Table 2: Effect of environmental factors on kidney development and programming of renal dysfunction and blood pressure.

FactorsPhenotypeReferences

Maternal low-protein dietLBW, decreased nephron number, and salt-sensitive hypertension[16, 38, 5558]
Maternal cigarette smokingHypertension[5963]
Alcohol useDecreased nephron number[6467]
SteroidsDecreased nephron number and hypertension[6871]
Vitamin A deficiencyRat-renal hypoplasia[72]
Iron deficiencyRat-decreased birth weight and hypertension Rat-decreased nephron number and hypertension [73, 74]
High-salt dietRat-hypertension in an offspring, children-increased responsiveness of blood pressure to changes in dietary salt intake[75, 76]
Glucocorticoid exposureDecreased GFR and reduced number of nephrons hypertension[56, 68, 7779]
NSAIDsAbnormal glomerular and tubular development[8082]
ACEi/ARBsRenal tubular dysgenesis and hypotension[83]
COX-2 exposureDecreased nephron number and hypertension[84, 85]
GRN363SObesity and increased insulin resistance[86, 87]
GRER22/23KProtect against insulin resistance[88]
TestosteroneDecreased nephron number and proteinuria, hypertension[82, 89]
Uteroplacental insufficiencyRenal hypoplasia[36, 52, 9092]

LBW: low birth weight, GFR: glomerular filtration rate, NSAIDS: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, ACEi: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs: angiotensin receptor blockers, COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2, and GR: glucocorticoid receptor.