Table 1: Risk factors and associated mechanisms in PUBS.

Risk factors for PUBSAssociated mechanisms

Female genderPredisposing anatomy to UTI occurrence
Increased tryptophan dietary contentIncreased available substrate for conversion
Increased urine alkalinity [4]Facilitates indoxyl oxidation
Severe constipation [5]Increased time for bacterial deamination
Chronic indwelling urinary catheterizationIncreased risk of UTIs
High urinary bacterial load [5]Bacterial sulfatase/phosphatase availability
Renal failureImpaired clearance of indoxyl sulfate