International Journal of Genomics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Revealing Genomic Profile That Underlies Tropism of Myeloma Cells Using Whole Exome Sequencing Mon, 18 May 2015 07:27:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/675379/ Background. Previously we established two cell lines (SNU_MM1393_BM and SNU_MM1393_SC) from different tissues (bone marrow and subcutis) of mice which were injected with single patient’s myeloma sample. We tried to define genetic changes specific for each cell line using whole exome sequencing (WES). Materials and Methods. We extracted DNA from SNU_MM1393_BM and SNU_MM1393_SC and performed WES. For single nucleotide variants (SNV) calling, we used Varscan2. Annotation of mutation was performed using ANNOVAR. Results. When calling of somatic mutations was performed, 68 genes were nonsynonymously mutated only in SNU_MM1393_SC, while 136 genes were nonsynonymously mutated only in SNU_MM1393_BM. KIAA1199, FRY, AP3B2, and OPTC were representative genes specifically mutated in SNU_MM1393_SC. When comparison analysis was performed using TCGA data, mutational pattern of SNU_MM1393_SC resembled that of melanoma mostly. Pathway analysis using KEGG database showed that mutated genes specific of SNU_MM1393_BM were related to differentiation, while those of SNU_MM1393_SC were related to tumorigenesis. Conclusion. We found out genetic changes that underlie tropism of myeloma cells using WES. Genetic signature of cutaneous plasmacytoma shares that of melanoma implying common mechanism for skin tropism. KIAA1199, FRY, AP3B2, and OPTC are candidate genes for skin tropism of cancers. Youngil Koh, Daeyoon Kim, Woo-June Jung, Kwang-Sung Ahn, and Sung-Soo Yoon Copyright © 2015 Youngil Koh et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Protein Interaction between Nucleotide Binding Domain of Hsp70 and p53 Motif Mon, 18 May 2015 06:18:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/391293/ Currently, protein interaction of Homo sapiens nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of heat shock 70 kDa protein (PDB: 1HJO) with p53 motif remains to be elucidated. The NBD-p53 motif complex enhances the p53 stabilization, thereby increasing the tumor suppression activity in cancer treatment. Therefore, we identified the interaction between NBD and p53 using STRING version 9.1 program. Then, we modeled the three-dimensional structure of p53 motif through homology modeling and determined the binding affinity and stability of NBD-p53 motif complex structure via molecular docking and dynamics (MD) simulation. Human DNA binding domain of p53 motif (SCMGGMNR) retrieved from UniProt (UniProtKB: P04637) was docked with the NBD protein, using the Autodock version 4.2 program. The binding energy and intermolecular energy for the NBD-p53 motif complex were −0.44 Kcal/mol and −9.90 Kcal/mol, respectively. Moreover, RMSD, RMSF, hydrogen bonds, salt bridge, and secondary structure analyses revealed that the NBD protein had a strong bond with p53 motif and the protein-ligand complex was stable. Thus, the current data would be highly encouraging for designing Hsp70 structure based drug in cancer therapy. Asita Elengoe, Mohammed Abu Naser, and Salehhuddin Hamdan Copyright © 2015 Asita Elengoe et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacogenomics and Opioid Analgesics: Clinical Implications Thu, 14 May 2015 11:29:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/368979/ Variation exists in patient response on analgesic treatment in terms of efficacy and safety. This variation may be in part explained by pharmacogenomics. This paper aimed to review data on pharmacogenomics of opioid analgesics focusing on the effect of genetic variation on the efficacy and safety of these agents. Current evidence suggests that pharmacogenomics contribute to variation in efficacy and safety of opioids. However, most data come from case control studies and case reports. In addition, a recognized drawback in the field of pharmacogenomics is the common occurrence of false positive association between polymorphisms and the investigated outcome. Prospective studies are needed to further elucidate the clinical implications of available data as well as to define the guidelines for the clinical application of pharmacogenomic data. Furthermore, basic research should focus on the identification of biologically meaningful polymorphisms enabling a hypothesis with biological plausibility driven research in the field of pharmacogenomics of analgesics. Moreover, the publication of relevant negative results should be favoured. Eugenia Yiannakopoulou Copyright © 2015 Eugenia Yiannakopoulou. All rights reserved. Impact of Population Stratification on Family-Based Association in an Admixed Population Mon, 04 May 2015 12:46:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/501617/ Population substructure is a well-known confounder in population-based case-control genetic studies, but its impact in family-based studies is unclear. We performed population substructure analysis using extended families of admixed population to evaluate power and Type I error in an association study framework. Our analysis shows that power was improved by 1.5% after principal components adjustment. Type I error was also reduced by 2.2% after adjusting for family substratification. The presence of population substructure was underscored by discriminant analysis, in which over 92% of individuals were correctly assigned to their actual family using only 100 principal components. This study demonstrates the importance of adjusting for population substructure in family-based studies of admixed populations. T. B. Mersha, L. Ding, H. He, E. S. Alexander, X. Zhang, B. G. Kurowski, V. Pilipenko, L. Kottyan, L. J. Martin, and D. W. Fardo Copyright © 2015 T. B. Mersha et al. All rights reserved. microProtein Prediction Program (miP3): A Software for Predicting microProteins and Their Target Transcription Factors Tue, 28 Apr 2015 06:28:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/734147/ An emerging concept in transcriptional regulation is that a class of truncated transcription factors (TFs), called microProteins (miPs), engages in protein-protein interactions with TF complexes and provides feedback controls. A handful of miP examples have been described in the literature but the extent of their prevalence is unclear. Here we present an algorithm that predicts miPs and their target TFs from a sequenced genome. The algorithm is called miP prediction program (miP3), which is implemented in Python. The software will help shed light on the prevalence, biological roles, and evolution of miPs. Moreover, miP3 can be used to predict other types of miP-like proteins that may have evolved from other functional classes such as kinases and receptors. The program is freely available and can be applied to any sequenced genome. Niek de Klein, Enrico Magnani, Michael Banf, and Seung Yon Rhee Copyright © 2015 Niek de Klein et al. All rights reserved. Heat Shock Protein 70 and 90 Genes in the Harmful Dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides: Genomic Structures and Transcriptional Responses to Environmental Stresses Wed, 22 Apr 2015 13:23:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/484626/ The marine dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides is responsible for harmful algal blooms in aquatic environments and has spread into the world’s oceans. As a microeukaryote, it seems to have distinct genomic characteristics, like gene structure and regulation. In the present study, we characterized heat shock protein (HSP) 70/90 of C. polykrikoides and evaluated their transcriptional responses to environmental stresses. Both HSPs contained the conserved motif patterns, showing the highest homology with those of other dinoflagellates. Genomic analysis showed that the CpHSP70 had no intron but was encoded by tandem arrangement manner with separation of intergenic spacers. However, CpHSP90 had one intron in the coding genomic regions, and no intergenic region was found. Phylogenetic analyses of separate HSPs showed that CpHSP70 was closely related with the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii and CpHSP90 with other Gymnodiniales in dinoflagellates. Gene expression analyses showed that both HSP genes were upregulated by the treatments of separate algicides CuSO4 and NaOCl; however, they displayed downregulation pattern with PCB treatment. The transcription of CpHSP90 and CpHSP70 showed similar expression patterns under the same toxicant treatment, suggesting that both genes might have cooperative functions for the toxicant induced gene regulation in the dinoflagellate. Ruoyu Guo, Seok Hyun Youn, and Jang-Seu Ki Copyright © 2015 Ruoyu Guo et al. All rights reserved. RNA Degradation in Staphylococcus aureus: Diversity of Ribonucleases and Their Impact Tue, 21 Apr 2015 13:46:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/395753/ The regulation of RNA decay is now widely recognized as having a central role in bacterial adaption to environmental stress. Here we present an overview on the diversity of ribonucleases (RNases) and their impact at the posttranscriptional level in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. RNases in prokaryotes have been mainly studied in the two model organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Based on identified RNases in these two models, putative orthologs have been identified in S. aureus. The main staphylococcal RNases involved in the processing and degradation of the bulk RNA are (i) endonucleases RNase III and RNase Y and (ii) exonucleases RNase J1/J2 and PNPase, having 5′ to 3′ and 3′ to 5′ activities, respectively. The diversity and potential roles of each RNase and of Hfq and RppH are discussed in the context of recent studies, some of which are based on next-generation sequencing technology. Rémy A. Bonnin and Philippe Bouloc Copyright © 2015 Rémy A. Bonnin and Philippe Bouloc. All rights reserved. The Relations between EGFR R521K Polymorphism and Risk of Cancer: Need for Clarification of Data in a Recent Meta-Analysis Thu, 19 Mar 2015 10:28:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/597413/ Jianjun Jiang, Yanjiao Li, Lifen Dai, Haiying Wu, and Min Hu Copyright © 2015 Jianjun Jiang et al. All rights reserved. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Diverse Sets of Conserved, Nonconserved, and Species-Specific miRNAs in Jute Mon, 16 Mar 2015 06:14:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/125048/ MicroRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating a broad range of biological processes, acting by cleaving mRNAs or by translational repression. A group of plant microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved; however, others are expressed in a species-specific manner. Jute is an agroeconomically important fibre crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available for microRNAs in jute to date. In this study, Illumina sequencing revealed a total of 227 known microRNAs and 17 potential novel microRNA candidates in jute, of which 164 belong to 23 conserved families and the remaining 63 belong to 58 nonconserved families. Among a total of 81 identified microRNA families, 116 potential target genes were predicted for 39 families and 11 targets were predicted for 4 among the 17 identified novel microRNAs. For understanding better the functions of microRNAs, target genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology and their pathways illustrated by KEGG pathway analyses. The presence of microRNAs identified in jute was validated by stem-loop RT-PCR followed by end point PCR and qPCR for randomly selected 20 known and novel microRNAs. This study exhaustively identifies microRNAs and their target genes in jute which will ultimately pave the way for understanding their role in this crop and other crops. Md. Tariqul Islam, Ahlan Sabah Ferdous, Rifat Ara Najnin, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, and Haseena Khan Copyright © 2015 Md. Tariqul Islam et al. All rights reserved. DNA-Encoded Chromatin Structural Intron Boundary Signals Identify Conserved Genes with Common Function Wed, 11 Mar 2015 12:18:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/167578/ The regulation of metazoan gene expression occurs in part by pre-mRNA splicing into mature RNAs. Signals affecting the efficiency and specificity with which introns are removed have not been completely elucidated. Splicing likely occurs cotranscriptionally, with chromatin structure playing a key regulatory role. We calculated DNA encoded nucleosome occupancy likelihood (NOL) scores at the boundaries between introns and exons across five metazoan species. We found that (i) NOL scores reveal a sequence-based feature at the introns on both sides of the intron-exon boundary; (ii) this feature is not part of any recognizable consensus sequence; (iii) this feature is conserved throughout metazoa; (iv) this feature is enriched in genes sharing similar functions: ATPase activity, ATP binding, helicase activity, and motor activity; (v) genes with these functions exhibit different genomic characteristics; (vi) in vivo nucleosome positioning data confirm ontological enrichment at this feature; and (vii) genes with this feature exhibit unique dinucleotide distributions at the intron-exon boundary. The NOL scores point toward a physical property of DNA that may play a role in the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing. These results provide a foundation for identification of a new set of regulatory DNA elements involved in splicing regulation. Justin A. Fincher, Gary S. Tyson, and Jonathan H. Dennis Copyright © 2015 Justin A. Fincher et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Vectors as a Tool in Association Studies: Definitions and Application for Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis Thu, 05 Mar 2015 06:41:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/256818/ To identify putative relations between different genetic factors in the human genome in the development of common complex disease, we mapped the genetic data to an ensemble of spin chains and analysed the data as a quantum system. Each SNP is considered as a spin with three states corresponding to possible genotypes. The combined genotype represents a multispin state, described by the product of individual-spin states. Each person is characterized by a single genetic vector (GV) and individuals with identical GVs comprise the GV group. This consolidation of genotypes into GVs provides integration of multiple genetic variants for a single statistical test and excludes ambiguity of biological interpretation known for allele and haplotype associations. We analyzed two independent cohorts, with 2633 rheumatoid arthritis cases and 2108 healthy controls, and data for 6 SNPs from the HTR2A locus plus shared epitope allele. We found that GVs based on selected markers are highly informative and overlap for 98.3% of the healthy population between two cohorts. Interestingly, some of the GV groups contain either only controls or only cases, thus demonstrating extreme susceptibility or protection features. By using this new approach we confirmed previously detected univariate associations and demonstrated the most efficient selection of SNPs for combined analyses for functional studies. Igor Sandalov and Leonid Padyukov Copyright © 2015 Igor Sandalov and Leonid Padyukov. All rights reserved. Comprehensive Analysis of Transcriptome Sequencing Data in the Lung Tissues of COPD Subjects Thu, 05 Mar 2015 06:24:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/206937/ Background and Objectives. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex disease characterized by airflow limitation. Although airway inflammation and oxidative stress are known to be important in the pathogenesis of COPD, the mechanism underlying airflow obstruction is not fully understood. Gene expression profiling of lung tissue was performed to define the molecular pathways that are dysregulated in COPD. Methods. RNA was isolated from lung tissues obtained from 98 subjects with COPD and 91 control subjects with normal spirometry. The RNA samples were processed with RNA-seq using the HiSeq 2000 system. Genes expressed differentially between the two groups were identified using Student’s t-test. Results. After filtering for genes with zero counts and noncoding genes, 16,676 genes were evaluated. A total of 2312 genes were differentially expressed between the lung tissues of COPD and control subjects (false discovery rate corrected ). The expression of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation and protein catabolism was reduced and genes related to chromatin modification were dysregulated in lung tissues of COPD subjects. Conclusions. Oxidative phosphorylation, protein degradation, and chromatin modification were the most dysregulated pathways in the lung tissues of COPD subjects. These findings may have clinical and mechanistic implications in COPD. Woo Jin Kim, Jae Hyun Lim, Jae Seung Lee, Sang-Do Lee, Ju Han Kim, and Yeon-Mok Oh Copyright © 2015 Woo Jin Kim et al. All rights reserved. Reduced Representation Libraries from DNA Pools Analysed with Next Generation Semiconductor Based-Sequencing to Identify SNPs in Extreme and Divergent Pigs for Back Fat Thickness Wed, 04 Mar 2015 08:36:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/950737/ The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could be associated with back fat thickness (BFT) in pigs. To achieve this goal, we evaluated the potential and limits of an experimental design that combined several methodologies. DNA samples from two groups of Italian Large White pigs with divergent estimating breeding value (EBV) for BFT were separately pooled and sequenced, after preparation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs), on the Ion Torrent technology. Taking advantage from SNAPE for SNPs calling in sequenced DNA pools, 39,165 SNPs were identified; 1/4 of them were novel variants not reported in dbSNP. Combining sequencing data with Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip genotyping results on the same animals, 661 genomic positions overlapped with a good approximation of minor allele frequency estimation. A total of 54 SNPs showing enriched alleles in one or in the other RRLs might be potential markers associated with BFT. Some of these SNPs were close to genes involved in obesity related phenotypes. Samuele Bovo, Francesca Bertolini, Giuseppina Schiavo, Gianluca Mazzoni, Stefania Dall’Olio, and Luca Fontanesi Copyright © 2015 Samuele Bovo et al. All rights reserved. Phylogenomic and Molecular Demarcation of the Core Members of the Polyphyletic Pasteurellaceae Genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella Tue, 03 Mar 2015 15:33:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/198560/ The genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella exhibit extensive polyphyletic branching in phylogenetic trees and do not represent coherent clusters of species. In this study, we have utilized molecular signatures identified through comparative genomic analyses in conjunction with genome based and multilocus sequence based phylogenetic analyses to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic boundary of these genera. We have identified large clusters of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella species which represent the “sensu stricto” members of these genera. We have identified 3, 7, and 6 conserved signature indels (CSIs), which are specifically shared by sensu stricto members of Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella, respectively. We have also identified two different sets of CSIs that are unique characteristics of the pathogen containing genera Aggregatibacter and Mannheimia, respectively. It is now possible to demarcate the genera Actinobacillus sensu stricto, Haemophilus sensu stricto, and Pasteurella sensu stricto on the basis of discrete molecular signatures. The other members of the genera Actinobacillus, Haemophilus, and Pasteurella that do not fall within the “sensu stricto” clades and do not contain these molecular signatures should be reclassified as other genera. The CSIs identified here also provide useful diagnostic targets for the identification of current and novel members of the indicated genera. Sohail Naushad, Mobolaji Adeolu, Nisha Goel, Bijendra Khadka, Aqeel Al-Dahwi, and Radhey S. Gupta Copyright © 2015 Sohail Naushad et al. All rights reserved. Validation of Simple Sequence Length Polymorphism Regions of Commonly Used Mouse Strains for Marker Assisted Speed Congenics Screening Sat, 28 Feb 2015 08:51:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/735845/ Marker assisted speed congenics technique is commonly used to facilitate backcrossing of mouse strains in nearly half the time it normally takes otherwise. Traditionally, the technique is performed by analyzing PCR amplified regions of simple sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers between the recipient and donor strains: offspring with the highest number of markers showing the recipient genome across all chromosomes is chosen for the next generation. Although there are well-defined panels of SSLP makers established between certain pairs of mice strains, they are incomplete for most strains. The availability of well-established marker sets for speed congenic screens would enable the scientific community to transfer mutations across strain backgrounds. In this study, we tested the suitability of over 400 SSLP marker sets among 10 mouse strains commonly used for generating genetically engineered models. The panel of markers presented here can readily identify the specified strains and will be quite useful in marker assisted speed congenic screens. Moreover, unlike newer single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array methods which require sophisticated equipment, the SSLP markers panel described here only uses PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified products; therefore it can be performed in most research laboratories. Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy, Poonam S. Joshi, Scott G. Kurz, Masato Ohtsuka, Rolen M. Quadros, Donald W. Harms, and K. C. Kent Lloyd Copyright © 2015 Channabasavaiah B. Gurumurthy et al. All rights reserved. First Genomic Analysis of Dendritic Cells from Lung and Draining Lymph Nodes in Murine Asthma Wed, 25 Feb 2015 06:10:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/638032/ Asthma is the consequence of allergic inflammation in the lung compartments and lung-draining lymph nodes. Dendritic cells initiate and promote T cell response and drive it to immunity or allergy. However, their modes of action during asthma are poorly understood. In this study, an allergic inflammation with ovalbumin was induced in 38 mice versus 42 control animals. After ovalbumin aerosol challenge, conventional dendritic cells (CD11c/MHCII/CD8) were isolated from the lungs and the draining lymph nodes by means of magnetic cell sorting followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. A comparative transcriptional analysis was performed using gene arrays. In general, many transcripts are up- and downregulated in the CD8− dendritic cells of the allergic inflamed lung tissue, whereas few genes are regulated in CD8+ dendritic cells. The dendritic cells of the lymph nodes also showed minor transcriptional changes. The data support the relevance of the CD8− conventional dendritic cells but do not exclude distinct functions of the small population of CD8+ dendritic cells, such as cross presentation of external antigen. So far, this is the first approach performing gene arrays in dendritic cells obtained from lung tissue and lung-draining lymph nodes of asthmatic-like mice. Thomas Tschernig, Christina Hartwig, Andreas Jeron, Quoc Thai Dinh, Marcus Gereke, and Dunja Bruder Copyright © 2015 Thomas Tschernig et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Background Modulates lncRNA-Coordinated Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Mon, 23 Feb 2015 11:21:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/461038/ Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators of diverse cell functions and processes. However, the relevance of lncRNAs in the cell and tissue response to ionizing radiation has not yet been characterized. Here we used microarray profiling to determine lncRNA and mRNA expression in mammary glands of BALB/c and SPRET/EiJ mice after low-dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) exposure. We found that unirradiated mammary tissues of these strains differed significantly in baseline expressions of 290 lncRNAs. LDIR exposure (10 cGy) induced a significant change in the expression of many lncRNAs. The vast majority of lncRNAs identified to be differentially expressed after LDIR in either BALB/c or SPRET/EiJ had a significantly correlated expression pattern with at least one LDIR responsive mRNA. Functional analysis revealed that the response to LDIR in BALB/c mice is highly dynamic with enrichment for genes involved in tissue injury, inflammatory responses, and mammary gland development at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after LDIR, respectively. Our study demonstrates that genetic background strongly influences the expression of lncRNAs and their response to radiation and that lncRNAs may coordinate the tissue response to LDIR exposure via regulation of coding mRNAs. Jonathan Tang, Yurong Huang, David H. Nguyen, Sylvain V. Costes, Antoine M. Snijders, and Jian-Hua Mao Copyright © 2015 Jonathan Tang et al. All rights reserved. A Classification of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors of Soybean Wed, 11 Feb 2015 09:12:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/603182/ The complete genome sequence of soybean allows an unprecedented opportunity for the discovery of the genes controlling important traits. In particular, the potential functions of regulatory genes are a priority for analysis. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors is known to be involved in controlling a wide range of systems critical for crop adaptation and quality, including photosynthesis, light signalling, pigment biosynthesis, and seed pod development. Using a hidden Markov model search algorithm, 319 genes with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor domains were identified within the soybean genome sequence. These were classified with respect to their predicted DNA binding potential, intron/exon structure, and the phylogeny of the bHLH domain. Evidence is presented that the vast majority (281) of these 319 soybean bHLH genes are expressed at the mRNA level. Of these soybean bHLH genes, 67% were found to exist in two or more homeologous copies. This dataset provides a framework for future studies on bHLH gene function in soybean. The challenge for future research remains to define functions for the bHLH factors encoded in the soybean genome, which may allow greater flexibility for genetic selection of growth and environmental adaptation in this widely grown crop. Karen A. Hudson and Matthew E. Hudson Copyright © 2015 Karen A. Hudson and Matthew E. Hudson. All rights reserved. Helicobacter pylori: Genomic Insight into the Host-Pathogen Interaction Thu, 05 Feb 2015 06:15:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/386905/ The advent of genomic analyses has revolutionized the study of human health. Infectious disease research in particular has experienced an explosion of bacterial genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data complementing the phenotypic methods employed in traditional bacteriology. Together, these techniques have revealed novel virulence determinants in numerous pathogens and have provided information for potential chemotherapeutics. The bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori, has been recognized as a class 1 carcinogen and contributes to chronic inflammation within the gastric niche. Genomic analyses have uncovered remarkable coevolution between the human host and H. pylori. Perturbation of this coevolution results in dysregulation of the host-pathogen interaction, leading to oncogenic effects. This review discusses the relationship of H. pylori with the human host and environment and the contribution of each of these factors to disease progression, with an emphasis on features that have been illuminated by genomic tools. Kathryn P. Haley and Jennifer A. Gaddy Copyright © 2015 Kathryn P. Haley and Jennifer A. Gaddy. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Thinopyrum elongatum Transcriptome under Water Deficit Stress Wed, 04 Feb 2015 14:06:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2015/265791/ The transcriptome of Thinopyrum elongatum under water deficit stress was analyzed using RNA-Seq technology. The results showed that genes involved in processes of amplification of stress signaling, reductions in oxidative damage, creation of protectants, and roots development were expressed differently, which played an important role in the response to water deficit. The Th. elongatum transcriptome research highlights the activation of a large set of water deficit-related genes in this species and provides a valuable resource for future functional analysis of candidate genes in the water deficit stress response. Yongjun Shu, Jun Zhang, You Ao, Lili Song, and Changhong Guo Copyright © 2015 Yongjun Shu et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Yellow Pigmentation Genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis Using Br300 Microarray Wed, 31 Dec 2014 14:16:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/204969/ The yellow color of inner leaves in Chinese cabbage depends on its lutein and carotene content. To identify responsible genes for yellow pigmentation in leaves, the transcriptome profiles of white (Kenshin) and yellow leaves (Wheessen) were examined using the Br300K oligomeric chip in Chinese cabbage. In yellow leaves, genes involved in carotene synthesis (BrPSY, BrPDS, BrCRTISO, and BrLCYE), lutein, and zeaxanthin synthesis (BrCYP97A3 and BrHYDB) were upregulated, while those associated with carotene degradation (BrNCED3, BrNCED4, and BrNCED6) were downregulated. These expression patterns might support that the content of both lutein and total carotenoid was much higher in the yellow leaves than that in the white leaves. These results indicate that the yellow leaves accumulate high levels of both lutein and β-carotene due to stimulation of synthesis and that the degradation rate is inhibited. A large number of responsible genes as novel genes were specifically expressed in yellow inner leaves, suggesting the possible involvement in pigment synthesis. Finally, we identified three transcription factors (BrA20/AN1-like, BrBIM1, and BrZFP8) that are specifically expressed and confirmed their relatedness in carotenoid synthesis from Arabidopsis plants. Hee-Jeong Jung, Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jong-In Park, Mi-Young Chung, Jeongyeo Lee, Yong-Pyo Lim, Yoonkang Hur, and Ill-Sup Nou Copyright © 2014 Hee-Jeong Jung et al. All rights reserved. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) and Crisp Grass Carp Sun, 30 Nov 2014 09:17:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/639687/ Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp. Ermeng Yu, Jun Xie, Guangjun Wang, Deguang Yu, Wangbao Gong, Zhifei Li, Haiying Wang, Yun Xia, and Nan Wei Copyright © 2014 Ermeng Yu et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Salt-Stress-Induced Genes from the RNA-Seq Data of Reaumuria trigyna Using Differential-Display Reverse Transcription PCR Wed, 26 Nov 2014 14:09:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/381501/ Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been used to generate huge amounts of sequencing data from many organisms. However, the correct choice of candidate genes and prevention of false-positive results computed from digital gene expression (DGE) of RNA-seq data are vital when using these genetic resources. We indirectly identified 18 salt-stress-induced Reaumuria trigyna transcripts from the transcriptome sequencing data using differential-display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR) combined with local BLAST searches. Highly consistent with the DGE results, the quantitative real-time PCR expression patterns of these transcripts showed strong upregulation by salt stress, suggesting that these genes may play important roles in R. trigyna’s survival under high-salt environments. The method presented here successfully identified responsive genes from the massive amount of RNA-seq data. Thus, we suggest that DDRT-PCR could be employed to mine NGS data in a wide range of applications in transcriptomic studies. In addition, the genes identified in the present study are promising candidates for further elucidation of the salt tolerance mechanisms in R. trigyna. Zhen-hua Dang, Qi Qi, Hui-rong Zhang, Hao-yu Li, Shu-Biao Wu, and Ying-chun Wang Copyright © 2014 Zhen-hua Dang et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Polymorphisms of Interleukin-1 Alpha and the Vitamin D Receptor in Mexican Mestizo Patients with Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:40:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/302568/ Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is the most common diagnosis in patients with back pain, a leading cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. Several conditions, such as occupational activities, gender, age, and obesity, have been associated with IDD. However, the development of this disease has strong genetic determinants. In this study, we explore the possible association between rs1800587 (c.-949C>T) of interleukin-1 alpha (IL1A) and rs2228570 (c.2T>V) and rs731236 (c.1056T>C) of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and the development of IDD in northwestern Mexican Mestizo population. Gene polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, in two groups matched by age and gender: patients with symptomatic lumbar IDD and subjects with normal lumbar-spine MRI-scans . Distribution of the mutated alleles in patients and controls was 27.0% versus 28.0% for T of rs1800587 (IL1A); 53.0% versus 58.0% for V of rs2228570 (VDR); and 18.0% versus 21.0% for C of rs731236 (VDR). Our results showed no association between the studied polymorphisms and IDD in this population. This is the first report on the contribution of gene polymorphisms on IDD in a Mexican population. Salvador Cervin Serrano, Dalia González Villareal, Maribel Aguilar-Medina, Jose Guillermo Romero-Navarro, Jose Geovanni Romero Quintana, Eliakym Arámbula Meraz, Ignacio Osuna Ramírez, Veronica Picos-Cárdenas, Julio Granados, Iris Estrada-García, Guzman Sánchez-Schmitz, and Rosalío Ramos-Payán Copyright © 2014 Salvador Cervin Serrano et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach Thu, 13 Nov 2014 14:13:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/679437/ The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carcass weight of  kg) immediately after slaughter. The total mRNA from muscle, IMA, and subcutaneous adipose and omental adipose tissues were isolated and sequenced. The reads that passed quality control were mapped onto the bovine reference genome (build bosTau6), and differentially expressed genes across tissues were identified. The KEGG pathway enrichment tests revealed the opposite direction of metabolic regulation between muscle and IMA. Metabolic gene network analysis clearly indicated that oxidative metabolism was upregulated in muscle and downregulated in IMA. Interestingly, pathways for regulating cell adhesion, structure, and integrity and chemokine signaling pathway were upregulated in IMA and downregulated in muscle. It is thus inferred that IMA may play an important role in the regulation of development and structure of the LD tissues and muscle/adipose communication. Hyun-Jeong Lee, Hye-Sun Park, Woonsu Kim, Duhak Yoon, and Seongwon Seo Copyright © 2014 Hyun-Jeong Lee et al. All rights reserved. Facile, High Quality Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes from Small Amounts of DNA Thu, 13 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/434575/ Sequencing bacterial genomes has traditionally required large amounts of genomic DNA (~1 g). There have been few studies to determine the effects of the input DNA amount or library preparation method on the quality of sequencing data. Several new commercially available library preparation methods enable shotgun sequencing from as little as 1 ng of input DNA. In this study, we evaluated the NEBNext Ultra library preparation reagents for sequencing bacterial genomes. We have evaluated the utility of NEBNext Ultra for resequencing and de novo assembly of four bacterial genomes and compared its performance with the TruSeq library preparation kit. The NEBNext Ultra reagents enable high quality resequencing and de novo assembly of a variety of bacterial genomes when using 100 ng of input genomic DNA. For the two most challenging genomes (Burkholderia spp.), which have the highest GC content and are the longest, we also show that the quality of both resequencing and de novo assembly is not decreased when only 10 ng of input genomic DNA is used. Momchilo Vuyisich, Ayesha Arefin, Karen Davenport, Shihai Feng, Cheryl Gleasner, Kim McMurry, Beverly Parson-Quintana, Jennifer Price, Matthew Scholz, and Patrick Chain Copyright © 2014 Momchilo Vuyisich et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of QTLs Associated with the Rice Quality Related Gene by Double Haploid Populations Wed, 12 Nov 2014 12:49:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/781832/ We investigated the growth characteristics and analyzed the physicochemical properties of a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between “Cheongcheong” and “Nagdong” to breed a rice variety that tastes good after cooking and to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with the taste of cooked rice. The results showed that these compounds also represent a normal distribution. Correlation analysis of the amylose, protein, and lipid contents indicated that each compound is related to the taste of cooked rice. The QTLs related to amylose content were 4 QTLs, protein content was 2 QTLs, and lipid content was 2 QTLs. Four of the QTLs associated with amylose content were detected on chromosomes 7 and 11. The index of coincidence for the QTLs related to amylose, protein, and lipid content was 70%, respectively. These markers showing high percentage of coincidence can be useful to select desirable lines for rice breeding. Gyu-Ho Lee, Byung-Wook Yun, and Kyung-Min Kim Copyright © 2014 Gyu-Ho Lee et al. All rights reserved. Lack of Association of the Polymorphisms IL-17A (−197G/A) and IL-17F (+7488A/G) with Multibacillary Leprosy in Mexican Patients Thu, 06 Nov 2014 11:59:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/920491/ Background. Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by the intracellular acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium leprae; it has been determined that genetic factors of the host play an important role in the disease susceptibility. Thus, in this case-control study, we evaluated the possible association between the IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780) gene SNPs and susceptibility to leprosy disease in Mexican population. Methods. Seventy-five leprosy patients and sixty-nine control subjects were included. Both SNPs were genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique. Results. We found nonsignificant differences in genotype and allele frequencies related to IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780) gene SNPs in MB as well as subclinical forms of leprosy disease versus healthy individuals. Conclusions. Since the sample size is not large enough, it is difficult to sustain an association of susceptibility to leprosy with genotypes or allele frequencies of IL-17A G-197A (rs227593) and IL-17F A7488G (His161Arg, rs763780), suggesting that IL-17 polymorphisms have no significant role in the genetic susceptibility to development of this disease in the Mexican Mestizo population. Mónica Escamilla-Tilch, Iris Estrada-García, Julio Granados, Roberto Arenas-Guzmán, Rosalio Ramos-Payan, Thalía Gabriela Pérez-Suárez, Ma. Isabel Salazar, Riky Luis Pérez-Lucas, Sergio Estrada-Parra, and Nora Magdalena Torres-Carrillo Copyright © 2014 Mónica Escamilla-Tilch et al. All rights reserved. A Meta-Analysis on the Relations between EGFR R521K Polymorphism and Risk of Cancer Tue, 21 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/312102/ The EGFR R521K polymorphism has been shown to reduce the activity of EGFR; however, the association between EGFR R521K polymorphism and the risk of cancer remains inconclusive; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between EGFR R521K polymorphism and susceptibility to cancer. Our results suggest that the EGFR R521K polymorphism is not associated with risk of cancer, but the different chemosensitivity to anticancer drugs may need further investigation. Yinsheng Wang, Lidan Zha, Dan Liao, and Xiaozhi Li Copyright © 2014 Yinsheng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Identification and Characterization of Microsatellites in Expressed Sequence Tags and Their Cross Transferability in Different Plants Sun, 19 Oct 2014 07:21:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2014/863948/ Expressed sequence tags (EST) are potential source for the development of genic microsatellite markers, gene discovery, comparative genomics, and other genomic studies. In the present study, 7630 ESTs were examined from NCBI for SSR identification and characterization. A total of 263 SSRs were identified with an average density of one SSR/4.2 kb (3.4% frequency). Analysis revealed that trinucleotide repeats (47.52%) were most abundant followed by tetranucleotide (19.77%), dinucleotide (19.01%), pentanucleotide (9.12%), and hexanucleotide repeats (4.56%). Functional annotation was done through homology search and gene ontology, and 35 EST-SSRs were selected. Primer pairs were designed for evaluation of cross transferability and polymorphism among 11 plants belonging to five different families. Total 402 alleles were generated at 155 loci with an average of 2.6 alleles/locus and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.15 to 0.92 with an average of 0.75. The cross transferability ranged from 34.84% to 98.06% in different plants, with an average of 67.86%. Thus, the validation study of annotated 35 EST-SSR markers which correspond to particular metabolic activity revealed polymorphism and evolutionary nature in different families of Angiospermic plants. Shamshad ul Haq, Rohit Jain, Meenakshi Sharma, Sumita Kachhwaha, and S. L. Kothari Copyright © 2014 Shamshad ul Haq et al. All rights reserved.