- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents

International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences

Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 748159, 6 pages

http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/748159

## Generalized Derivations and Bilocal Jordan Derivations of Nest Algebras

^{1}College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Post and Telecom, Chongqing 400086, China^{2}College of Communication Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China

Received 19 December 2010; Accepted 13 January 2011

Academic Editor: Jianming Zhan

Copyright © 2011 Dangui Yan and Chengchang Zhang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

Let be a complex Hilbert space and the collection of all linear bounded operators, is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an , then is a nest, accordingly alg is a nest algebra. It will be shown that of nest algebra, generalized derivations are generalized inner derivations, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

#### 1. Introduction

The concept of local derivations was introduced by Kadison [1] who showed that on a Von-nemann algebra all norm-continuous local derivations are derivations. Larson and Sourour [2] proved that on the algebra local derivations are derivations. M. Brešar and P. Šemrl [3, 4] generalized the results of the three authors above under a weaker condition. Shulman [5] showed that all local derivations on -algebra are derivations.

Based on a great deal of research works of many mathematicians, some scholars paid more interests in similar kind of problems under more generalized conditions, such as considering local derivations on nest algebras and generalized derivation. Zhu and Xiong [6, 7] proved that local derivations of nest algebra and standard operator algebra are derivations, Zhang [8] considered the Jordan derivations of nest algebras, Lee [9] discussed generalized derivations of left faithful rings. Recently, some scholars discussed some new types of derivations, as Li and Zhou [10] and Majieed and Zhou [11] investigated some new types of generalized derivations associated with Hochschild 2 cocycles, other examples are in [12–15]. In fact, under appropriate conditions, local derivations are derivations.

In this paper**,** we will show that of nest algebra, a generalized derivation is a generalized inner derivation, and bilocal Jordan derivations are inner derivations.

#### 2. Some Notations and Definitions

In what follows, some notations and basic definitions are introduced.

Let be a complex Hilbert space and the collection of all linear bounded operators on , is the closed subspace lattice including 0 an , then is a nest, correspondingly the Nest algebra is .

If , we denote and if , denote , where is real inclusion, and we define , .

For all , represent the project operator from to , and .

Let be a Banach algebra and a subalgebra of , we call the linear map a generalized inner derivation if and only if for all , there exist operators and in such that ; if for all , we have , then is called a Jordan derivation; if for all , there is a Jordan derivation , such that , then is said to be a local Jordan derivation.

*Definition 2.1. *Let be an additive mapping, if there exists a derivation that , for all , then is called a generalized derivation.

*Definition 2.2. *We call the linear mapping a bilocal Jordan derivation, if for every , there is a Jordan derivation , such that .

#### 3. Main Results

Next to give out the main conclusions.

Theorem 3.1. *If is a generalized derivation, then there are operators and in , such that , for all .*

*Proof. *From the definition of generalized derivation, we can find a derivation: , such that , for all , so when , we have , for all , denote , apparently and , for all .

Since is a derivation, by [6], it is an inner derivation, namely, there exists , such that , consequently
Denote , , then , for all .

Theorem 3.2. *If is a local Jordan derivation, then is an inner derivation.*

*Proof. *Since is a local Jordan derivation, there exists a Jordan derivation , such that , from Theorem 2.12 in [8], we know that the Jordan derivation of nest algebra is an inner derivation, so there exists , such that , by imitating the proof in [6], we can conclude that , so , namely, is an inner derivation.

The following is the main result.

Theorem 3.3. *If is a bilocal Jordan derivation, then it is an inner derivation.*

*Proof. *We will prove this proposition by the following three steps.

(1) , where and are the kernal of and range of , respectively. In fact, since for all , for all , and is a Jordan derivation, by Theorem 2.12 in [8], there is an , such that , so if , we have .

(2) For all , , there exists and , such that , for all , .

For arbitrary fixed , , and for all , we know that , from step (1), we have , so there exists a linear function , such that , for all , in succession we will prove that is independent of . Take a which is linear independent of , we have , then
On the other hand, , so
Since is linear independent of , we know that , that is, is independent of , so can be denoted by , and
Let be the linear continuous span on of , we define as follows:
Obviously, is linear and , , .

Next is independent of , which reduce to show (i) , ; (ii) , where , .

In fact, (i) is evident. For (ii), since for all , and , we have , namely, , on account of , so , that is, is independent of , so we can mark by , as a result, we have
Consequently

Define , now we will show that is a linear bounded operator. Because is a continuous linear function, so is bounded, consequently is bounded, according to (3.4), we know
so ; on the other hand,
so , this is enough to show that , , so when ,
That is to say is linear, so (3.7) has the form of
In succession we will prove that is independent of , arbitrarily choose , where is linear independent of , then and
On the other hand,
So , then , that is, is independent of , which can be marked by , so (3.11) has the form of
We proved that is bounded, because .

On account of the boundary of and , we know that is bounded, namely, , .

(3) For arbitrary , there is .

For all , , select , , then , and , from the result of step (2), it is easy to know that
Consequently , so there exists a scalar , such that
By imitating Lemma 2 mentioned in [6], we can prove that

Since the collection of all rank one operators is dense in , so for every , we have , let , then , considering to be a bilocal Jordan derivation, namely, , we can conclude that , so , thereby and , which shows that is an inner derivation.

#### Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable suggestions. This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation Project of CQ CSTC under Contract no. 2010BB2240.

#### References

- R.l V. Kadison, “Local derivations,”
*Journal of Algebra*, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 494–509, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - D. R. Larson and A. R. Sourour, “Local derivations and local automorphsims of B(X),” in
*Operator Theory: Operator Algebras and Applications, Part 2*, vol. 51 of*Proceedings of Symposia in Pure Mathematics*, pp. 187–194, American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, USA, 1990. View at Zentralblatt MATH - M. Brešar, “Characterizations of derivations on some normed algebras with involution,”
*Journal of Algebra*, vol. 152, no. 2, pp. 454–462, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - M. Brešar and P. Šemrl, “Mappings which preserve idempotents, local automorphisms, and local derivations,”
*Canadian Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 483–496, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - V. S. Shulman, “Operators preserving ideals in ${C}^{\ast}$-algebras,”
*Studia Mathematica*, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 67–72, 1994. - J. Zhu, “Local derivation of nest algebras,”
*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*, vol. 123, no. 3, pp. 739–742, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - J. Zhu and C. Xiong, “Bilocal derivations of standard operator algebras,”
*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*, vol. 125, no. 5, pp. 1367–1370, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - J. H. Zhang, “Jordan derivations on nest algebras,”
*Acta Mathematica Sinica*, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 205–212, 1998. View at Zentralblatt MATH - T.-K. Lee, “Generalized derivations of left faithful rings,”
*Communications in Algebra*, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 4057–4073, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - J. Li and J. Zhou, “Generalize derivations associated with hochschild 2-cocycles on some algebras,”
*Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal*, vol. 60, pp. 909–932, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - A. Majieed and J. Zhou, “Generalized Jordan derivations associated with Hochschild 2-cocycles of triangular algebras,”
*Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal*, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 211–219, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - A. Nowicki and I. Nowosad, “Local derivations of subrings of matrix rings,”
*Acta Mathematica Hungarica*, vol. 105, no. 1-2, pp. 145–150, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH · View at MathSciNet - A. Fošner and M. Fošner, “On $\epsilon $-derivations and local $\epsilon $-derivations,”
*Acta Mathematica Sinica*, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 1555–1566, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar - F. Lu and B. Liu, “Lie derivations of reflexive algebras,”
*Integral Equations and Operator Theory*, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 261–271, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Zentralblatt MATH - F. Lu, “Jordan derivations of reflexive algebras,”
*Integral Equations and Operator Theory*, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 51–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar