About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Geophysics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 748921, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/748921
Review Article

Review of Recent Developments and the Future Prospective in West African Atmosphere/Land Interaction Studies

1Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
2Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
3Meteo-France, CNRM, Toulouse, France
4Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, Oxon OX10 8BB, UK

Received 29 June 2011; Accepted 3 January 2012

Academic Editor: Andrea Sealy

Copyright © 2012 Yongkang Xue et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. United Nations Office for West Africa, West Africa, http://unowa.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=793.
  2. M. Hulme, “Validation of large-scale precipitation fields in General Circulation Models,” in Global Precipitations and Climate Change, M. Desbois and F. Desalmand, Eds., NATO ASI Series, p. 466, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1994.
  3. S. E. Nicholson, B. Some, and B. Kone, “An analysis of recent rainfall conditions in West Africa, including the rainy seasons of the 1997 El Nino and the 1998 La Nina years,” Journal of Climate, vol. 13, no. 14, pp. 2628–2640, 2000. View at Scopus
  4. L. Le Barbé, T. Lebel, and D. Tapsoba, “Rainfall variability in West Africa during the years 1950–1990,” Journal of Climate, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 187–202, 2002. View at Scopus
  5. A. Dai, P. J. Lamb, K. E. Trenberth, M. Hulme, P. D. Jones, and P. Xie, “The recent Sahel drought is real,” International Journal of Climatology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1323–1331, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. K. M. Lau, K. M. Kim, and M. I. Lee, “Characteristics of diurnal and seasonal cycles in global monsoon systems,” Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol. 85, pp. 403–416, 2007. View at Scopus
  7. J. L. Redelsperger, C. D. Thorncroft, A. Diedhiou, T. Lebel, D. J. Parker, and J. Polcher, “African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis: an international research project and field campaign,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 1739–1746, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. United Nations, “World Population Prospects,” United Nations Publication, pp. 801, 2009.
  9. P. J. Lamb, “Large-scale tropical Atlantic surface circulation patterns associated with sub-Saharan weather anomalies,” Tellus, vol. 30, pp. 240–251, 1978.
  10. C. J. Folland, M. Owen, N. Ward, and A. Colman, “Prediction of seasonal rainfall in the Sahel region using empirical and dynamical methods,” Journal of Forecasting, vol. 1, pp. 21–56, 1991.
  11. T. Lebel, B. Cappelaere, S. Galle et al., “AMMA-CATCH studies in the Sahelian region of West-Africa: an overview,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 375, no. 1-2, pp. 3–13, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Charney, W. J. Quirk, S. H. Chow, and J. Kornfield, “A comparative study of the effects of albedo change on drought in semi-arid regions,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 1366–1385, 1977. View at Scopus
  13. K. Laval and L. Picon, “Effect of a change of the surface albedo of the Sahel on climate,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 43, no. 21, pp. 2418–2429, 1986. View at Scopus
  14. Y. Xue, K.-N. Liou, and A. Kasahara, “Investigation of the biophysical feedback on the African climate using a two-dimensional model,” Journal of Climate, vol. 3, pp. 337–352, 1990.
  15. Y. Xue and J. Shukla, “The influence of land surface properties on Sahel climate. Part I: desertification,” Journal of Climate, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 2232–2245, 1993. View at Scopus
  16. E. A. B. Eltahir and C. Gong, “Dynamics of wet and dry years in West Africa,” Journal of Climate, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1030–1042, 1996. View at Scopus
  17. C. M. Taylor, E. F. Lambin, N. Stephenne, R. J. Harding, and R. L. H. Essery, “The influence of land use change on climate in the Sahel,” Journal of Climate, vol. 15, no. 24, pp. 3615–3629, 2002. View at Scopus
  18. N. Zeng, J. D. Neelin, K. M. Lau, and C. J. Tucker, “Enhancement of interdecadal climate variability in the Sahel by vegetation interaction,” Science, vol. 286, no. 5444, pp. 1537–1540, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Wang and E. A. B. Eltahir, “Role of vegetation dynamics in enhancing the low-frequency variability of the Sahel rainfall,” Water Resources Research, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1013–1021, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Nicholson, “Land surface processes and Sahel climate,” Reviews of Geophysics, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 117–139, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. Xue, R. W. A. Hutjes, R. J. Harding, et al., “The Sahelian Climate (Chapter A5),” in Vegetation, Water, Humans and the Climate, P. Kabat, M. Claussen, P. A. Dirmeyer, et al., Eds., pp. 59–77, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2004.
  22. C. M. Taylor, D. J. Parker, N. Kalthoff, et al., “New perspectives on land–atmosphere feedbacks from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis,” Atmospheric Science Letters, vol. 12, pp. 38–44, 2011.
  23. P. Xie and P. A. Arkin, “Global Precipitation: a 17-year monthly analysis based on Gauge observations, satellite estimates, and numerical model outputs,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 2539–2558, 1997. View at Scopus
  24. J. P. Goutorbe, A. J. Dolman, J. H. C. Gash, et al., HAPEX—Sahel, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1997.
  25. T. Lebel, D. J. Parker, C. Flamant et al., “The AMMA field campaigns: accomplishments and lessons learned,” Atmospheric Science Letters, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 123–128, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. Boone, P. de Rosnay, G. Balsamo et al., “The AMMA land surface model intercomparison project (ALMIP),” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 1865–1880, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. J. Huffman, R. F. Adler, D. T. Bolvin et al., “The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 38–55, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. B. Geiger, C. Meurey, D. Lajas, L. Franchistéguy, D. Carrer, and J. L. Roujean, “Near real-time provision of downwelling shortwave radiation estimates derived from satellite observations,” Meteorological Applications, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 411–420, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. de Rosnay, M. Drusch, A. Boone et al., “AMMA land surface model intercomparison experiment coupled to the community microwave emission model: ALMIP-MEM,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 114, no. 5, Article ID D05108, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Grippa, L. Kergoat, F. Frappart et al., “Land water storage variability over West Africa estimated by Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and land surface models,” Water Resources Research, vol. 47, no. 5, article W05549, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. F. Timouk, L. Kergoat, E. Mougin et al., “Response of surface energy balance to water regime and vegetation development in a Sahelian landscape,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 375, no. 1-2, pp. 178–189, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. X. Gao and P. A. Dirmeyer, “A multimodel analysis, validation, and transferability study of global soil wetness products,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 1218–1236, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A. A. Boone, I. Poccard-Leclercq, Y. Xue, J. Feng, and P. de Rosnay, “Evaluation of the WAMME model surface fluxes using results from the AMMA land-surface model intercomparison project,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 127–142, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Tulet, M. Mallet, V. Pont, et al., “The 7–12 March dust storm over West Africa: mineral dust generation and vertical layering in the atmosphere,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 113, article D00C08, 13 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. C. Kocha, J. P. Lafore, P. Tulet, and Y. Seity, “High-resolution simulation of a major West African dust-storm: comparison with observations and investigation of dust impact,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 138, no. 663, pp. 455–470, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. C. Delon, C. Galy-Lacaux, A. Boone et al., “Atmospheric nitrogen budget in Sahelian dry savannas,” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 2691–2708, 2010. View at Scopus
  37. A. Agustí-Panareda, G. Balsamo, and A. Beljaars, “Impact of improved soil moisture on the ECMWF precipitation forecast in West Africa,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 37, no. 20, Article ID L20808, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. F. Guichard, N. Asencio, C. Peugeot et al., “An intercomparison of simulated rainfall and evapotranspiration associated with a mesoscale convective system over West Africa,” Weather and Forecasting, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 37–60, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. A. L. Steiner, J. S. Pal, S. A. Rauscher et al., “Land surface coupling in regional climate simulations of the West African monsoon,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 869–892, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. F. Hourdin, F. Guichard, I. Musat et al., “AMMA-Model intercomparison project,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 95–104, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. R. Meynadier, O. Bock, F. Guichard, A. Boone, P. Roucou, and J. L. Redelsperger, “West African Monsoon water cycle: 1. A hybrid water budget data set,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 115, no. 19, Article ID D19106, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. Y. Xue, F. de Sales, W. K. M. Lau et al., “Intercomparison and analyses of the climatology of the West African Monsoon in the West African Monsoon Modeling and Evaluation project (WAMME) first model intercomparison experiment,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 3–27, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. N. Martiny, Y. Richard, and P. Camberlin, “Interannual persistence effects in vegetation dynamics of semi-arid Africa,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, no. 24, Article ID L24403, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. X. Zhang, M. A. Friedl, C. B. Schaaf, A. H. Strahler, and Z. Liu, “Monitoring the response of vegetation phenology to precipitation in Africa by coupling MODIS and TRMM instruments,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 110, no. 12, Article ID D12103, 14 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. Z. Liu, M. Notaro, J. Kutzbach, and N. Liu, “Assessing global vegetation-climate feedbacks from observations,” Journal of Climate, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 787–814, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. O. Los, G. P. Weedon, P. R. J. North, J. D. Kaduk, C. M. Taylor, and P. M. Cox, “An observation-based estimate of the strength of rainfall-vegetation interactions in the Sahel,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, no. 16, Article ID L16402, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. X. Zeng, P. Rao, R. S. DeFries, and M. C. Hansen, “Interannual variability and decadal trend of global fractional vegetation cover from 1982 to 2000,” Journal of Applied Meteorology, vol. 42, no. 10, pp. 1525–1530, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. L. Jarlan, Y. M. Tourre, E. Mougin, N. Philippon, and P. Mazzega, “Dominant patterns of AVHRR NDVI interannual variability over the Sahel and linkages with key climate signals (1982–2003),” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, no. 4, Article ID L04701, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. N. Philippon, L. Jarlan, N. Martiny, P. Camberlin, and E. Mougin, “Characterization of the interannual and intraseasonal variability of West African vegetation between 1982 and 2002 by means of NOAA AVHRR NDVI data,” Journal of Climate, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1202–1218, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. Eklundh and L. Olsson, “Vegetation index trends for the African Sahel 1982–1999,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, no. 8, Article ID 1430, 4 pages, 2003. View at Scopus
  51. Y. Govaerts and A. Lattanzio, “Estimation of surface albedo increase during the eighties Sahel drought from Meteosat observations,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 64, no. 3-4, pp. 139–145, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. Hiernaux, L. Diarra, V. Trichon, E. Mougin, N. Soumaguel, and F. Baup, “Woody plant population dynamics in response to climate changes from 1984 to 2006 in Sahel (Gourma, Mali),” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 375, no. 1-2, pp. 103–113, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. D. Koster, P. A. Dirmeyer, Z. Guo et al., “Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5687, pp. 1138–1140, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. H. Douville, F. Chauvin, and H. Broqua, “Influence of soil moisture on the Asian and African monsoons. Part I: mean monsoon and daily precipitation,” Journal of Climate, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 2381–2403, 2001. View at Scopus
  55. H. Douville, “Influence of soil moisture on the Asian and African monsoons. Part II: interannual variability,” Journal of Climate, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 701–720, 2002. View at Scopus
  56. P. A. Dirmeyer, A. J. Dolman, and N. Sato, “The pilot phase of the global soil wetness project,” Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 851–878, 1999.
  57. M. Notaro, “Statistical identification of global hot spots in soil moisture feedbacks among IPCC AR4 models,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 113, no. 9, Article ID D09101, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. Philippon and B. Fontaine, “The relationship between the Sahelian and previous 2nd Guinean rainy seasons: a monsoon regulation by soil wetness?” Annales Geophysicae, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 575–582, 2002. View at Scopus
  59. M. Shinoda and Y. Yamaguchi, “Influence of soil moisture anomaly on temperature in the Sahel: a comparison between wet and dry decades,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 437–447, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. H. Douville, S. Conil, S. Tyteca, and A. Voldoire, “Soil moisture memory and West African monsoon predictability: artefact or reality?” Climate Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 7-8, pp. 723–742, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. J. J. M. van den Hurk and E. van Meijgaard, “Diagnosing land-atmosphere interaction from a regional climate model simulation over West Africa,” Journal of Hydrometeorology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 467–481, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. Y. Xue, F. De Sales, R. Vasic, et al., “Global and temporal characteristics of seasonal climate/vegetation biophysical process (VBP) interactions,” Journal of Climate, vol. 23, pp. 1411–1433, 2010.
  63. H. S. Kang, Y. Xue, and G. J. Collatz, “Impact assessment of satellite-derived leaf area index datasets using a general circulation model,” Journal of Climate, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 993–1015, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Y. Xue, H. M. H. Juang, W. P. Li et al., “Role of land surface processes in monsoon development: East Asia and West Africa,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 109, no. 3, Article ID D03105, 24 pages, 2004. View at Scopus
  65. C. M. Taylor, “Intraseasonal land-atmospheric coupling in the West African monsoon,” Journal of Climate, vol. 21, no. 24, pp. 6636–6648, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. L. Lavender, C. M. Taylor, and A. J. Matthews, “Coupled land-atmosphere intraseasonal variability of the West African monsoon in a GCM,” Journal of Climate, vol. 23, no. 21, pp. 5557–5571, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. H. Cook, “Generation of the African easterly jet and its role in determining West African precipitation,” Journal of Climate, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1165–1184, 1999. View at Scopus
  68. C. D. Thorncroft and M. Blackburn, “Maintenance of the African easterly jet,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 125, no. 555, pp. 763–786, 1999. View at Scopus
  69. W. Li, Y. Xue, and I. Poccard, “Numerical investigation of the impact of vegetation indices on the variability of West African summer monsoon,” Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, vol. 85, pp. 363–383, 2007. View at Scopus
  70. M. L. C. Wu, O. Reale, S. D. Schubert, M. J. Suarez, R. D. Koster, and P. J. Pegion, “African easterly jet: structure and maintenance,” Journal of Climate, vol. 22, no. 17, pp. 4459–4480, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. D. Prince, Y. H. Kerr, J. P. Goutorbe et al., “Geographical, biological and remote sensing aspects of the hydrologic atmospheric pilot experiment in the Sahel (HAPEX-Sahel),” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 215–234, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. M. Kohler, N. Kalthoff, and C. Kottmeier, “The impact of soil moisture modifications on CBL characteristics in West Africa: a case-study from the AMMA campaign,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 442–455, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. C. M. Taylor, D. J. Parker, and P. P. Harris, “An observational case study of mesoscale atmospheric circulations induced by soil moisture,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 34, no. 15, Article ID L15801, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. L. Garcia-Carreras, D. J. Parker, C. M. Taylor, C. E. Reeves, and J. G. Murphy, “Impact of mesoscale vegetation heterogeneities on the dynamical and thermodynamic properties of the planetary boundary layer,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 115, no. 3, Article ID D03102, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. A. Gaertner, M. Domínguez, and M. Garvert, “A modelling case-study of soil moisture-atmosphere coupling,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 483–495, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. L. Gantner and N. Kalthoff, “Sensitivity of a modelled life cycle of a mesoscale convective system to soil conditions over West Africa,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 136, no. 1, pp. 471–482, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. M. Taylor, A. Gounou, F. Guichard et al., “Frequency of sahelian storm initiation enhanced over mesoscale soil-moisture patterns,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 430–433, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  78. C. M. Taylor, “Feedbacks on convection from an African wetland,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 37, article L05406, 2010.
  79. H. F. Lamprey, “Report on the desert encroachment reconnaissance in northern Sudan,” Desertification Control Bulletin, vol. 17, pp. 1–7, 1988.
  80. C. J. Tucker and S. E. Nicholson, “Variations in the size of the Sahara Desert from 1980 to 1997,” Ambio, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 587–591, 1999. View at Scopus
  81. A. J. Pitman, N. De Noblet-Ducoudré, F. T. Cruz et al., “Uncertainties in climate responses to past land cover change: first results from the LUCID intercomparison study,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 36, no. 14, Article ID L14814, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. H. E. Dregne and N. T. Chou, “Global desertification dimensions and costs,” in Degradation and Restoration of Arid Lands, pp. 249–282, Texas Tech University, 1992.
  83. N. Middleton, The Global Casino. An Introduction to Environmental Issues, Arnold, 4th edition, 2008.
  84. A. S. Goudie, The Human Impact on the Natural Environment, The MIT Press, 6th edition, 2006.
  85. P. Hiernaux, A. Ayantunde, A. Kalilou et al., “Trends in productivity of crops, fallow and rangelands in Southwest Niger: impact of land use, management and variable rainfall,” Journal of Hydrology, vol. 375, no. 1-2, pp. 65–77, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. G. C. Hurtt, S. Frolking, M. G. Fearon et al., “The underpinnings of land-use history: three centuries of global gridded land-use transitions, wood-harvest activity, and resulting secondary lands,” Global Change Biology, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1208–1229, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. T. Hickler, L. Eklundh, J. W. Seaquist et al., “Precipitation controls Sahel greening trend,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, no. 21, Article ID L21415, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. C. Reij, G. Tappan, and A. Belemvire, “Changing land management practices and vegetation on the Central Plateau of Burkina Faso (1968–2002),” Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 642–659, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. T. d'Orgeval and J. Polcher, “Impacts of precipitation events and land-use changes on West African river discharges during the years 1951–2000,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 31, no. 2-3, pp. 249–262, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. Rian, Y. Xue, G. M. MacDonald et al., “Analysis of climate and vegetation characteristics along the savanna-desert ecotone in mali using MODIS data,” GIScience and Remote Sensing, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 424–450, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. S. Levis, G. B. Bonan, and C. Bonfils, “Soil feedback drives the mid-Holocene North African monsoon northward in fully coupled CCSM2 simulations with a dynamic vegetation model,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 23, no. 7-8, pp. 791–802, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. M. Notaro, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, R. Gallimore, and S. Levis, “Combined statistical and dynamical assessment of simulated vegetation-rainfall interactions in North Africa during the mid-Holocene,” Global Change Biology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 347–368, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. G. Wang, E. A. B. Eltahir, J. A. Foley, D. Pollard, and S. Levis, “Decadal variability of rainfall in the Sahel: results from the coupled GENESIS-IBIS atmosphere-biosphere model,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 22, no. 6-7, pp. 625–637, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. G. Wang and E. A. B. Eltahir, “Impact of CO2 concentration changes on the biosphere-atmosphere system of West Africa,” Global Change Biology, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 1169–1182, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. C. A. Alo and G. Wang, “Role of dynamic vegetation in regional climate predictions over Western Africa,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 907–922, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. H. Paeth, K. Born, R. Girmes, R. Podzun, and D. Jacob, “Regional climate change in tropical and Northern Africa due to greenhouse forcing and land use changes,” Journal of Climate, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 114–132, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. A. Agustí-Panareda, G. Balsamo, and A. Beljaars, “Impact of improved soil moisture on the ECMWF precipitation forecast in West Africa,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 37, no. 20, Article ID L20808, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus