequencing from as little as 1 ng of input DNA. In this study, we evaluated the NEBNext Ultra library preparation reagents for sequencing bacterial genomes. We have evaluated the utility of NEBNext Ultra for resequencing and de novo assembly of four bacterial genomes and compared its performance with the TruSeq library preparation kit. The NEBNext Ultra reagents enable high quality resequencing and de novo assembly of a variety of bacterial genomes when using 100 ng of input genomic DNA. For the two most challenging genomes (Burkholderia spp.), which have the highest GC content and are the longest, we also show that the quality of both resequencing and de novo assembly is not decreased when only 10 ng of input genomic DNA is used. Momchilo Vuyisich, Ayesha Arefin, Karen Davenport, Shihai Feng, Cheryl Gleasner, Kim McMurry, Beverly Parson-Quintana, Jennifer Price, Matthew Scholz, and Patrick Chain Copyright © 2014 Momchilo Vuyisich et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations Wed, 12 Nov 2014 12:49:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/781832/ We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding. Gyu-Ho Lee, Byung-Wook Yun, and Kyung-Min Kim Copyright © 2014 Gyu-Ho Lee et al. All rights reserved. Lack of Association of the Polymorphisms IL-17A (−197G/A) and IL-17F (+7488A/G) with Multibacillary Leprosy in Mexican Patients Thu, 06 Nov 2014 11:59:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/920491/ Background. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the intracellular acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium leprae; it has been determined that genetic factors of the host play an important role in the disease susceptibility. Thus, in this case-control study, we evaluated the possible association between the IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780) gene SNPs and susceptibility to leprosy disease in Mexican population. Methods. Seventy-five leprosy patients and sixty-nine control subjects were included. Both SNPs were genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results. We found nonsignificant differences in genotype and allele frequencies related to IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780) gene SNPs in MB as well as subclinical forms of leprosy disease versus healthy individuals. Conclusions. Since the sample size is not large enough, it is difficult to sustain an association of susceptibility to leprosy with genotypes or allele frequencies of IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780), suggesting that IL-17 polymorphisms have no significant role in the genetic susceptibility to development of this disease in the Mexican Mestizo population. Mónica Escamilla-Tilch, Iris Estrada-García, Julio Granados, Roberto Arenas-Guzmán, Rosalio Ramos-Payan, Thalía Gabriela Pérez-Suárez, Ma. Isabel Salazar, Riky Luis Pérez-Lucas, Sergio Estrada-Parra, and Nora Magdalena Torres-Carrillo Copyright © 2014 Mónica Escamilla-Tilch et al. All rights reserved. A Meta-Analysis on the Relations between EGFR R521K Polymorphism and Risk of Cancer Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/312102/ The EGFR R521K polymorphism has been shown to reduce the activity of EGFR; however, the association between EGFR R521K polymorphism and the risk of cancer remains inconclusive; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between EGFR R521K polymorphism and susceptibility to cancer. Our results suggest that the EGFR R521K polymorphism is not associated with risk of cancer, but the different chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs may need further investigation. Yinsheng Wang, Lidan Zha, Dan Liao, and Xiaozhi Li Copyright © 2014 Yinsheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellites in Expressed Sequence Tags and Their Cross Transferability in Different Plants Sun, 19 Oct 2014 07:21:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/863948/ Expressed sequence tags (EST) are potential source for the development of genic microsatellite markers, gene discovery, comparative genomics, and other genomic studies. In the present study, 7630 ESTs were examined from NCBI for SSR identification and characterization. A total of 263 SSRs were identified with an average density of one SSR/4.2 kb (3.4% frequency). Analysis revealed that trinucleotide repeats (47.52%) were most abundant followed by tetranucleotide (19.77%), dinucleotide (19.01%), pentanucleotide (9.12%), and hexanucleotide repeats (4.56%). Functional annotation was done through homology search and gene ontology, and 35 EST-SSRs were selected. Primer pairs were designed for evaluation of cross transferability and polymorphism among 11 plants belonging to five different families. Total 402 alleles were generated at 155 loci with an average of 2.6 alleles/locus and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.15 to 0.92 with an average of 0.75. The cross transferability ranged from 34.84% to 98.06% in different plants, with an average of 67.86%. Thus, the validation study of annotated 35 EST-SSR markers which correspond to particular metabolic activity revealed polymorphism and evolutionary nature in different families of Angiospermic plants. Shamshad ul Haq, Rohit Jain, Meenakshi Sharma, Sumita Kachhwaha, and S. L. Kothari Copyright © 2014 Shamshad ul Haq et al. All rights reserved. Genomic Changes in an Attenuated ZB Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype Asia1 and Comparison with Its Virulent Parental Strain Sun, 19 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/978609/ The molecular basis of attenuation of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 ZB strain remains unknown. To understand the genetic changes of attenuation, we compared the entire genomes of three different rabbit-passaged attenuated ZB strains (ZB/CHA/58(att), ZBRF168, and ZBRF188) and their virulent parental strains (ZBCF22 and YNBS/58). The results showed that attenuation may be brought about by 28 common amino acid substitutions in the coding region, with one nucleotide point mutation in the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) and another one in the 3′-UTR. In addition, a total of 21 nucleotides silent mutations had been found after attenuation. These substitutions, alone or in combination, may be responsible for the attenuated phenotype of the ZB strain in cattle. This will contribute to elucidation of attenuating molecular basis of the FMDV ZB strain. Aiguo Xin, Mingwang Zhu, Zhenqi Peng, Qi Hu, Chenhong Shi, Defang Liao, Jihua Wang, and Huachun Li Copyright © 2014 Aiguo Xin et al. All rights reserved. In Silico Genome Comparison and Distribution Analysis of Simple Sequences Repeats in Cassava Mon, 13 Oct 2014 08:04:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/471461/ We conducted a SSRs density analysis in different cassava genomic regions. The information obtained was useful to establish comparisons between cassava’s SSRs genomic distribution and those of poplar, flax, and Jatropha. In general, cassava has a low SSR density (~50 SSRs/Mbp) and has a high proportion of pentanucleotides, (24,2 SSRs/Mbp). It was found that coding sequences have 15,5 SSRs/Mbp, introns have 82,3 SSRs/Mbp, 5′ UTRs have 196,1 SSRs/Mbp, and 3′ UTRs have 50,5 SSRs/Mbp. Through motif analysis of cassava’s genome SSRs, the most abundant motif was AT/AT while in intron sequences and UTRs regions it was AG/CT. In addition, in coding sequences the motif AAG/CTT was also found to occur most frequently; in fact, it is the third most used codon in cassava. Sequences containing SSRs were classified according to their functional annotation of Gene Ontology categories. The identified SSRs here may be a valuable addition for genetic mapping and future studies in phylogenetic analyses and genomic evolution. Andrea Vásquez and Camilo López Copyright © 2014 Andrea Vásquez and Camilo López. All rights reserved. Epigenetic Dynamics: Role of Epimarks and Underlying Machinery in Plants Exposed to Abiotic Stress Thu, 18 Sep 2014 05:23:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/187146/ Abiotic stress induces several changes in plants at physiological and molecular level. Plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms guided towards establishment of stress tolerance in which epigenetic modifications play a pivotal role. We provide examples of gene expression changes that are brought about by conversion of active chromatin to silent heterochromatin and vice versa. Methylation of CG sites and specific modification of histone tail determine whether a particular locus is transcriptionally active or silent. We present a lucid review of epigenetic machinery and epigenetic alterations involving DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, chromatin remodeling, and RNA directed epigenetic changes. Manoj Kumar Dhar, Parivartan Vishal, Rahul Sharma, and Sanjana Kaul Copyright © 2014 Manoj Kumar Dhar et al. All rights reserved. Transcriptome of the Deep-Sea Black Scabbardfish, Aphanopus carbo (Perciformes: Trichiuridae): Tissue-Specific Expression Patterns and Candidate Genes Associated to Depth Adaptation Wed, 17 Sep 2014 08:40:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/267482/ Deep-sea fishes provide a unique opportunity to study the physiology and evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments. We carried out a high throughput sequencing analysis on a 454 GS-FLX titanium plate using unnormalized cDNA libraries from six tissues of A. carbo. Assemblage and annotations were performed by Newbler and InterPro/Pfam analyses, respectively. The assembly of 544,491 high quality reads provided 8,319 contigs, 55.6% of which retrieved blast hits against the NCBI nonredundant database or were annotated with ESTscan. Comparison of functional genes at both the protein sequences and protein stability levels, associated with adaptations to depth, revealed similarities between A. carbo and other bathypelagic fishes. A selection of putative genes was standardized to evaluate the correlation between number of contigs and their normalized expression, as determined by qPCR amplification. The screening of the libraries contributed to the identification of new EST simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and to the design of primer pairs suitable for population genetic studies as well as for tagging and mapping of genes. The characterization of the deep-sea fish A. carbo first transcriptome is expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary, and ecological studies of this species and the basis for further investigation of depth-related adaptation processes in fishes. Sergio Stefanni, Raul Bettencourt, Miguel Pinheiro, Gianluca De Moro, Lucia Bongiorni, and Alberto Pallavicini Copyright © 2014 Sergio Stefanni et al. All rights reserved. In Silico Identification, Phylogenetic and Bioinformatic Analysis of Argonaute Genes in Plants Mon, 15 Sep 2014 13:23:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/967461/ Argonaute protein family is the key players in pathways of gene silencing and small regulatory RNAs in different organisms. Argonaute proteins can bind small noncoding RNAs and control protein synthesis, affect messenger RNA stability, and even participate in the production of new forms of small RNAs. The aim of this study was to characterize and perform bioinformatic analysis of Argonaute proteins in 32 plant species that their genome was sequenced. A total of 437 Argonaute genes were identified and were analyzed based on lengths, gene structure, and protein structure. Results showed that Argonaute proteins were highly conserved across plant kingdom. Phylogenic analysis divided plant Argonautes into three classes. Argonaute proteins have three conserved domains PAZ, MID and PIWI. In addition to three conserved domains namely, PAZ, MID, and PIWI, we identified few more domains in AGO of some plant species. Expression profile analysis of Argonaute proteins showed that expression of these genes varies in most of tissues, which means that these proteins are involved in regulation of most pathways of the plant system. Numbers of alternative transcripts of Argonaute genes were highly variable among the plants. A thorough analysis of large number of putative Argonaute genes revealed several interesting aspects associated with this protein and brought novel information with promising usefulness for both basic and biotechnological applications. Khaled Mirzaei, Bahman Bahramnejad, Mohammad Hasan Shamsifard, and Wahid Zamani Copyright © 2014 Khaled Mirzaei et al. All rights reserved. Unique Genotypic Differences Discovered among Indigenous Bangladeshi Rice Landraces Sun, 14 Sep 2014 07:03:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/210328/ Bangladesh is a reservoir of diverse rice germplasm and is home to many landraces with unique, important traits. Molecular characterization of these landraces is of value for their identification, preservation, and potential use in breeding programs. Thirty-eight rice landraces from different regions of Bangladesh including some high yielding BRRI varieties were analyzed by 34 polymorphic microsatellite markers yielding a total of 258 reproducible alleles. The analysis could locate 34 unique identifiers for 21 genotypes, making the latter potentially amenable to identity verification. An identity map for these genotypes was constructed with all the 12 chromosomes of the rice genome. Polymorphism information content (PIC) scores of the 34 SSR markers were 0.098 to 0.89 where on average 7.5 alleles were observed. A dendogram constructed using UPGMA clustered the varieties into two major groups and five subgroups. In some cases, the clustering matched with properties like aromaticity, stickiness, salt tolerance, and photoperiod insensitivity. The results will help breeders to work towards the proper utilization of these landraces for parental selection and linkage map construction for discovery of useful alleles. Nusrat Yesmin, Sabrina M. Elias, Md. Sazzadur Rahman, Taslima Haque, A. K. M. Mahbub Hasan, and Zeba I. Seraj Copyright © 2014 Nusrat Yesmin et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Oleic Acid Content of Transgenic Soybeans by Antisense RNA Mediated Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing Wed, 13 Aug 2014 06:36:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/921950/ The Delta-12 oleate desaturase gene (FAD2-1), which converts oleic acid into linoleic acid, is the key enzyme determining the fatty acid composition of seed oil. In this study, we inhibited the expression of endogenous Delta-12 oleate desaturase GmFad2-1b gene by using antisense RNA in soybean Williams 82. By employing the soybean cotyledonary-node method, a part of the cDNA of soybean GmFad2-1b 801 bp was cloned for the construction of a pCAMBIA3300 vector under the soybean seed promoter BCSP. Leaf painting, LibertyLink strip, PCR, Southern blot, qRT-PCR, and fatty acid analysis were used to detect the insertion and expression of GmFad2-1b in the transgenic soybean lines. The results indicate that the metabolically engineered plants exhibited a significant increase in oleic acid (up to 51.71%) and a reduction in palmitic acid (to <3%) in their seed oil content. No structural differences were observed between the fatty acids of the transgenic and the nontransgenic oil extracts. Ling Zhang, Xiang-dong Yang, Yuan-yu Zhang, Jing Yang, Guang-xun Qi, Dong-quan Guo, Guo-jie Xing, Yao Yao, Wen-jing Xu, Hai-yun Li, Qi-yun Li, and Ying-shan Dong Copyright © 2014 Ling Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Genome Sequencing of a Mung Bean Plant Growth Promoting Strain of P. aeruginosa with Biocontrol Ability Tue, 12 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/123058/ Pseudomonas aeruginosa PGPR2 is a mung bean rhizosphere strain that produces secondary metabolites and hydrolytic enzymes contributing to excellent antifungal activity against Macrophomina phaseolina, one of the prevalent fungal pathogens of mung bean. Genome sequencing was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine generating 1,354,732 reads (6,772,433 sequenced bases) achieving ~25-fold coverage of the genome. Reference genome assembly using MIRA 3.4.0 yielded 198 contigs. The draft genome of PGPR2 encoded 6803 open reading frames, of which 5314 were genes with predicted functions, 1489 were genes of known functions, and 80 were RNA-coding genes. Strain specific and core genes of P. aeruginosa PGPR2 that are relevant to rhizospheric habitat were identified by pangenome analysis. Genes involved in plant growth promoting function such as synthesis of ACC deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, trehalose, mineral scavenging siderophores, hydrogen cyanide, chitinases, acyl homoserine lactones, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol, and phytases were identified. In addition, niche-specific genes such as phosphate solubilising 3-phytase, adhesins, pathway-specific transcriptional regulators, a diguanylate cyclase involved in cellulose synthesis, a receptor for ferrienterochelin, a DEAD/DEAH-box helicase involved in stress tolerance, chemotaxis/motility determinants, an HtpX protease, and enzymes involved in the production of a chromanone derivative with potent antifungal activity were identified. Devaraj Illakkiam, Manoharan Shankar, Paramasivan Ponraj, Jeyaprakash Rajendhran, and Paramasamy Gunasekaran Copyright © 2014 Devaraj Illakkiam et al. All rights reserved. Isolation and Characterisation of PRSV-P Resistance Genes in Carica and Vasconcellea Mon, 11 Aug 2014 08:10:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/145403/ Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is one of the major tropical fruit crops worldwide, but it is limited throughout its range by papaya ringspot virus type P (PRSV-P). Previous genetic studies identified a functional PRSV-P resistance marker in a mapping population of F2 plants of Vasconcellea pubescens (resistant to PRSV-P) × Vasconcellea parviflora (susceptible to PRSV-P) and showed that the marker exhibited homology to a serine threonine protein kinase (STK) gene. Full length cDNAs of putative PRSV-P resistance genes designated CP_STK from C. papaya and VP_STK1 and VP_STK2 from V. pubescens were cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Due to a frame-shift mutation, the two homologous sequences are transcribed and edited differently such that the gene product in V. pubescens is two separate transcripts, whereas in C. papaya they are fused into a single message. A peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS2) present in VP_STK2 but absent in the other transcripts may be the functional source of PRSV resistance in V. pubescens. The STK gene from V. pubescens may have been derived from an alternative splicing to confer resistance. The putative resistance gene, VP_STK2, that was identified in this study is a potential new source of PRSV-P resistance for papaya genotypes. M. R. Razean Haireen and R. A. Drew Copyright © 2014 M. R. Razean Haireen and R. A. Drew. All rights reserved. Mechanisms of miRNA-Mediated Gene Regulation from Common Downregulation to mRNA-Specific Upregulation Sun, 10 Aug 2014 09:24:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/970607/ Discovered in 1993, micoRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as one of the major regulatory gene families in eukaryotes. To date, 24521 microRNAs have been discovered and there are certainly more to come. It was primarily acknowledged that miRNAs result in gene expression repression at both the level of mRNA stability by conducting mRNA degradation and the level of translation (at initiation and after initiation) by inhibiting protein translation or degrading the polypeptides through binding complementarily to 3′UTR of the target mRNAs. Nevertheless, some studies revealed that miRNAs have the capability of activating gene expression directly or indirectly in respond to different cell types and conditions and in the presence of distinct cofactors. This reversibility in their posttranslational gene regulatory natures enables the bearing cells to rapidly response to different cell conditions and consequently block unnecessary energy wastage or maintain the cell state. This paper provides an overview of the current understandings of the miRNA characteristics including their genes and biogenesis, as well as their mediated downregulation. We also review up-to-date knowledge of miRNA-mediated gene upregulation through highlighting some notable examples and discuss the emerging concepts of their associations with other posttranscriptional gene regulation processes. Ayla Valinezhad Orang, Reza Safaralizadeh, and Mina Kazemzadeh-Bavili Copyright © 2014 Ayla Valinezhad Orang et al. All rights reserved.