Indian Journal of Materials Science http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Electronic Structure, Electronic Charge Density, and Optical Properties Analysis of GdX3 (X = In, Sn, Tl, and Pb) Compounds: DFT Calculations Mon, 03 Aug 2015 07:36:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/296095/ The electronic properties of magnetic cubic AuCu3 type GdX3 (X = In, Sn, Tl, and Pb) have been studied using first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Because of the presence of strong on-site Coulomb repulsion between the highly localized 4f electrons of Gd atoms, we have used LSDA + U approach to get accurate results in the present study. The electronic band structures as well as density of states reveal that the studied compounds show metallic behavior under ambient conditions. The calculated density of states at the Fermi level N() shows good agreement with the available experimental results. The calculated electronic charge density plots show the presence of ionic bonding in all the compounds along with partial covalent bonding except in GdIn3. The complex optical dielectric function’s dispersion and the related optical properties such as refractive indices, reflectivity, and energy-loss function were calculated and discussed in detail. Jisha Annie Abraham, Gitanjali Pagare, and Sankar P. Sanyal Copyright © 2015 Jisha Annie Abraham et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Crystallinity of β- and βbc-Nickel Hydroxide Samples on Chemical Cycling Mon, 27 Jul 2015 08:02:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/820193/ β-phases of nickel hydroxide and cobalt hydroxide samples crystallize in cadmium iodide type structure. β-cobalt hydroxide on oxidation generates β-CoOOH which crystallized in 3R1 polytype while the structure of β-phase of NiOOH polytype is less well understood. β- and -phases of nickel hydroxide samples were prepared by using ammonium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide as precipitating agents. Powder X-ray diffraction data shows that β-phase of nickel hydroxide is perfectly crystalline in nature while -phase of nickel hydroxide is poorly ordered. β- and -phases of nickel hydroxide samples were subjected to chemical oxidation using sodium hypochlorite. The oxidized phases of β- and -phases of nickel oxyhydroxide are highly disordered and the broadening of reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction patterns is due to the presence of structural disorder, variations in the crystallite size, and strain. On reduction of β- and -phases of nickel oxyhydroxide, the powder X-ray diffraction patterns visually match the powder X-ray diffraction data of the pristine phases of β- and -phases of nickel hydroxide indicating that the β-phase of nickel hydroxide does not transform to -phase of nickel hydroxide, but the particle sizes are significantly affected. Ramesh Thimmasandra Narayan Copyright © 2015 Ramesh Thimmasandra Narayan. All rights reserved. Improvement in Tribological Performance of Ni-P-TiO2 Composite Coatings Using Taguchi Technique with Grey Relational Analysis Sun, 26 Jul 2015 09:28:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/104187/ Tribological performance of Ni-P-TiO2 composite coatings is improved by varying the tribological test parameters such as normal load, wear track diameter, and duration of test aiming at minimum wear and friction of the coating. Taguchi technique with grey relational analysis is employed for optimization of multiresponse problem using orthogonal array (OA). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to find out the significant effect of test parameters and their interactions on friction and wear behavior of the coating. ANOVA results reveal that normal load and time (test duration) have the most significant effect in controlling wear and friction of the coating. Interaction between normal load and wear track diameter has some significant effect. Scanning electron microscopy of worn surface shows abrasive wear to be predominant. The surface morphology, composition, and phase structure analysis are done with the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. Prasanna Gadhari and Prasanta Sahoo Copyright © 2015 Prasanna Gadhari and Prasanta Sahoo. All rights reserved. Synthesis, Crystallization, and Dielectric Behaviour of Lead Bismuth Titanate Borosilicate Glasses with Addition of 1% La2O3 Wed, 15 Jul 2015 07:54:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/498254/ Lead bismuth titanate borosilicate glasses were prepared in the glass system 65[()·TiO3]-34[2SiO2·B2O3]-1La2O3 () doped with one mole percent of via conventional melt quench method. The amorphous nature of glass samples in this glass system is confirmed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) study. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) has been employed to determine the glass transition temperature, , as well as crystallization temperature, . DTA measurements were recorded in temperature range from 30 to 1200°C. The prepared glasses were crystallized by regulated controlled heat treatment process on the basis of their DTA results. These samples are carried out for XRD measurements in the 2 range from 20 to 80° to study the crystallization behaviour and phase formation of the glass ceramic samples. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of these glass ceramic samples has been carried out to explore the morphology through nucleation and growth of the crystallites in the glassy matrix. The values of dielectric constant as well as dielectric loss were increased with increasing the temperature within the frequency range from 20 Hz to 100 Hz. The addition of 1 mol% of to the lead bismuth titanate glasses enhances the crystallization and acts as donor dopant for this glass system. C. R. Gautam, Abhishek Madheshiya, and R. K. Dwivedi Copyright © 2015 C. R. Gautam et al. All rights reserved. SH-Wave at a Plane Interface between Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Fibre-Reinforced Elastic Half-Spaces Thu, 09 Jul 2015 07:21:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/532939/ The problem of reflection and refraction of SH-waves at a plane interface between the homogeneous and inhomogeneous fibre-reinforced elastic half-spaces has been investigated. Amplitude and energy ratios corresponding to the reflected and refracted SH-waves are derived using appropriate boundary conditions. These ratios are computed numerically for a particular model and the results are depicted graphically. C. Zorammuana and S. S. Singh Copyright © 2015 C. Zorammuana and S. S. Singh. All rights reserved. Simple Rheological Analysis Method of Spinnable-Polymer Flow Properties Using MFI Tester Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:57:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/790107/ Rheological characterization of polymers explains the flow behaviour and viscoelastic properties and tests fibre-forming ability. The current method investigates the viscoelastic properties and morphology of polymers and finds the rheological data and the right polymer viscosity, which is determining the best processing temperature. The right processing temperature saves the power, the material, and the time needed for production. After calculating polymers viscosity by using MFI tester, the method investigates rheological properties and surface shape at different temperatures and loads. The method could apply to other polymers to find the viscosity-temperature change and to set the best processing temperature. Basel Younes Copyright © 2015 Basel Younes. All rights reserved. Simple Hydrolysis Synthesis of Uniform Rice-Shaped β-FeOOH Nanocrystals and Their Transformation to α-Fe2O3 Microspheres Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:43:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/918424/ In the synthesis of nanostructure materials a specific emphasis has been focused on the control of shape and orientation of nanocrystals to obtain prerequisite properties of the materials. Nanorice is a new hybrid nanoparticle prolate geometry of nanoshells with reduced symmetry having new exciting optical behavior. Rice-shaped β-FeOOH nanocrystals have been synthesized by a simple hydrolysis chemical method using ferric aqueous solution and urea as surfactant. The successive calcination of β-FeOOH nanocrystals at 650°C results in the formation of the porous α-Fe2O3 (hematite) microspheres. The as-synthesized yield of β-FeOOH nanocrystals was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and optical spectroscopy. The successive transformation of rice-shaped β-FeOOH nanostructures into porous α-Fe2O3 (hematite) microspheres through calcination process was confirmed by XRD, SEM, and EDAX studies. The water contact angle of as-prepared α-Fe2O3 microspheres shows hydrophobic behavior of the material. Beer Pal Singh, Nansy Sharma, Rakesh Kumar, and Ashwani Kumar Copyright © 2015 Beer Pal Singh et al. All rights reserved. Modification of Grout Properties in Prepacked Aggregate Concrete Incorporating Palm Oil Fuel Ash Thu, 18 Jun 2015 06:52:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/353617/ Prepacked aggregate concrete (PAC) is a type of concrete that is placed in two stages where the coarse aggregates are first placed inside the formworks and then the grout is pumped from underneath through a manual pump. Grout properties including density, grout consistency, bleeding, and compressive strength are of great importance in PAC. Such properties could be improved by application of pozzolanic materials like palm oil fuel ash. This paper is aimed at finding the most optimum percentage of POFA replacement by weight of cement. It was concluded that 30% POFA replacement yielded the most optimum results. Reza Hodjati, Hossein Aslani, Iman Faridmehr, A. S. M. Abdul Awal, and Ziba Kazemi Copyright © 2015 Reza Hodjati et al. All rights reserved. Structural, Optical, Electrical, and Magnetic Properties of PVA:Gd3+ and PVA:Ho3+ Polymer Films Wed, 27 May 2015 14:09:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/927364/ Polymer films of PVA:Gd3+ and PVA:Ho3+ have been synthesized by a solution casting method in order to study their structural, optical, electrical, and magnetic properties. The semicrystalline nature of the polymer films has been confirmed from XRD analysis. The FTIR analysis confirms the complex formation of the polymer with the metal ions. Dielectric studies of these films have also been carried out at various set temperatures in the frequency from 100 Hz to 1 MHz for carrying out impedance spectroscopy analysis to evaluate the electrical conductivity which arises due to a single conduction mechanism and thus to have a single semicircle pattern from these polymer films. The DC electrical conductivity increases with an increase in the temperature and it could be due to high mobility of free charges (polarons and free ions) at higher temperatures. The conductivity trend follows the Arrhenius equation for PVA:Gd3+ and for PVA:Ho3+ polymer films. PVA:Gd3+ polymer films show ferromagnetic nature, and PVA:Ho3+ polymer films have revealed paramagnetic nature based on the trends noticed in the magnetic characteristic profiles. M. Obula Reddy and B. Chandra Babu Copyright © 2015 M. Obula Reddy and B. Chandra Babu. All rights reserved. Simulation of Ni-Based Super-Alloy and Optimizing of Its Mechanical Properties in a Near-Shaped Turbine Blade Part Wed, 15 Apr 2015 12:43:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/413593/ This paper presents simulation of a Ni-based super-alloy during filling of a near-shaped turbine blade part to optimize its mechanical properties. Since geometrical shape of the airfoil is so complicated, a simple near-shaped part was made by plexiglass to water modeling. Condition and parameters of water modeling were obtained from the Procast software simulation. The flow pattern of the transparent systems, recorded by a high speed video camera, was analyzed. Air bubble amounts were quantitatively measured by an image analysis software. Quantified results were used to compare two systems in terms of ability to prevent bubble formation and entrainment. Both water modeling and computer simulating methods indicated that highest turbulences in bottom- and top-poured systems form in first initially pouring times. According to the water modeling results amount of bubble values was 40 and 18 percent for top-poured and bottom-poured systems, respectively. Then the Ni-base super-alloy IN939 is poured by investment casting in bottom- and top-poured systems and compared with each other. The results stated that bottom-poured system had higher mechanical properties compared to top-poured one. Ultimate tensile strength for the former was 820 MPa while for the part which was cast by bottom-poured system it was 850 MPa. Mohammd Reza Alizadeh Copyright © 2015 Mohammd Reza Alizadeh. All rights reserved. Effect of Fiber Treatment and Fiber Loading on Mechanical Properties of Luffa-Resorcinol Composites Thu, 05 Mar 2015 07:50:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2015/658064/ Tensile and compressive behaviour of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) matrix and its composites reinforced with fibers of Luffa cylindrica (LC) have been studied. LC fibers were subjected to chemical treatments such as alkali activation by NaOH followed by bleaching and acid hydrolysis in order to improve fiber-matrix adhesion. Both treated and untreated LC fibers are modified with calcium phosphate. The presence of hydroxy apatite, a polymorph of calcium phosphate and a major constituent of vertebrate bone and teeth, was confirmed from XRD peak of treated LC fiber. XRD analysis of the treated LC fiber has confirmed the crystalline nature of the chemically treated LC fiber by its crystallinity index. The effects of fiber loading of chemically treated and untreated LC fiber on ultimate stress, yield strength, breaking stress, and modulus of the composites were analyzed. The tensile and compressive modulus of the composites were increased with incorporation of both treated and untreated LC fibers into the RF matrix. The modulus of composites with treated LC fiber was enhanced compared to that of the untreated fiber composites. Furthermore the values of ultimate stress, yield stress, and breaking stress were increased with the incorporation of treated LC fiber in the composites. Chhatrapati Parida, Sarat Kumar Dash, and Sarat Chandra Das Copyright © 2015 Chhatrapati Parida et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Al and Ti Additions on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Leaded Brass Alloys Wed, 16 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/909506/ Brass has an attractive combination of properties, namely, good corrosion resistance, good wear properties, and high thermal and electrical conductivity. In this study, influence of selected alloy additions (Al and Ti) on performance of leaded brass alloys (CuZn39pb3) was investigated. The observation of microstructures, compression tests, and hardness tests were performed. The results of metallographic and mechanical tests indicate some influence of small amount additives of Al and Ti. Optical emission spectrometer (OES), light optical microscope (LOM), micro-Vickers hardness tester, and compression testing machine were used in this investigation. Consequently, Al had a significant effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of CuZn39Pb3 alloy. A larger compression strength at 0.31% wt of Al was obtained, as compared with the other alloys. Adding of Al and Ti led to the modification of the microstructure; thus, the compression strength was increased. Rajab Mohammed Hussein and Osama Ibrahim Abd Copyright © 2014 Rajab Mohammed Hussein and Osama Ibrahim Abd. All rights reserved. Effect of Rotation on Propagation of Waves in Transversely Isotropic Thermoelastic Half-Space Thu, 19 Jun 2014 07:47:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/621928/ The present study is concerned with the effect of rotation on the propagation of plane waves in a transversely isotropic medium in the context of thermoelasticity theory of GN theory of types II and III. After solving the governing equations, three waves propagating in the medium are obtained. The fastest among them is a quasilongitudinal wave. The slowest of them is a thermal wave. The remaining is called quasitransverse wave. The prefix “quasi” refers to their polarizations being nearly, but not exactly, parallel or perpendicular to the direction of propagation. The polarizations of these three waves are not mutually orthogonal. After imposing the appropriate boundary conditions, the amplitudes of reflection coefficients have been obtained. Numerically simulated results have been plotted graphically with respect to frequency to evince the effect of rotation and anisotropy. Raj Rani Gupta and Rajani Rani Gupta Copyright © 2014 Raj Rani Gupta and Rajani Rani Gupta. All rights reserved. Searching for Alternative Plasmonic Materials for Specific Applications Mon, 12 May 2014 13:22:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/897125/ The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) based optical properties such as light scattering, absorption, and extinction efficiencies of multimetallic and metal-semiconductor nanostructures will be studied. The effect of size, surrounding medium, interaction between the particles, composition of the particles, and substrate on LSPR peak position, its line width, and maxima of cross-sections will also be discussed to optimize the selected systems for various applications like plasmonic sensors and biomedical applications and to enhance the efficiency of solar cells. Therefore, by varying all these factors, the LSPR peak of multimetallic and metal-semiconductor nanostructures can be tuned over the entire UV-visible to infrared (IR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Moreover the optical properties of underlying semiconductor materials can be enhanced by combining the semiconductor with noble metal nanoparticles. Amit Bansal and S. S. Verma Copyright © 2014 Amit Bansal and S. S. Verma. All rights reserved. Effect of Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide and Degree of Heat Curing on Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Mortar Mon, 05 May 2014 12:09:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/938789/ Geopolymer concrete/mortar is the new development in the field of building constructions in which cement is totally replaced by pozzolanic material like fly ash and activated by alkaline solution. This paper presented the effect of concentration of sodium hydroxide, temperature, and duration of oven heating on compressive strength of fly ash-based geopolymer mortar. Sodium silicate solution containing Na2O of 16.45%, SiO2 of 34.35%, and H2O of 49.20% and sodium hydroxide solution of 2.91, 5.60, 8.10, 11.01, 13.11, and 15.08. Moles concentrations were used as alkaline activators. Geopolymer mortar mixes were prepared by considering solution-to-fly ash ratio of 0.35, 0.40, and 0.45. The temperature of oven curing was maintained at 40, 60, 90, and 120°C each for a heating period of 24 hours and tested for compressive strength at the age of 3 days as test period after specified degree of heating. Test results show that the workability and compressive strength both increase with increase in concentration of sodium hydroxide solution for all solution-to-fly ash ratios. Degree of heating also plays vital role in accelerating the strength; however there is no large change in compressive strength beyond test period of three days after specified period of oven heating. Subhash V. Patankar, Yuwaraj M. Ghugal, and Sanjay S. Jamkar Copyright © 2014 Subhash V. Patankar et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Free Edge Stresses in Composite Laminates Using Higher Order Theories Sun, 04 May 2014 06:40:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/253018/ This paper presents the determination of the interlaminar stresses close to the free edges of general cross-ply composite laminates based on higher order equivalent single-layer theory (HESL). The laminates with finite dimensions were subjected to a bending moment, an axial force, and/or a torque for investigation. Full three-dimensional stresses in the interior and the boundary-layer regions were determined. The computed results were compared with those obtained from Reddy’s layerwise theory. It was found that HESL theory predicts precisely the interlaminar stresses near the free edges of laminates. Besides, high efficiency in terms of computational time is obtainable when HESL theory is used as compared with layerwise theory. Finally, various numerical results were presented for the cross-ply laminates. Also design guidelines were proposed to minimize the edge-effect problems in composite laminates. Hamidreza Yazdani Sarvestani and Ali Naghashpour Copyright © 2014 Hamidreza Yazdani Sarvestani and Ali Naghashpour. All rights reserved. Temperature Dependence of Thermoelastic Properties for NaCl Crystal Wed, 30 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/642726/ Recently developed isothermal Kholiya’s EOS is modified to study the temperature dependent volume expansion and applied for NaCl crystal. The results obtained with the present model are in quite close agreement to the experimental values. The model is therefore extended to study the variation of bulk modulus and the coefficient of volume thermal expansion with temperature. Comparison of the obtained results with the experimental data demonstrates that an isothermal EOS may also be modified to study the temperature dependent elastic properties. The present study also reveals that the quasi harmonic approximation, that is, the product of bulk modulus and the coefficient of volume thermal expansion as constant, is valid in case of NaCl crystal. Kuldeep Kholiya and Jeewan Chandra Copyright © 2014 Kuldeep Kholiya and Jeewan Chandra. All rights reserved. Biosynthesis, Characterization, and Antidermatophytic Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Using Raamphal Plant (Annona reticulata) Aqueous Leaves Extract Tue, 08 Apr 2014 08:15:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/412452/ The present work investigated the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Annona reticulata leaf aqueous extract. The biosynthesised silver nanoparticles were confirmed by visual observation and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Appearance of dark brown colour indicated the synthesis of silver in the reaction mixture. The silver nanoparticles were found to be spherical, rod, and triangular in shape with variable size ranging from 23.84 to 50.54 nm, as evident by X-ray diffraction studies, TEM. The X-ray diffraction studies, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and TEM analysis indicate that the particles are crystalline in nature. The nanoparticles appeared to be associated with some chemical compounds which possess hydroxyl and carbonyl groups, confirmed by FTIR. This is the first and novel report of silver nanoparticles synthesised from Annona reticulata leaves extract and their antidermatophytic activity. P. Shivakumar Singh and G. M. Vidyasagar Copyright © 2014 P. Shivakumar Singh and G. M. Vidyasagar. All rights reserved. Water-Soluble and Biodegradable Pectin-Grafted Polyacrylamide and Pectin-Grafted Polyacrylic Acid: Electrochemical Investigation of Corrosion-Inhibition Behaviour on Mild Steel in 3.5% NaCl Media Mon, 07 Apr 2014 13:57:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/356075/ Pectin-g-polyacrylamide (denoted as Pec-g-PAAm) and pectin-g-polyacrylic acid (denoted as Pec-g-PAA) were synthesized using pectin, acrylamide, and acrylic acid as starting materials. The grafted polymers were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyser (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion inhibition behaviour of the grafted polymers on mild steel in 3.5% NaCl was evaluated electrochemically through Tafel polarization and impedance studies. The corrosion inhibition performance of both the polymers was found to be around 85%. R. Geethanjali, A. Ali Fathima Sabirneeza, and S. Subhashini Copyright © 2014 R. Geethanjali et al. All rights reserved. Ytterbium Doped Gadolinium Oxide (Gd2O3:Yb3+) Phosphor: Topology, Morphology, and Luminescence Behaviour Thu, 03 Apr 2014 12:47:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/396147/ Gd2O3:Yb3+ phosphor has been synthesized by the solid state reaction method with boric acid used as a flux. The resulting Gd2O3:Yb3+ phosphor was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), and photoluminescence and thermoluminescence. The results of the XRD show that obtained Gd2O3:Yb3+ phosphor has a cubic structure. The average crystallite sizes could be calculated as 42.9 nm, confirmed by the TEM results. The study suggested that Yb3+ doped phosphors are potential luminescence material for IR laser diode pumping. Raunak Kumar Tamrakar, Durga Prasad Bisen, Chandra Shekher Robinson, Ishwar Prasad Sahu, and Nameeta Brahme Copyright © 2014 Raunak Kumar Tamrakar et al. All rights reserved. Adsorbent Ability of Treated Peganum harmala-L Seeds for the Removal of Ni (II) from Aqueous Solutions: Kinetic, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Studies Thu, 27 Mar 2014 12:01:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/459674/ The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of new adsorbent, treated Peganum harmala-L seeds (TPHS), for the removal of Ni (II) from aqueous solution. Batch experiments were performed as a function of various experimental parameters. The adsorption studies included both equilibrium adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Equilibrium data fitted very well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption capacity was determined 91.74 mg/g at pH 7. Kinetics studies showed better applicability for pseudo-second-order model for both adsorbents. The negative value of confirmed the feasibility and spontaneity of TPHS for Ni (II) adsorption. Maryam Ghasemi, Nahid Ghasemi, and Javad Azimi-Amin Copyright © 2014 Maryam Ghasemi et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Samarium Doped Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate and Study of Its Density and Thermal and Dielectric Characteristics Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:58:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/609463/ Samarium doped calcium hydrogen phosphate was synthesized as single crystal by room temperature solution growth technique, namely, silica gel technique. The kinetics of the growth parameters was studied with regard to variation of pH, dopant concentration, gel ageing, and upper reactant concentration. The optimum conditions for the growth of good quality single crystal were worked out. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis establishes that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system. The density observed by the flotation method is greater than the density of the reported pure calcium hydrogen phosphate thereby suggesting the incorporation of the dopant (Sm) ion into the lattice of host (CHP). Thermal analysis gave two sharp endothermic peaks which are due to partial dehydration and phase transition, respectively. Dielectric studies establish a shift in the Curie temperature from 355 to 370°C only at higher frequencies thereby suggesting the relaxational behavior of the material. K. K. Bamzai, Goldy Slathia, Bindu Raina, Rashmi Gupta, Seema Verma, Shivani Suri, and Vishal Singh Copyright © 2014 K. K. Bamzai et al. All rights reserved. Variations of Optical and Structural Properties of Thin Films with Thermal Treatment Wed, 12 Mar 2014 08:01:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/367950/ The effects of thermal treatment on the optical and structural properties of cobalt oxide thin films synthesized in the pores of PVP by chemical bath deposition technique were investigated. Films deposited were crystalline. The optical properties of the films were got from absorbance, transmittance reflectance, refractive index, absorption coefficient, and extinction coefficient measurements. The synthesized films turned out to be cobalt oxyhydroxide , CoO(OH), nanocrystals. The crystals obtained were of size 41.84 nm; however, as annealing temperature increased, the size decreased to 16.28 nm. The absorption coefficient, refractive index, and extinction coefficient were found to increase with increase in annealing temperature though not sequentially. For the same energy ranges of the incident photons, the absorption coefficient and refractive index ranged from 0.2 to 1.8 and from 1.4 to 2.3, respectively. The energy band-gap of the films ranged from 1.96 eV to 2.22 eV. A. B. C. Ekwealor, S. U. Offiah, S. C. Ezugwu, and F. I. Ezema Copyright © 2014 A. B. C. Ekwealor et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Polarons in Cuprates Hi- Superconductivity Mon, 10 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/590928/ The phonon contribution to the phenomenon of high temperature superconductivity in the cuprates is argued as being masked as polarons generated by the polarization of the charge reservoir accompanying the Jahn-Teller tilting of the apical oxygen. We discuss the Mahan oscillator-spring extension model as an analogy to the charge reservoir-CuO plane -axis polarons. Using the Boltzmann kinetic equation, we show that the polaron dissociates or collapses at a temperature corresponding to the critical temperature of the superconductor. M. I. Umo Copyright © 2014 M. I. Umo. All rights reserved. Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity of CeO2-ZnO-TiO2 Composites for the Degradation of Rhodamine B Mon, 03 Mar 2014 09:22:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/536123/ TiO2 plays a significant role in many applications including solar cell. Consecutively to absorb the low-energy radiation, it is very much essential to tune the optical property of TiO2. We fabricated CeO2-ZnO-TiO2 semiconductor composites by sol-gel method and achieved the absorption of lower energy radiation. The prepared composites were characterized by TG-DTA, UV-DRS, XRD, AFM, TEM and FESEM techniques. The particle and crystalline size of the composites was calculated using FESEM and XRD techniques, respectively. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized composite for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation was investigated. The photocatalytic degradation of RhB under various experimental conditions such as amount of catalyst, initial dye concentration and H2O2 amount was also demonstrated and the rate constant was calculated using L-H model. S. Prabhu, T. Viswanathan, K. Jothivenkatachalam, and K. Jeganathan Copyright © 2014 S. Prabhu et al. All rights reserved. Microstructure Properties of Rapidly Solidified Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys Sun, 02 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/353698/ The Rietveld X-ray diffraction analysis was applied to analyze the weight fraction of precipitation phases and microstructure characterizations of rapidly solidified Al-8Zn-4Mg-Cu, = 1, 4, 8, and 10 alloys (in wt.%), prepared by melt spun technique. A good agreement between observed and calculated diffraction pattern was obtained and the conventional Rietveld factors (, , and GOF) converged to satisfactory values. Solid solubilities of Zn, Mg, and Cu in α-Al were extended to high values. Besides, metastable Al0.71Zn0.29, intermetallic Al2CuMg, Al2Cu, and CuMgZn phases have been observed for = 4, 8, and 10 Cu alloys. The crystal structure and microstructure characterizations exhibit strong Cu content dependence. Emad M. Ahmed Copyright © 2014 Emad M. Ahmed. All rights reserved. Second Harmonic of Laser Radiation for IR-Range in Mixed Crystals Thu, 27 Feb 2014 07:50:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/753785/ The results of investigations of the influence of different parameters on conversion efficiency in mixed AgGa0.6In0.4Se2 crystal in conditions of existing experiments are cited. The angular dispersion coefficients for three versions of crystal , differing by a content of indium, have been calculated. A comparison was made of the obtained results on conversion efficiency with analogous results in case of other crystals and with corresponding experimentally measured values. The applied analytical method makes it possible to calculate the optimum parameters of both crystal-converter and a source of radiation for conditions of uncritical phase matching in the concrete experiment. Rena J. Kasumova Copyright © 2014 Rena J. Kasumova. All rights reserved. A Promising Orange-Red Nanocrystalline Potassium Lanthanum Orthophosphate for White Light-Emitting Diodes Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:59:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/794680/ The spectral properties of the K3La(PO4)2:Eu3+ nanophosphors synthesized by the combustion method are reported. The phosphors were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and optical spectroscopy. The XRD pattern reveals a pure monoclinic phase of the K3La(PO4)2 with the average particle size of 30 nm in diameter. Under UV excitation, the phosphors exhibited several emission bands which were assigned to 4f-4f transitions of Eu3+ ions. The red shade of the Eu3+ ion with the CIE coordinates (x, y) as (0.63, 0.37) suggests that this material is a promising phosphor for near-UV InGaN-based LED lighting. Palvi Gupta, A. K. Bedyal, Vinay Kumar, Y. Khajuria, O. M. Ntwaeaborwa, and H. C. Swart Copyright © 2014 Palvi Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Kinetics of Thermolysis of Nickel(II) Perchlorate Complex with n-Propylamine Wed, 19 Feb 2014 07:36:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/787306/ Complex of nickel perchlorate with n-propylamine has been synthesised with molecular formula [Ni(n-pa)3(ClO4)(H2O)]ClO4. It has been characterised by elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, UV-VIS, and IR spectroscopic data. Thermal properties have been investigated by thermogravimetry (TG) in static air and by simultaneous thermogravimetry-derivative thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA) in flowing nitrogen atmosphere. Kinetics of thermolysis has been analysed applying model-fitting and model-free isoconversional method on isothermal TG data recorded at five different temperatures. To observe the response of complex towards fast heating, explosion delay time has been recorded at various temperatures and kinetics of explosion has been studied using these data. Chandra Prakash Singh and Abhishek Singh Copyright © 2014 Chandra Prakash Singh and Abhishek Singh. All rights reserved. Optimum Material Gradient for Functionally Graded Rectangular Plate with the Finite Element Method Mon, 17 Feb 2014 14:12:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijms/2014/501935/ The optimum material gradient of a rectangular plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) is determined in this study. Elastic modulus of functionally graded (FG) rectangular plate is assumed to vary continuously throughout the height of the plate, according to the volume fraction of the constituent materials based on the power law, exponential model I, exponential model П, or sigmoid functions. The difference between these distribution functions for the constituents’ volume fraction is discussed in this study. To determine the optimum material gradient of a rectangular plate made of FGM, the finite element method and the optimization techniques are used. In this study, von Mises stress, shear stress, and deformation in FGM case with the power law, exponential model I, exponential model П, or sigmoid functions are investigated. Simulation results indicate that the optimum material gradient for FG rectangular plate can be described by using a modified sigmoid function. The maximum values of von Mises stress, shear stress, and deformation in FG rectangular plate with the optimum material gradient are reduced compared with the pure material case by around 22%, 11%, and 24%, respectively. Wasim M. K. Helal and Dongyan Shi Copyright © 2014 Wasim M. K. Helal and Dongyan Shi. All rights reserved.