Table 1: Common causes of portal hypertension in children and suggested management.

CauseTreatmentComment

(1) Endoscopic
Portal vein obstruction(2) Meso-Rex shuntEndoscopic treatment consists on elastic banding or sclerotherapy
(3) DSR or mesocaval shunt

Biliary atresia(1) EndoscopicScreening at age of 1, prophylaxis in high-risk varices
(2) Liver transplantation

(1) EndoscopicNeed repetitive anesthetics
Cystic fibrosis(2) DSR or meso-caval shuntRisk of pulmonary complications and worsening encephalopathy
(3) Liver transplantation When good respiratory function

(1) Endoscopic
Congenital hepatic fibrosis(2) DSR or meso-caval shuntWhen recurrent cholangitis (need to consider liver and kidney tranplantation)
(3) Liver transplantation

(1) Endoscopic
Other cirrhosis(2) DSR or meso-caval shuntIf good liver function
(3) Liver transplantationIn end-stage liver disease

DSR: distal spleno-renal shunt.