International Journal of Geophysics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Geoelectrical Data Inversion by Clustering Techniques of Fuzzy Logic to Estimate the Subsurface Layer Model Tue, 10 Mar 2015 08:50:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/134834/ Soft computing based geoelectrical data inversion differs from conventional computing in fixing the uncertainty problems. It is tractable, robust, efficient, and inexpensive. In this paper, fuzzy logic clustering methods are used in the inversion of geoelectrical resistivity data. In order to characterize the subsurface features of the earth one should rely on the true field oriented data validation. This paper supports the field data obtained from the published results and also plays a crucial role in making an interdisciplinary approach to solve complex problems. Three clustering algorithms of fuzzy logic, namely, fuzzy -means clustering, fuzzy -means clustering, and fuzzy subtractive clustering, were analyzed with the help of fuzzy inference system (FIS) training on synthetic data. Here in this approach, graphical user interface (GUI) was developed with the integration of three algorithms and the input data (AB/2 and apparent resistivity), while importing will process each algorithm and interpret the layer model parameters (true resistivity and depth). A complete overview on the three above said algorithms is presented in the text. It is understood from the results that fuzzy logic subtractive clustering algorithm gives more reliable results and shows efficacy of soft computing tools in the inversion of geoelectrical resistivity data. A. Stanley Raj, D. Hudson Oliver, and Y. Srinivas Copyright © 2015 A. Stanley Raj et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Leakage Areas in an Earth Embankment from GPR Measurements and Permeability Logging Tue, 03 Mar 2015 11:10:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/610172/ Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a nondestructive method allowing the improvement of our knowledge of civil engineering structures. In particular, this method may be a nondestructive efficient tool for dike diagnosis and complete classical geotechnical methods. In this paper, we present GPR observations obtained on an earth embankment (crest and sloped paved revetment) in bad condition and located on the lateral canal of the Loire river (Saint Firmin, 80 km South East of Orléans). These measurements are combined with corings, visual inspection, and permeability logging performed with an updated drilling system, the Perméafor. This survey leads (i) to the detection of decompressed zones associated with leakage areas visible at the foot of the downstream slope and (ii) to the location of potentials voids underneath the paved revetment. This multidisciplinary approach complied with the dike inspection methodology proves its efficiency for the assessment of earth embankments. Raphaël Antoine, Cyrille Fauchard, Yannick Fargier, and Edouard Durand Copyright © 2015 Raphaël Antoine et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Hummel (Modified Schlumberger) Arrays of Vertical Electrical Sounding in Groundwater Exploration: Case Study of Parts of Ibadan Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria Sat, 28 Feb 2015 08:03:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/612303/ This research compared the interpretation results of the Vertical Electrical Sounding data acquired using the conventional Schlumberger and modified Schlumberger arrays with a view to assessing the effectiveness of the modified Schlumberger arrays of vertical electrical sounding as an alternative to the conventional Schlumberger array at sites with space constraint during groundwater exploration. A total of thirty-seven (37) sounding locations were occupied and one hundred (100) sounding data for both conventional Schlumberger and modified Schlumberger arrays were collected across different rock units within Ibadan metropolis, south-western Nigeria, with electrode spacing () ranging from 1 to 75 m. The field data were interpreted qualitatively by curve matching and computer iterative methods. Also, statistical analysis of subsurface units and the coefficient of correlation “” of the statistical plots of the field data shows the relationship between the different arrays. The raw data plot of the different arrays shows significant similarities while statistical analysis of the geo-electric parameters obtained from the different arrays across varied lithologic units show that strong relationships exist between the different field methods. The coefficient of correlation with values ranging from 0.7 to 0.99 implies that a good similarity exists between the different field methods employed in this study. Hence, modified Schlumberger arrays can be said to be a good alternative to the conventional Schlumberger array for groundwater exploration especially in urban settings where space constraint is a major challenge. Micheal Oladunjoye and Solomon Jekayinfa Copyright © 2015 Micheal Oladunjoye and Solomon Jekayinfa. All rights reserved. 3D Geometric Modeling of the Abu Madi Reservoirs and Its Implication on the Gas Development in Baltim Area (Offshore Nile Delta, Egypt) Sun, 01 Feb 2015 14:34:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/369143/ 3D geometric modeling has received renewed attention recently, in the context of visual scene understanding. The reservoir geometry of the Baltim fields is described by significant elements, such as thickness, depth maps, and fault planes, resulting from an interpretation based on seismic and well data. Uncertainties affect these elements throughout the entire interpretation process. They have some bearing on the geometric shape and subsequently on the gross reservoir volume (GRV) of the fields. This uncertainty on GRV also impacts volumes of hydrocarbons in place, reserves, and production profiles. Thus, the assessment of geometrical uncertainties is an essential first step in a field study for evaluation, development, and optimization purposes. Seismic data are best integrated with well and reservoir information. A 3D geometric model of the Late Messinian Abu Madi reservoirs in the time and depth domain is used to investigate the influence of the reservoir geometry on the gas entrapment. Important conceptual conclusions about the reservoir system behavior are obtained using this model. The results show that the reservoir shape influences the seismic response of the incised Abu Madi Paleovalley, making it necessary to account for 3D effects in order to obtain accurate results. Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah and Ahmed Y. Tawfik Copyright © 2015 Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah and Ahmed Y. Tawfik. All rights reserved. Simple Model for Simulating Characteristics of River Flow Velocity in Large Scale Wed, 28 Jan 2015 15:26:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/520893/ We propose a simple computer based phenomenological model to simulate the characteristics of river flow velocity in large scale. We use shuttle radar tomography mission based digital elevation model in grid form to define the terrain of catchment area. The model relies on mass-momentum conservation law and modified equation of motion of falling body in inclined plane. We assume inelastic collision occurs at every junction of two river branches to describe the dynamics of merged flow velocity. Husin Alatas, Dyo D. Prayuda, Achmad Syafiuddin, May Parlindungan, Nurjaman O. Suhendra, and Hidayat Pawitan Copyright © 2015 Husin Alatas et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Gas Sand Horizons of the Rashidpur Structure, Surma Basin, Bangladesh, Using 2D Seismic Interpretation Mon, 26 Jan 2015 08:28:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/840168/ A total of 13 seismic sections were used for 2D seismic interpretation in order to assess the subsurface geometry of gas sand horizons and hydrocarbon prospect of the Rashidpur structure, Surma Basin, Bangladesh. Out of five reflectors, two selected reflectors were mapped for the study. The top of the Upper Gas Sand (R3) reflector was elongated in N-S with the axis swinging slightly to the east on the northern plunge. North-South trending thrust fault was identified in the eastern part which is parallel to the axial line of the structure. The reflection patterns of the gas sand horizons were parallel to each other and similar in nature. The reflection coefficients were positive at the base and negative at the top of the each gas sand horizons. Velocity dropped from 2562 m/s to 2177 m/s in the Upper Gas Sand (R3) and 4320 m/s to 3413 m/s in the Lower Gas Sand (R5) reflector. Bright spot and amplitude anomalies were identified on the top of the both gas sand horizons. The result depicts that the shape of the gas sand horizons is asymmetric anticline. The structure is compressed and elongated NNW-SSE trending anticline. The study reveals hydrocarbon potentiality of the structure. Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam and Md. Ahosan Habib Copyright © 2015 Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam and Md. Ahosan Habib. All rights reserved. Geophysical Contribution in the Characterization of Deep Water Tables Geometry (Sidi Bouzid, Central Tunisia) Thu, 15 Jan 2015 14:35:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/239797/ Geophysical data combined with geological and hydrogeological data were analyzed to characterize the geometry of Oued El Hajel and Ouled Asker deep water tables (Sidi Bouzid). The obtained results allowed refining the geostructural schema by highlighting the individualization of the NE-SW underground convexity of Ouled Asker and the anticline of axis Es Souda-Hmaeima and Ezaouia on either sides of two hydrogeological thresholds. The geometrical analysis determined the spatial extension of Ouled Asker and Oued El Hajel subbasins. The seismic cartography of semideep and deep reservoirs (Oligo-Miocene; Eocene and upper Cretaceous) associated with the main subbasins contributed to proposing hydrogeological prospect zones for a rationalized groundwater exploitation. D. Khazri and H. Gabtni Copyright © 2015 D. Khazri and H. Gabtni. All rights reserved. Acoustic-Gravity Waves Interacting with a Rectangular Trench Wed, 14 Jan 2015 10:42:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2015/806834/ A mathematical solution of the two-dimensional linear problem of an acoustic-gravity wave interacting with a rectangular trench, in a compressible ocean, is presented. Expressions for the flow field on both sides of the trench are derived. The dynamic bottom pressure produced by the acoustic-gravity waves on both sides of the trench is measurable, though on the transmission side it decreases with the trench depth. A successful recording of the bottom pressures could assist in the early detection of tsunami. Usama Kadri Copyright © 2015 Usama Kadri. All rights reserved. Zero-Offset VSP Monitoring of CO2 Storage: Impedance Inversion and Wedge Modelling at the Ketzin Pilot Site Sun, 14 Dec 2014 00:10:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/294717/ At the CO2 storage pilot site near the town of Ketzin (35 km west of Berlin, Germany) the sandstone reservoir at 630 m–650 m depth is thin and heterogeneous. The time-lapse analysis of zero-offset VSP measurements shows that CO2-induced amplitude changes can be observed on near-well corridor stacks. Further, we investigate whether CO2-induced amplitude changes in the monitoring data can be used to derive geometrical and petrophysical parameters governing the migration of CO2 within a brine saturated sandstone aquifer. 2D seismic-elastic modelling is done to test the processing workflow and to perform a wedge modelling study for estimation of the vertical expansion of the CO2 plume. When using the NRMS error as a measure for the similarity between the modelled and recorded repeat traces, the best match is achieved for a plume thickness of 6-7 m within the reservoir sandstone of 8 m thickness. With band limited impedance inversion a velocity reduction at the top of the reservoir of 30%, influenced by casing reverberations as well as CO2 injection, is found. The relation of seismic amplitude to CO2 saturated layer thickness and CO2-induced changes in P-wave velocities are important parameters for the quantification of the injected CO2 volume. Julia Götz, Stefan Lüth, Charlotte M. Krawczyk, and Calin Cosma Copyright © 2014 Julia Götz et al. All rights reserved. Application of Electrical Resistivity Tomography Technique for Characterizing Leakage Problem in Abu Baara Earth Dam, Syria Thu, 11 Dec 2014 00:10:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/368128/ Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) survey was carried out at Abu Baara earth dam in northwestern Syria, in order to delineate potential pathways of leakage occurring through the subsurface structure close to the dam body. The survey was performed along two straight measuring profiles of 715 and 430 m length in up- and downstream sides of the dam’s embankment. The analysis of the inverted ERT sections revealed the presence of fractured and karstified limestone rocks which constitute the shallow bedrock of the dam reservoir. Several subsurface structural anomalies were identified within the fractured bedrock, most of which are associated with probable karstic cavities, voids, and discontinuity features developed within the carbonates rocks. Moreover, results also showed the occurrence of a distinguished subsiding structure coinciding with main valley course. Accordingly, it is believed that the bedrock and the other detected features are the main potential causes of water leakage from the dam’s reservoir. Walid Al-Fares Copyright © 2014 Walid Al-Fares. All rights reserved. Diacritical Seismic Signatures for Complex Geological Structures: Case Studies from Shushan Basin (Egypt) and Arkoma Basin (USA) Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:10:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/876180/ Seismic reflection techniques show an imperative role in imaging complex geological structures and are becoming more acceptable as data interpreting tools in 2D/3D view. These subsurface geological structures provide complex seismic signature due to their geometrical behavior. Consequently, it is extremely difficult to interpret these seismic sections in terms of subsurface configuration. The main goal of this paper is to introduce seismic attributes as a powerful tool to interpret complex geological structures in different geological settings. In order to image these complex geological features, multiple seismic attributes such as coherence and curvature have been applied to the seismic data generated over the Shushan Basin (Egypt) and Arkoma Basin (USA). Each type of geological structure event usually generates a unique seismic “signature” that we can recognize and identify by using these seismic attributes. In Shushan Basin (Egypt), they provide a framework and constraint during the interpretation and can help prevent mistakes during a 3D structural modeling. In Arkoma Basin (USA), the seismic attributes results provide useful information for broader analyses of the complex structural relations in the region where the Ouachita orogenic belt intersects with the southern Oklahoma aulacogen. Finally, complex geological structures provide dramatically diacritical seismic signatures that can be easily interpreted by collaborating conventional seismic interpretation techniques with multiple seismic attributes. Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah and Hamed A. Alrefaee Copyright © 2014 Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah and Hamed A. Alrefaee. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Integrated Approach to Investigate the Effect of Leachate on Groundwater around the Ikot Ekpene Dumpsite in Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria” Sun, 19 Oct 2014 11:00:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/636129/ N. J. George, A. I. Ubom, and J. I. Ibanga Copyright © 2014 N. J. George et al. All rights reserved. Delineation of Fractured Aquifer Using Numerical Analysis (Factor) of Resistivity Data in a Granite Terrain Tue, 14 Oct 2014 11:37:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/585204/ In hard rock terrain, fractured aquifers comprise the major source of groundwater availability where the phreatic aquifer is desaturated. Identification of fracture zones in hard rock terrain and potential groundwater source delineation had been a perennial problem in hydrology. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the study over a small watershed area, in a granite terrain, wherein an attempt was made to delineate and map the fractured aquifer using numerical (factor) analysis of the conventional vertical electrical sounding data, which was obscure in curve matching technique. This numerical approach in concatenation with resistivity imaging or other techniques would prove to be an effective tool in groundwater exploration. Rolland Andrade Copyright © 2014 Rolland Andrade. All rights reserved. Rational Rock Physics for Improved Velocity Prediction and Reservoir Properties Estimation for Granite Wash (Tight Sands) in Anadarko Basin, Texas Tue, 26 Aug 2014 05:51:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/209351/ Due to the complex nature, deriving elastic properties from seismic data for the prolific Granite Wash reservoir (Pennsylvanian age) in the western Anadarko Basin Wheeler County (Texas) is quite a challenge. In this paper, we used rock physics tool to describe the diagenesis and accurate estimation of seismic velocities of P and S waves in Granite Wash reservoir. Hertz-Mindlin and Cementation (Dvorkin’s) theories are applied to analyze the nature of the reservoir rocks (uncemented and cemented). In the implementation of rock physics diagnostics, three classical rock physics (empirical relations, Kuster-Toksöz, and Berryman) models are comparatively analyzed for velocity prediction taking into account the pore shape geometry. An empirical (-) relationship is also generated calibrated with core data for shear wave velocity prediction. Finally, we discussed the advantages of each rock physics model in detail. In addition, cross-plots of unconventional attributes help us in the clear separation of anomalous zone and lithologic properties of sand and shale facies over conventional attributes. Muhammad Z. A. Durrani, Keith Willson, Jingyi Chen, Bryan Tapp, and Jubran Akram Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Z. A. Durrani et al. All rights reserved. Scientific Review on the Ionospheric Absorption and Research Prospects of a Complex Eikonal Model for One-Layer Ionosphere Tue, 05 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/657434/ The present paper conducts a scientific review on ionospheric absorption, extrapolating the research prospects of a complex eikonal model for one-layer ionosphere. As regards the scientific review, here a quasi-longitudinal (QL) approximation for nondeviative absorption is deduced which is more refined than the corresponding equation reported by Davies (1990). As regards the research prospects, a complex eikonal model for one-layer ionosphere is analyzed in depth here, already discussed by Settimi et al. (2013). A simple formula is deduced for a simplified problem. A flat, layered ionospheric medium is considered, without any horizontal gradient. The authors prove that the QL nondeviative amplitude absorption according to the complex eikonal model is more accurate than Rawer’s theory (1976) in the range of middle critical frequencies. Alessandro Settimi, Alessandro Ippolito, Claudio Cesaroni, and Carlo Scotto Copyright © 2014 Alessandro Settimi et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Location and Depth of Mineral Rocks at Olode Village in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, Using Geophysical Methods Wed, 16 Jul 2014 12:06:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/306862/ Magnetic and resistivity geophysical methods were used to investigate the location and depth of mineral rocks at Olode village, Oyo State, Nigeria. 80 magnetic data points were acquired in 10 profiles using G-816 proton precession magnetometer with 10 m spacing in between each profiles and 10 m stations interval. After correcting diurnal variations, the raw magnetic data obtained were plotted as 2D and 3D magnetic contour maps. The residual anomalies obtained were plotted against distance using Microsoft Excel, and Peter’s half-slope method was used to find the depth to the magnetic sources. The magnetic signature obtained show considerable varying amplitude from a minimum value of 155.3 nT at a depth of 6.37 m to a maximum value of 670.3 nT at a depth of 6.25 m. Resistivity data were obtained using Campus Tiger resistivity meter and 9 VESs were acquired using Schlumberger configuration. All VESs were 150 m long, 75 m on each side of the referenced points which were 10 m apart. VESs 1–4 and 7–9 are underlined with rocks of high conductivity and susceptibility values. VESs 5 and 6 show rocks with low conductivity and susceptibility values. The results of these geophysical methods show that there are rocks with high magnetic susceptibility and conductivity values from the centre towards the eastern region of the study area and low magnetic susceptibility and conductivity values at the western region. On the average, the depths of these rocks from the surface fall in the interval of 5.80 m to 6.72 m. Akintayo O. Ojo, Toyin O. Omotoso, and Olorunyomi J. Adekanle Copyright © 2014 Akintayo O. Ojo et al. All rights reserved. Airglow Measurements of Gravity Wave Propagation and Damping over Kolhapur (16.5°N, 74.2°E) Mon, 07 Jul 2014 07:33:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/514937/ Simultaneous mesospheric OH and O  (1S) night airglow intensity measurements from Kolhapur (16.8°N, 74.2°E) reveal unambiguous gravity wave signatures with periods varying from 01 hr to 9 hr with upward propagation. The amplitudes growth of these waves is found to vary from 0.4 to 2.2 while propagating from the OH layer (~87 km) to the O (1S) layer (~97 km). We find that vertical wavelength of the observed waves increases with the wave period. The damping factors calculated for the observed waves show large variations and that most of these waves were damped while traveling from the OH emission layer to the O (1S) emission layer. The damping factors for the waves show a positive correlation at vertical wavelengths shorter than 40 km, while a negative correlation at higher vertical wavelengths. We note that the damping factors have stronger positive correlation with meridional wind shears compared to the zonal wind shears. R. N. Ghodpage, A. Taori, P. T. Patil, S. Gurubaran, A. K. Sharma, S. Nikte, and D. Nade Copyright © 2014 R. N. Ghodpage et al. All rights reserved. Is There Deep-Seated Subsidence in the Houston-Galveston Area? Wed, 02 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/942834/ Long-term continuous groundwater level and land subsidence monitoring in the Houston-Galveston area indicates that, during the past two decades (1993–2012), the groundwater head has been increasing and the overall land subsidence rate has been decreasing. Assuming that the hydraulic head in the aquifer will reach or exceed the preconsolidation level in the near future, will subsidence in the Houston-Galveston area eventually cease? The key to answer this question is to identify if there is deep-seated subsidence in this area. This study investigated the recent subsidence observed at different depths in the Houston-Galveston area. The subsidence was recorded by using 13 borehole extensometers and 76 GPS antennas. Four of the GPS antennas are mounted on the deep-anchored inner pipes of borehole extensometers. We conclude that recent subsidence (1993–2012) in the Houston-Galveston area was dominated by the compaction of sediments within 600 m below the land surface. Depending on the location of specific sites, the compaction occurred within the Chicot aquifer and part or all of the Evangeline aquifer. No measurable compaction was observed within the Jasper aquifer or within deeper strata. Deep-seated subsidence is not likely occurring in the Houston-Galveston area. Jiangbo Yu, Guoquan Wang, Timothy J. Kearns, and Linqiang Yang Copyright © 2014 Jiangbo Yu et al. All rights reserved. Magnetic Study of the Heated and Unheated Sedimentary Fillings of Sebkha Mhabeul, Southeast Tunisia: A Geophysical Method for Paleoclimatic Investigation and Tephrochronological Dating Thu, 19 Jun 2014 07:25:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/908395/ This paper is meant to investigate the climatic and volcanic signals within the sedimentary filling of sebkha Mhabeul through a thermomagnetic study of a 37 cm length core. Values of the magnetic susceptibility at ambient temperature show that the core encompasses four climatic stages: the Warming Present (WP), the Little Ice Age (Late LIA), Early Little Ice Age (ELIA), and the Medieval Climate Anomalies (MCA). Added to the subcycles, the spectral analysis shows the individualization of an 888 yr cycle probably related to solar activity. The heating at 250°C is good-for-nothing since it was useful neither for climatic investigation nor for tephras layers detection. Heating at 700°C generated the complete loss of the climatic signal. On the other hand, it allowed the detection of the previously identified tephras layers. Further, it highlighted the presence of other tephras layers. The extraction by the bromoform confirms the presence of these tephras. The use of the same methodology may allow the detection of tephras layers within other sebkhas. Elhoucine Essefi, Samir Mefteh, Mounir Medhioub, and Chokri Yaich Copyright © 2014 Elhoucine Essefi et al. All rights reserved. 2D Geoelectric Imaging of the Uneme-Nekhua Fracture Zone Wed, 04 Jun 2014 09:04:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/842812/ We have employed 2D geoelectric imaging to reveal the geometry and nature of a fracture zone in Uneme-Nekhua, southwestern Nigeria. The fracture zone is discernable from an outcropping rock scarp and appears to define the course of a seasonal stream. Data were acquired using the dipole-dipole survey array configuration with electrode separation of 6 m and a maximum dipole length of 60 m. Three traverses with lengths varying between 72 m and 120 m were laid orthogonal to the course of the seasonal stream. 2D geoelectric images of the subsurface along the profiles imaged a north-south trending fracture zone. This fracture zone appears to consist of two vertical fractures with more intense definition downstream. The eastern fracture is buried by recent sediment, while the western fracture appears to have experienced more recent tectonic activity as it appears to penetrate through the near surface. Perhaps at some point, deformation ceased on the eastern fracture and further strain was transferred to the western fracture. The fracture zone generally defines the course of the north-south seasonal stream with the exception of the downstream end where the fracture appears to have died out entirely. Two associated basement trenches lying parallel to and east of the fracture zone are also imaged. Muslim B. Aminu, Tunde M. Akande, and Olubukola A. Ishola Copyright © 2014 Muslim B. Aminu et al. All rights reserved. Examination of a Theoretical Model of Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient Tue, 27 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/471819/ Seismoelectric effects and streaming potentials play an important role in geophysical applications. The key parameter for those phenomena is the streaming potential coupling coefficient, which is, for example, dependent on the zeta potential of the interface of the porous rocks. Comparison of an existing theoretical model to experimental data sets from available published data for streaming potentials has been performed. However, the existing experimental data sets are based on samples with dissimilar fluid conductivity, pH of pore fluid, temperature, and sample compositions. All those dissimilarities may cause the observed deviations. To critically assess the models, we have carried out streaming potential measurement as a function of electrolyte concentration and temperature for a set of well-defined consolidated samples. The results show that the existing theoretical model is not in good agreement with the experimental observations when varying the electrolyte concentration, especially at low electrolyte concentration. However, if we use a modified model in which the zeta potential is considered to be constant over the electrolyte concentration, the model fits the experimental data well in a whole range of concentration. Also, for temperature dependence, the comparison shows that the theoretical model is not fully adequate to describe the experimental data but does describe correctly the increasing trend of the coupling coefficient as function of temperature. D. T. Luong and R. Sprik Copyright © 2014 D. T. Luong and R. Sprik. All rights reserved. Recovering Uniform Coverage in a 3D Survey: Case Study from Onshore Southern India Tue, 20 May 2014 12:54:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/987605/ We present a case study on 3D seismic acquisition under inaccessible ground conditions and heavy head-loads. The novelty in this case study is designing novel shot recovery strategies. The study area is in a densely populated region in Southern India, where a 3D survey was conducted over an area of 700 km2 to illuminate a target formation at 3000 m depth. The survey was designed in a brick pattern with six shots in a round, a line repeat interval of 2, and offset and skid grid of 300 m 300 m. Only 40% of full fold could be obtained with conventional shot recovery methods. To increase the survey fold, two new shot recovery strategies were attempted. First, the original offset and skid grid was increased to 1100 m 1200 m. Second, if the recovery shot did not fall in this grid, it was relocated along the swath from its original location to a distance equal to half the inline offset. The two strategies, employed together, increased the fold to 90% of full fold at the target area maintaining its uniformity. Although the illumination of the target zone was adequate for interpretation in this case, we see a need for adaptation if these strategies are to be applied in other surveys. In general, issues related to offset-limit, shot-density, and grid-spacing are a matter of continual optimization in 3D surveys. K. Shukla, P. Jaiswal, and C. S. Singh Copyright © 2014 K. Shukla et al. All rights reserved. A Fast Imaging Technique Applied to 2D Electrical Resistivity Data Wed, 02 Apr 2014 11:38:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/846024/ A new technique is proposed to process 2D apparent resistivity datasets, in order to obtain a fast and contrasted resistivity image, useful for a rapid data check in field or as a starting model to constrain the inversion procedure. In the past some modifications to the back-projection algorithm, as well as the use of filtering techniques for the sensitivity matrix were proposed. An implementation of this technique is proposed here, considering a two-step approach. Initially a damped least squares solution is obtained after a full matrix inversion of the linearized geoelectrical problem. Furthermore, on the basis of the results, a subsequent filtering algorithm is applied to the Jacobian matrix, aiming at reducing smoothness, and the linearized damped least square inversion is repeated to get the final result. This fast imaging technique aims at increasing the resistivity contrasts and practically, since it does not require a parameter set optimization, it can be used to easily obtain fast and preliminary results. The proposed technique is tested on synthetic data, the objective of which is to find the optimal parameter set. Finally, two field cases are discussed and the comparison between back-projection and inversion is shown. Raffaele Martorana and Patrizia Capizzi Copyright © 2014 Raffaele Martorana and Patrizia Capizzi. All rights reserved. Correlation of VLF-EM Data with Radiometric Measurements: Implications for Uranium Exploration around Beldih, South Purulia Shear Zone, India Thu, 27 Mar 2014 13:05:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/969462/ This study is an attempt to correlate VLF-EM data with the radiometric measurements to decipher the subsurface structure and to locate uranium mineralization in the shear zone. The study area is around Beldih mine which is an open cast apatite mine located on the South Purulia Shear Zone. VLF method has been applied to map the structure and the presence of radioactive minerals has been delineated by the detection of high α and γ counts with respect to the background radiations. High radiation counts and high surface γ activity are found just above the higher apparent current-density zones in all the profiles studied, at various locations, indicating uranium and/or thorium mineralization as well as good correlation between these techniques. Saurabh Mittal, S. P. Sharma, Arkoprovo Biswas, and D. Sengupta Copyright © 2014 Saurabh Mittal et al. All rights reserved. 2D Electrical Imaging Surveys for Leachate Plume Migration at an Old Dump Site in Ibadan South Western Nigeria: A Case Study Wed, 26 Mar 2014 11:20:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/879530/ The site surveyed is along a popular ring road in Ibadan. It is an old dump site which had been closed over a long period of time. Development into industrial and residential house schemes had crowded around the site. This development resulted in the exploitation of groundwater within the thick regolith that characterize the area. The investigation was carried out to ascertain leachate plume generation and migration and its impact on the surrounding soil and the groundwater. 2D electrical resistivity imaging using Wenner array was used to delineate the plume and probable trend of migration. The method involves the injection of low frequency DC current into the subsurface and measuring the potential difference set up by another pair of electrodes called potential electrodes. All the traverses show areas of very low resistivity values ranging between 4 ohm-m and 13.8 ohm-m; in addition to this, the water samples collected from hand dug wells that surround the dump site show high total dissolved solids (TDS) with an average value of 2033 mg/L, high conductivity with an average value of 2868 mg/L, and high nitrate value (63 mg/L); these values are above the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible values. This poses a health challenge to the residents living around this site. Dare Omolayo and Fatoba Julius Tope Copyright © 2014 Dare Omolayo and Fatoba Julius Tope. All rights reserved. Characterization of Geotomographic Studies with the EMRE System Thu, 20 Feb 2014 12:09:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/401654/ Posiva Oy carries out research and development on spent nuclear fuel disposal in Finland. The repository will be constructed deep in the crystalline bedrock of Olkiluoto island in Eurajoki. Posiva Oy and ANDRA (France) have cooperated actively in examining methods for revealing properties of granitic bedrock. One of the considered methods was an electromagnetic cross-borehole survey, and RIM measurements were conducted in 2009. Olkiluoto migmatitic bedrock has undergone polyphasic ductile-brittle deformation and resistivity in the bedrock varies strongly in range of tens to tens of thousands of Ωm. Field work was successfully performed in one borehole pair. The results are presented in this paper. The tomographic reconstruction of the borehole section is based on the far-field approximation of the electric field. The results prove that the method can be used between boreholes to delineate and follow sulphide-bearing horizons. The detected low and high resistivity zones and their apparent shapes and orientations are in fair agreement with geological and other geophysical results. The obtained information can be used, for example, in assessing the integrity of the rock mass, as the increased electrical conductivity is often associated with rock mass deformation (clay and water bearing fractures, sulphide and graphite bearing zones). Arto Korpisalo Copyright © 2014 Arto Korpisalo. All rights reserved. Propagation of Rayleigh Wave in a Thermoelastic Solid Half-Space with Microtemperatures Sun, 16 Feb 2014 07:47:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/474502/ The Rayleigh surface wave is studied at a stress-free thermally insulated surface of an isotropic, linear, and homogeneous thermoelastic solid half-space with microtemperatures. The governing equations of the thermoelastic medium with microtemperatures are solved for surface wave solutions. The particular solutions in the half-space are applied to the required boundary conditions at stress-free thermally insulated surface to obtain the frequency equation of the Rayleigh wave. Some special cases are also derived. The non-dimensional speed of Rayleigh wave is computed numerically and presented graphically to reveal the dependence on the frequency and microtemperature constants. Baljeet Singh Copyright © 2014 Baljeet Singh. All rights reserved. Integrated Approach to Investigate the Effect of Leachate on Groundwater around the Ikot Ekpene Dumpsite in Akwa Ibom State, Southeastern Nigeria Tue, 28 Jan 2014 08:30:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/174589/ Geophysical, geochemical, and hydrogeological measurements have been integrated to assess the effect of leachate on groundwater quality within the dumpsite in Ikot Epene Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Southern Nigeria, and its environs. The resistivity values and depth of burial of the geomaterials, constrained by geology, were used in producing resistivity cross sections which show the geoelectric distribution of the subsurface near and away from the dumpsite. The observed high conductivity in subsurface layers closed to the dumpsite is symptomatic of the leachate-loaded conductive fluid leached and drained into the subsurface. The hydrochemical results of some species conform to WHO standards, while some were found to be relatively higher due to dissolution, leaching, and draining of leachate related contaminants in the soil. The correlation indices of the ion pairs show no significant effect on the paired ions, indicating that the significant value of some of the individual ions is not geologic but due to precipitation from the leachate residue. In general, the effect of leachate is more dominant in the immediate groundwater pathway near the dumpsite than aquifer repositories away from it. The crossplots of the water resistivity and bulk resistivity show exponential increase for the different layers. N. J. George, A. I. Ubom, and J. I. Ibanga Copyright © 2014 N. J. George et al. All rights reserved. Integrating Apparent Conductance in Resistivity Sounding to Constrain 2D Gravity Modeling for Subsurface Structure Associated with Uranium Mineralization across South Purulia Shear Zone, West Bengal, India Wed, 22 Jan 2014 09:47:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2014/691521/ South Purulia Shear Zone (SPSZ) is an important area for the prospect of uranium mineralization and no detailed geophysical investigations have been carried out in this region. To delineate the subsurface structure in the present area, vertical electrical soundings using Schlumberger array and gravity survey were carried out along a profile perpendicular to the SPSZ. Apparent conductance in the subsurface revealed a possible connection from SPSZ to Raghunathpur. The gravity model reveals the presence of a northerly dipping low density zone (most likely the shear zone) extending up to Raghunathpur under a thin cover of granitic schist of Chotanagpur Granite Gneissic Complex (CGGC). The gravity model also depicts the depth of the zone of density low within this shear zone at ~400 m near Raghunathpur village and this zone truncates with a steep slope. Integration of resistivity and gravity study revealed two possible contact zones within this low density zone in the subsurface at depth of 40 m and 200 m. Our study reveals a good correlation with previous studies in Raghunathpur area characterized by medium to high hydro-uranium anomaly. Thus the conducting zone coinciding with the low gravity anomaly is inferred to be a possible uranium mineralized zone. Arkoprovo Biswas, Animesh Mandal, Shashi Prakash Sharma, and William Kumar Mohanty Copyright © 2014 Arkoprovo Biswas et al. All rights reserved. Field Detection of Microcracks to Define the Nucleation Stage of Earthquake Occurrence Tue, 31 Dec 2013 16:20:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijge/2013/651823/ Main shocks of natural earthquakes are known to be accompanied by preshocks which evolve following the modified Ohmori’s law in average over many samples. Individual preshock activity, however, is far less systematic for predictive purposes. On the other hand, the microcracks in laboratory rock experiments are always preceded to final rupture. And, previous investigations of field acoustic emissions showed that the activity increases prominently before and after the main shock. But there is no detection of any phenomena to identify the nucleation stage. Here we show that a special underground electric field measurement could detect microcracks. Pulse-like variations were classified into three groups (A, B, C) by frequency. The B-type is suggested to define the nucleation period: activity increases sharply following the modified Omori’s law before the main shock and there is no activity afterward. The B-type is subgrouped into three types possibly corresponding to crack-rupture modes. The variations are supposed to be induced by crack occurrence through electrokinetic effects in the elastic-porous medium. The detection distance is suggested to be several orders larger than that of the acoustic emission due to the effective smallness of dissipation rate, and the waveform can be used to infer the rupture mode. Y. Fujinawa, Y. Noda, K. Takahashi, M. Kobayashi, K. Takamatsu, and J. Natsumeda Copyright © 2013 Y. Fujinawa et al. All rights reserved.