Table 1: Major types of mind-body interventions.

Major types of mind-body interventionsSubtypesDescriptionSettingCertification to administerDoseStandardization

Relaxation therapyProgressive muscle relaxation (PMR), biofeedback, relaxation-assisted biofeedback, autogenic trainingUses relaxation techniques to achieve physical and mental relaxation, often coupled with breathing exercises or mental imageryGroup or individualVaries (health professionals, psychologists, therapists, etc.)Varies (e.g., weekly sessions with homework assignments)Not standardized
Stress-management therapyN/AAdjusts behavioral and psychological responses to stress through cognitive behavioral interventionsGroup or individualVariesVariesNot standardized
Zen meditationN/AFocuses attention on counting deep breaths or koans (riddles irresolvable by logic) to cultivate awarenessMostly individualZen practitionerVariesNot standardized
Transcendental meditation (TM)N/ATakes attention beyond normal thinking processes until thought is transcended and a state of pure consciousness is achieved, beginning with repetition of a mantraMostly individualCertified instructor through the Maharishi Vedic Education FoundationTechnique learned in a 7-step course or through personal instruction, practiced 15–20 min twice/dayStandardized
Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR)N/AUses meditation and stress-management techniques, including mindfulness skills, such as coping, sitting meditation, and yoga, to improve physical and emotional well-beingGroup sessions with individual practiceVaries8 weekly 2.5 hr. sessions, with at least 45 min. of daily practice 6 days/week, concluding with an 8 hr. mindfulness retreat with a therapistStandardized