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International Journal of Hypertension
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 232683, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/232683
Review Article

Vascular Damage in Kidney Disease: Beyond Hypertension

1Basic Pathology Department, Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Universidade Federal do Paraná, 80531-980 Curitiba, PR, Brazil
2Center for Health and Biological Sciences, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Rua Imaculada Conceição, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, PR, Brazil

Received 20 December 2010; Revised 30 June 2011; Accepted 3 July 2011

Academic Editor: Cesare Cuspidi

Copyright © 2011 Andréa E. M. Stinghen and Roberto Pecoits-Filho. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent and a multiplier of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cannot be completely explained by traditional Framinghan risk factors. Consequently, greater emphasis has been placed in nontraditional risk factors, such as inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, sympathetic overactivation, protein-energy wasting oxidative stress, vascular calcification, and volume overload. The accumulation of uremic toxins (and the involvement of genetic factors) is responsible for many of the clinical consequences of a condition known as uremia. In this brief paper, we discuss mechanisms involved in the vascular damage of CKD patients, aiming to point out that important factors beyond hypertension are largely responsible for endothelial activation and increased CVD risk, with potential impact on risk stratification and development of novel therapeutic options.