About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Geophysics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 981649, 15 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/981649
Research Article

On the Fine-Scale Topography Regulating Changes in Atmospheric Hydrological Cycle and Extreme Rainfall over West Africa in a Regional Climate Model Projections

1Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics-Simeon Fongang (LPASF), Polytechnic School, Cheikh Anta Diop University, P.O. Box 5085, Dakar-Fann, Senegal
2Earth System Physics Section, International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), 34151 Trieste, Italy
3Howard University Program in Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington, DC 20059, USA

Received 27 April 2011; Revised 27 October 2011; Accepted 5 November 2011

Academic Editor: Alessandra Giannini

Copyright © 2012 M. B. Sylla et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. F. Kamga, G. S. Jenkins, A. T. Gaye, A. Garba, A. Sarr, and A. Adedoyin, “Evaluating the National Center for Atmospheric Research climate system model over West Africa: present-day and the 21st century A1 scenario,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 110, Article ID D03106, 18 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Hulme, R. Doherty, T. Ngara, M. New, and D. Lister, “African climate change: 1900–2100,” Climate Research, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 145–168, 2001.
  3. A. Giannini, M. Biasutti, I. M. Held, and A. H. Sobel, “A global perspective on African climate,” Climatic Change, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 359–383, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. M. Biasutti and A. Giannini, “Robust Sahel drying in response to late 20th century forcings,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, Article ID L11706, 4 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Hoerling, J. Hurrell, J. Eischeid, and A. Phillips, “Detection and attribution of twentieth-century northern and southern African rainfall change,” Journal of Climate, vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 3989–4008, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. F. Giorgi and L. O. Mearns, “Introduction to special section: regional climate modelling revisited,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 104, pp. 6335–6352, 1999.
  7. F. Giorgi, C. S. Brodeur, and G. T. Bates, “Regional climate change scenarios over the United States produced with a nested regional climate model,” Journal of Climate, vol. 7, pp. 375–399, 1994.
  8. L. O. Mearns, F. Giorgi, L. McDaniel, and C. Shields, “Analysis of daily variability of precipitation in a nested regional climate model: comparison with observations and doubled CO2 results,” Global and Planetary Change, vol. 10, no. 1–4, pp. 55–78, 1995.
  9. O. B. Christensen, J. H. Christensen, B. Machenhauer, and M. Botzet, “Very high-resolution regional climate simulations over Scandinavia: present climate,” Journal of Climate, vol. 11, pp. 3204–3229, 1998.
  10. J. S. Pal, F. Giorgi, X. Bi, et al., “Consistency of recent European summer precipitation trends and extremes with future regional climate projections,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 31, Article ID L13202, 4 pages, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. F. Giorgi, X. Bi, and J. Pal, “Mean, interannual variability and trends in a regional climate change experiment over Europe. II: climate change scenarios (2071–2100),” Climate Dynamics, vol. 23, no. 7-8, pp. 839–858, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. X. Gao, J. S. Pal, and F. Giorgi, “Projected changes in mean and extreme precipitation over the Mediterranean region from a high resolution double nested RCM simulation,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 33, Article ID L03706, 4 pages, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. L. Mariotti, E. Coppola, M. B. Sylla, F. Giorgi, and C. Piani, “Regional climate model simulation of projected 21st century climate change over an all-Africa domain: comparison analysis of nested and driving model results,” Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 116, Article ID D15111, 12 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. H. Paeth, N. M. Hall, and M. A. Gaertner, “Progress in regional downscaling of west African precipitation,” Atmospheric Science Letters, vol. 12, pp. 75–82, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. G. S. Jenkins, A. T. Gaye, and B. Sylla, “Late 20th century attribution of drying trends in the Sahel from the Regional Climate Model (RegCM3),” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 32, Article ID L22705, 4 pages, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. R. Ramel, H. Gallé, and C. Messager, “On the northward shift of the West African monsoon,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 429–440, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. H. Paeth, K. Born, R. Girmes, R. Podzun, and D. Jacob, “Regional climate change in tropical and Northern Africa due to greenhouse forcing and land use changes,” Journal of Climate, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 114–132, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. W. Moufouma-Okia and D. P. Rowell, “Impact of soil moisture initialisation and lateral boundary conditions on regional climate model simulations of the West African Monsoon,” Climate Dynamics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 213–229, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. M. B. Sylla, F. Giorgi, P. M. Ruti, S. Calmanti, and A. Dell'Aquila, “The impact of deep convection on the West African summer monsoon climate: a regional climate model sensitivity study,” Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 137, pp. 1417–1430, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. N. A. K. Browne and M. B. Sylla, “Regional climate model sensitivity to domain size for the simulation of the West African Monsoon rainfall,” International Journal of Geophysics. In press.
  21. J. S. Pal, F. Giorgi, X. Bi, et al., “The ICTP RegCM3 and RegCNET: regional climate modeling for the developing world,” Bulletin of American Meteorological Society, vol. 88, pp. 1395–1409, 2007.
  22. M. B. Sylla, A. T. Gaye, J. S. Pal, G. S. Jenkins, and X. Q. Bi, “High-resolution simulations of West African climate using regional climate model (RegCM3) with different lateral boundary conditions,” Theoretical and Applied Climatology, vol. 98, no. 3-4, pp. 293–314, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. M. B. Sylla, A. T. Gaye, G. S. Jenkins, J. S. Pal, and F. Giorgi, “Consistency of projected drought over the Sahel with changes in the monsoon circulation and extremes in a regional climate model projections,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 115, Article ID D16108, 9 pages, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. E. Roeckner, G. Bäuml, L. Bonaventura, et al., “The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5. Part I: model description,” Tech. Rep. 349, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg, Germany, 2003.
  25. J. H. Jungclaus, N. Keenlyside, M. Botzet et al., “Ocean circulation and tropical variability in the coupled model ECHAM5/MPI-OM,” Journal of Climate, vol. 19, no. 16, pp. 3952–3972, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. F. Kamga and E. Buscarlet, “Simulation du climat de l’Afrique de l’Ouest à l’aide d’un modèle climatique régional,” La Meteorologie, vol. 52, pp. 28–37, 2006.
  27. F. Giorgi and E. Coppola, “Does the model regional bias affect the projected regional climate change? An analysis of global model projections, a letter,” Climatic Change, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 787–795, 2010.
  28. N. Nakicenovic, et al., IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000.
  29. F. Giorgi, M. R. Marinucci, and G. T. Bates, “Development of a second-generation regional climate model (RegCM2). Part I: boundary-layer and radiative transfer processes,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 121, no. 10, pp. 2794–2813, 1993.
  30. F. Giorgi, M. R. Marinucci, G. T. Bates, and G. D. Canio, “Development of a second-generation regional climate model (RegCM2). Part II: convective processes and assimilation of lateral boundary conditions,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 121, no. 10, pp. 2814–2832, 1993.
  31. G. A. Grell, J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, “Description of the fifth generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5),” Technical Note NCAR/TN-398+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1994.
  32. J. T. Kiehl, J. J. Hack, G. B. Bonan, et al., “Description of the NCAR Community Climate Model (CCM3),” Tech. Rep. TN-420+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1996.
  33. A. A. M. Holtslag, E. I. F. De Bruijn, and H. L. Pan, “A high resolution air mass transformation model for short-range weather forecasting,” Monthly Weather Review, vol. 118, no. 8, pp. 1561–1575, 1990.
  34. R. E. Dickinson, A. Henderson-Sellers, and P. J. Kennedy, “Biosphere—Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) version 1E as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model,” Technical Note NCAR/TN-387+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colo, USA, 1993.
  35. X. Zeng, M. Zhao, and R. E. Dickinson, “Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using TOGA COARE and TAO data,” Journal of Climate, vol. 11, no. 10, pp. 2628–2644, 1998.
  36. J. M. Fritsch and C. F. Chappell, “Numerical prediction of convectively driven mesoscale pressure systems. Part I: convective parameterization,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1722–1733, 1980.
  37. J. S. Pal, E. E. Small, and E. A. B. Eltahir, “Simulation of regional-scale water and energy budgets: representation of subgrid cloud and precipitation processes within RegCM,” Journal of Geophysical Research D, vol. 105, no. 24, pp. 29579–29594, 2000.
  38. B. Fontaine, P. Roucou, and S. Trzaska, “Atmospheric water cycle and moisture fluxes in the West African monsoon: mean annual cycles and relationship using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis,” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 30, Article ID 117, 4 pages, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. A. Giannini, “Mechanisms of climate change in the Semiarid African Sahel: The local view,” Journal of Climate, vol. 23, pp. 743–756, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. G. H. Roe, “Orographic precipitation,” Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, vol. 33, pp. 645–671, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. F. Giorgi, C. Jones, and G. Asrar, “Addressing climate information needs at the regional level: the CORDEX framework,” WMO Bulletin, vol. 58, pp. 175–183, 2009.