International Journal of Medical Genetics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Role of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta in Diabetic Nephropathy Tue, 28 Jan 2014 14:03:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijmg/2014/180270/ Several studies have demonstrated that chronic and low-grade inflammation is closely linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus. The associated mechanisms are related to synthesis and release of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, mainly by the adipose tissue. Moreover, there are evidences that cytokines and adhesion molecules are important for development of diabetic nephropathy. Among the cytokines associated with inflammatory responses in type 2 diabetes mellitus, the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been recognized as a central player in the diabetic nephropathy being involved in the development of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, as observed in the course of end-stage renal disease. Although TGF-β1 is classically an anti-inflammatory immune mediator it has been shown that in the presence of IL-6, which increases before the onset of T2D, TGF-β1 favors the differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells that are activated in many pro-inflammatory conditions. Since TGF-β1 mRNA and consequently serum TGF-β1 levels are under genetic control, this review aims to discuss the relationship of TGF-β1 levels and polymorphisms in the development of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Karina Braga Gomes, Kathryna Fontana Rodrigues, and Ana Paula Fernandes Copyright © 2014 Karina Braga Gomes et al. All rights reserved.