Table 5: Preharvest and Postharvest Staphylococcus aureus phage applications.

YearAnimal/product Phage(s)StrategyMain outcomeRefs

Preharvest application

2005Ruminant (dairy cattle)K, CS1, DW2Syringe applied into the teat sinusNo detectable increase in somatic cell counts in milk [96]
2006Ruminant (lactating dairy cattle)KIntramammary infusionsCure rate comparable in phage-treated and saline-treated quarters. No large increase of somatic cell count in the milk when phage was infused into quarters with S. aureus infection[97]

Postharvest application

2005Raw and ready-to-eat foods
(milk products and derivatives)
KAdded to milkPhages adsorption was reduced in raw milk and replication inhibited[99]
2006Raw food
(raw milk whey)
KAdded to raw milk wheyPhage attachment and lysis inhibition due to adsorption of whey proteins to the S. aureus cell. [98]
2007Processes food (milk curd)Cocktail (Φ88 and Φ35)Added to pasteurized whole milkS. aureus not detectable after 4 h at 25°C in acid curd and total clearance within 1 h of incubation at 30°C in renneted curd. The addition of the phage cocktail to milk prior to acid and enzymatic curd manufacture eliminates S. aureus by up to 6 log units[100]
2008 Ready-to-eat foods (pasteurized milk)Cocktail (Φ35, Φ88) with nisinApplied to foods and mixed in milkNisin-phages application decreased S. aureus by 1 log unit more than in each antimicrobial agent alone (24 h at 37°C). Nisin-resistant phenotypes acquired resistance to phage, but phage resistance did not necessarily confer nisin resistance[101]
2012 Ready-to-eat foods (pasteurized milk)Cocktail (philPLA35, philPLA88 with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)Applied to foods and added to milkCombination of HHP and phage resulted in S. aureus elimination within the 48 h regardless of the initial contamination level (1 × 106 or 1 × 104 CFU per mL)[102]
2012 Ready-to-eat foods (cheese)vB_SauS-phi-IPLA35, vB_SauS-phi-SauS-IPLA88 Added to pasteurized milk vatPhage cocktail led to undetectable limits of S. aureus after 6 h in fresh cheese and continuous reductions in hard cheese. In curd a reduction of 4.64 log CFU per g was obtained compared with control[103]