- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Indian Journal of Materials Science
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 694357, 4 pages
Optimization of Chemical Bath Deposited Mercury Chromium Sulphide Thin Films on Glass Substrate
1Department of Physics, R.C. Patel ASC College, Shirpur 425405, India
2Department of Physics, S.S.V.P.’s College, Shindkheda, India
Received 28 June 2013; Accepted 11 August 2013
Academic Editors: A. Chatterji and R. S. Mane
Copyright © 2013 H. B. Patil and S. V. Borse. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Semiconducting thin films of ternary () have been deposited on glass substrate by the simple and economical chemical bath deposition method. We report the deposition and optimization of the solution growth parameters such as temperature, complexing agent, thiourea, and deposition time that maximizes the thickness of the deposited thin film. The X-ray diffraction deposited thin films having cubic structure. The thin films were uniform and adherent to substrate. The composition was found homogeneous and stoichiometric by EDAX analysis.
Mercury chromium sulfide (HgCr2S4) is a chalcogenide metal sulfide semiconductor of the II–VI group compound semiconductors. The technological interests in polycrystalline-based devices are mainly caused by their low production cost . The use of HgCr2S4 thin films of semiconductor has attracted much interest because of their role in variety of applications in various magneto-optical and optoelectronics devices  as well as magnetocapacitive or magnetoelectric effect devices [3–7]. Many techniques have been reported in the deposition of thin films such as evaporation, sputtering, spray pyrolysis, molecular beam epitaxy, and photochemical deposition. There is a problem in each of these deposition methods [8, 9]. Amongst all, chemical bath deposition (CBD) is simple and of low cost and is suitable for a large area deposition . Thin films of diluted magnetic semiconductors attract many researchers due to their wide range of applications in various fields. The films of HgCr2S4 are usually crystallized in cubic structure with lattice constants 10.2 Ǻ .
In the present study, the chemical bath process is performed by slow release of S2− ions and controlled free Hg2+ and Cr2+ ions that react to form HgCr2S4 nuclei on glass substrate and in the bath solution in the form of precipitation. The properties of the deposited thin films basically depend on the deposition parameters such as deposition temperature, complexing agent, thiourea, deposition time, pH value, composition of materials, and film thickness. Finally, we report the deposition of HgCr2S4 thin films and the investigation of the different deposition parameters to obtain uniform film having expected thickness.
2. Materials and Methods
In the present investigation, thin films of are grown on glass substrate by chemical bath deposition technique. All AR grade chemicals from MERCK are used for growth of thin films. For the deposition of , solutions of HgCl2, CrO3, and NH2-CS-NH2 are prepared separately of concentration 0.1 M using double distilled water as solvent and mixing them in stoichiometric proportion. EDTA is used as complexing agent. pH of the reaction mixture was adjusted by adding ammonia. The deposition was carried out in borosil glass beaker of capacity 100 mL. It is used to put reactant in the form of solution; hence it is served as chemical reaction bath. This chemical reaction bath is put inside the constant temperature oil bath. The chemical reactant in the form of solution is stirred by magnetic stirrer. Well-cleaned glass microslides are dipped vertically in the chemical reaction bath by providing support to glass pot of the reaction bath. The stirring speed of magnetic stirrer is so adjusted that the solution can be stirred slowly during the deposition process. After deposition of HgCr2S4 thin films, the substrates are taken out and washed with double distilled water and dried in air. Finally, they are preserved in an air-tight container. The thickness of deposited thin films is measured by the weight difference technique at room temperature. The structural properties of the films are analyzed by using Bruker AXS D8 Advanced model X-ray diffractometer (CuKα radiation; λ = 0.15405 nm), and the grain size is determined from the Scherrer formula. The grown composition is analyzed by the EDAX technique.
3. Results and Discussions
3.1. Impact of Preparative Parameters
3.1.1. Impact of Bath Temperature
Figure 1 shows the variation of film thickness with deposition temperature, keeping other parameters constant. The temperature of chemical bath was changed from 40°C to 90°C with an interval of 5°C. It can be seen from Figure 1 that the thickness goes on increasing with bath temperature; it reaches maximum thickness at 65°C and further decreases with increase in temperature after 65°C [12–14].
3.1.2. Impact of Complexing Agent
Figure 2 shows the variation of film thickness with complexing agent, keeping the other parameters same. The volume of EDTA was changed into a bath solution. The maximum and uniform thin films were obtained with the addition of 4.5 mL EDTA into a chemical bath solution and further decrease with increase in volume of EDTA.
3.1.3. Impact of Thiourea Concentration
Figure 3 shows the variation of film thickness with volume of thiourea, keeping other parameters the same. The volume of thiourea was changed into a bath solution. The maximum and well-uniformed thin films were obtained with the addition of 10 mL thiourea into a chemical bath solution. pH of the chemical bath solution was 10 at room temperature. Figure 3 indicates that the thickness went on increasing with volume of thiourea reaching to maximum (10 mL) and then decreases with further increase in volume of thiourea.
3.1.4. Impact of Deposition Time
The impact of deposition time on thickness was studied in Figure 4, keeping the other parameters the same. The thickness of thin film went on increasing with time of deposition, reaching to maximum at 120 minute.
3.2. Structural Analysis
3.2.1. X-Ray Diffractograph
XRD of the as grown films with optimum growth parameters was carried out. It is shown in Figure 5. The observed XRD pattern shows cubic crystal structure with noticeable growth along the (220) plane , in addition to the other small peaks, namely, (311), (331), and (422). Table 1 shows the observed and standard XRD data. This confirmed the formation of .
3.2.2. EDAX Analysis
Table 2 shows the composition of element in thin films measured by EDAX analysis. The composition was found to be homogeneous and stoichiometric. Figure 6 shows EDAX spectrum of compound. The composition of element in thin films and in initial reactant in chemical bath is similar.
In conclusion, thin films can be deposited by simple chemical bath deposition technique. The films are sensitive to different growth parameters. The grown material is cubic crystal structure. The composition was found homogenous and stoichiometric. The optimum conditions are found to obtain films with maximum thickness.
The authors are thankful to Director, Professor Ajay Gupta, Dr. D. M. Phase, Dr. R. J. Chaudhari, Dr. N. P. Lalla, and Mukul Gupta, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore, for characterization work and valuable suggestions.
- M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Kasem, J. J. Hassen, A. A. Swadi, and S. K. J. A. I-Ani, “Structural and optical properties of chemical deposition CdS thin films,” International Journal of Nanoelectronics and Materials, vol. 2, pp. 163–172, 2009.
- S. S. Kale and C. D. Lokhande, “Thickness-dependent properties of chemically deposited CdSe thin films,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 103–108, 2000.
- T. Kimura, T. Goto, H. Shintani, K. Ishizaka, T. Arima, and Y. Tokura, “Magnetic control of ferroelectric polarization,” Nature, vol. 426, no. 6962, pp. 55–58, 2003.
- N. Hur, S. Park, P. A. Sharma, J. S. Ahn, S. Guha, and S.-W. Cheong, “Electric polarization reversal and memory in a multiferroic material induced by magnetic fields,” Nature, vol. 429, no. 6990, pp. 392–395, 2004.
- T. Lottermoser, T. Lonkai, U. Amann, D. Hohlwein, J. Ihringer, and M. Fiebig, “Magnetic phase control by an electric field,” Nature, vol. 430, no. 6999, pp. 541–544, 2004.
- T. Goto, T. Kimura, G. Lawes, A. P. Ramirez, and Y. Tokura, “Ferroelectricity and giant magnetocapacitance in perovskite rare-earth manganites,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 92, no. 25, pp. 257201–257204, 2004.
- N. Hur, S. Park, P. A. Sharma, S. Guha, and S. -W. Cheong, “Colossal magnetodielectric effects in DyMn2O5,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 93, no. 10, pp. 107207–107210, 2004.
- P. P. Sahay, R. K. Nath, and S. Tewari, “Optical properties of thermally evaporated CdS thin films,” Crystal Research and Technology, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 275–280, 2007.
- D. C. Cameron, W. Duncan, and W. M. Tsang, “The structural and electron transport properties of CdS grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 61–66, 1979.
- S. M. Mahdavi, A. Irajizad, A. Azarian, and R. M. Tilaki, “Optical and structural properties of copper doped CdS thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Scientia Iranica, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 360–365, 2008.
- R. S. Mane, V. V. Todkar, C. D. Lokhande, J.-H. Ahn, and S.-H. Han, “Influence of strain on the surface wettability in crystalline HgCr2S4 thin films,” Nanotechnology, vol. 17, no. 21, article 018, pp. 5393–5396, 2006.
- S. H. Pawar and C. H. Bhosale, “Electrochemical bath deposition technique: deposition of CdS thin films,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 419–422, 1986.
- V. Balasubramanian, N. Suriyanarayanan, and S. Prabahar, “Thickness-dependent structural properties of chemically deposited Bi2S3 thin films,” Advances in Apllied Science Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 2369–2373, 2012.
- R. S. Mane, V. V. Todkar, C. D. Lokhande, S. S. Kale, and S.-H. Han, “Growth of crystalline HgCr2S4 thin films at mild reaction conditions,” Vacuum, vol. 80, no. 9, pp. 962–966, 2006.
- JCPD’S card no. 027-0316.
- V. V. Todkar, R. S. Mane, C. D. Lokhande, and S.-H. Han, “p-Type crystalline HgCr2S4 semiconductor electrode synthesis and its photoelectrochemical studies,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 181, no. 1, pp. 33–36, 2006.