About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Geophysics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 153256, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/153256
Research Article

Observations of an 11 September Sahelian Squall Line and Saharan Air Layer Outbreak during NAMMA-06

1Program in Atmospheric Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
2NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA
3Atmospheric Science Group, Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbuck, TX 79409, USA
4Earth Resources Technology, Inc., Laurel, MD 20707, USA
5Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics—Simeon Fongong, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal
6Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Science Studies, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149, USA
7Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA
8Department of Mechanical Engineering, Howard University, Washington, DC 20059, USA
9Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
10Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA

Received 16 April 2011; Revised 28 September 2011; Accepted 5 November 2011

Academic Editor: Alessandra Giannini

Copyright © 2012 J. W. Smith et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. W. Payne and M. M. McGarry, “The relationship of satellite inferred convective activity to easterly waves over West Africa and the adjacent ocean during phase III of GATE,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 105, pp. 413–420, 1977.
  2. A. Gaye, A. Viltard, and P. de Félice, “Squall lines and rainfall over Western Africa during summer 1986 and 87,” Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, vol. 90, no. 3-4, pp. 215–224, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. A. Houze, “Structure and dynamics of a tropical squall line system,” Structure and Dynamics of a Tropical Squall Line System, vol. 105, pp. 1540–1567, 1977.
  4. C. Thorncroft and K. Hodges, “African easterly wave variability and its relationship to Atlantic tropical cyclone activity,” Journal of Climate, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 1166–1179, 2001. View at Scopus
  5. D. P. Rowell and J. R. Milford, “On the generation of African squall lines,” Journal of Climate, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 1181–1193, 1993. View at Scopus
  6. E. J. Zipser, “Mesoscale and convective-scale downdrafts as distinct components of SL circulation,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 105, pp. 1568–1589, 1977.
  7. M. Chong, P. Amayenc, G. Scialom, and J. Testud, “A tropical squall line observed during the COPT 81 experiment in West Africa: part 1: kinematic structure inferred from dual- Doppler radar data,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 670–694, 1987. View at Scopus
  8. J. P. Chalon, G. Jaubert, F. Roux, and J. P. Lafore, “The West African squall line observed on 23 June 1981 during COPT 81: mesoscale structure and transports,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 45, no. 19, pp. 2744–2763, 1988. View at Scopus
  9. F. Roux, “The West African squall line observed of 23 June 1981 during COPT 81: kinematics and thermodynamics of the convective region,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 406–426, 1988. View at Scopus
  10. J. Schwendike and S. C. Jones, “Convection in an African easterly wave over West Africa and the eastern Atlantic: a model case study of Helene (2006),” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 364–396, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. N. Carlson, “Synoptic histories of three African disturbances the developed into Atlantic hurricanes,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 97, pp. 256–276, 1969.
  12. T. N. Carlson, “Some remarks on African disturbances and their progress over the tropical Atlantic,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 97, pp. 716–726, 1969.
  13. R. W. Burpee, “The origin and structure of easterly waves in the lower troposphere of North Africa.,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 29, 1972.
  14. R. J. Reed, D. C. Norquist, and E. E. Recker, “The structure and properties of African wave disturbances as observed during Phase III of GATE,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 105, pp. 317–333, 1977.
  15. J. Zawislak and E. J. Zipser, “Observations of seven African easterly waves in the east Atlantic during 2006,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 26–43, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. J. Zipser, C. H. Twohy, S.-C. Tsay, et al., “The Saharan air layer and the fate of African Easterly Waves: NASA’s AMMA 2006 field program to study tropical cyclogenesis: NAMMA,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 8, pp. 1137–1156, 2009.
  17. P. Kållberg, A. Simmons, S. Uppala, and M. Fuentes, “The ERA-40 archive,” Tech. Rep., ECMWF, 2007, http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/era/era40/ERA40_PRS17_rev1.pdf.
  18. J. E. Janowiak, R. J. Joyce, and Y. Yarosh, “A real-time global half-hourly pixel-resolution infrared dataset and its applications,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 205–217, 2001. View at Scopus
  19. M. S. DeLonge, J. D. Fuentes, S. Chan et al., “Attributes of mesoscale convective systems at the land-ocean transition in Senegal during NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses 2006,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 115, no. 10, Article ID D10213, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. R. A. Houze, S. A. Rutledge, M. I. Biggerstaff, and B. F. Smull, “Interpretation of Doppler weather radar displays of midlatitude mesoscale convective systems,” Bulletin—American Meteorological Society, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 608–619, 1989. View at Scopus
  21. J. Nash, “Progress in introducing new technology sites for the Met Office long range lightning detection system,” Tech. Rep. 2.9, Paper 2.9 WMO, WMO/TD-No.1265.
  22. S. Keogh, E. Hibbett, J. Nash, and J. Eyre, “The Met Office Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system for thunderstorm detection and lightning location,” Tech. Rep. 488, Met Office, Numerical Weather Prediction: Forecasting Research, 2006.
  23. G. Jenkins, P. Kucera, E. Joseph et al., “Coastal observations of weather features in Senegal during the African monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observing period 3,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 115, no. 18, Article ID D18108, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. V. M. Karyampudi and T. N. Carlson, “Analysis and numerical simulations of the Saharan air layer and its effect on easterly wave disturbances,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 45, no. 21, pp. 3102–3136, 1988. View at Scopus
  25. B. Marticorena and G. Bergametti, “Two-year simulations of seasonal and interannual changes of the Saharan dust emissions,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 23, no. 15, pp. 1921–1924, 1996. View at Scopus
  26. I. Koren and Y. J. Kaufman, “Direct wind measurements of Saharan dust events from Terra and Aqua satellites,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. L06122–4, 2004. View at Scopus
  27. C. H. Twohy, S. M. Kreidenweis, T. Eidhammer et al., “Saharan dust particles nucleate droplets in eastern Atlantic clouds,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 36, no. 1, Article ID L01807, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. T. N. Carlson and J. M. Prospero, “The large-scale movement of Saharan air outbreaks over Northern Equatorial Atlantic,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 11, pp. 283–297, 1972.
  29. J. P. Dunion and C. S. Velden, “The impact of the Saharan Air Layer on Atlantic tropical cyclone activity,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 85, no. 3, Article ID L12804, pp. 353–365, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. S. Jenkins and A. Pratt, “Saharan dust, lightning and tropical cyclones in the eastern tropical Atlantic during NAMMA-06,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 35, no. 12, Article ID L12804, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. S. Wong and A. E. Dessler, “Suppression of deep convection over the tropical North Atlantic by the Saharan Air Layer,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, no. 9, Article ID L09808, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus