Table 2: Pre- and postharvest Campylobacter phage applications.

YearAnimal/product Phage(s)StrategyMain outcomeRefs

Preharvest application

2005Poultry
(broiler chickens)
ΦCP8, ΦCP34Oral delivery in antacid suspensionDecrease of CFU between 0.5 and 5 log CFU/g in the cecal content over a 5-day period posttreatment[48]
2005Poultry
(broiler chickens)
69, 71Oral deliveryReduction of CFU by 1 log within 5-day period post-treatment. Phage preventive treatment caused a delay in a colonization [58]
2009Poultry
(broiler chickens)
CP220Oral deliveryReduction of 2 log CFU per g in cecal content after 48 h inoculated C. jejuni and C. coli birds with a single dose (7 log PFU) of CP220 [49]
2010Poultry
(broiler chickens)
Phage cocktailOral delivery
(oral gavage and in feed)
Reduction levels of C. coli and C. jejuni in feces by 2 log CFU per g when administered by oral gavage and in feed[50]

Postharvest application

2003Meat
(chicken skin)
Φ2Applied on top1 and 2 log CFU reduction at 4°C using 107 PFU per mL. 105 and 103 PFU per mL failed to decrease CFU[58]
2003Meat
(chicken skin)
Φ29CApplied on topMOI 1 caused less than 1 log reduction in CFU; MOI 100–1,000 caused 2 log reductions in CFU[49]
2008Meat
(raw and cooked beef)
Cj6Applied on topThe largest reductions were recorded at high host cell density on both raw and cooked beef over a period of 8 days incubation at 51°C[16]