International Journal of Nephrology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Annual Decline in Pentraxin 3 Is a Risk of Vascular Access Troubles in Hemodialysis Patients Mon, 22 Dec 2014 00:10:08 +0000 Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a multifunctional modulator of the innate immunoinflammatory response, is higher in patients undergoing hemodialysis than healthy control. Our study focused on annual change in PTX3 levels in patients with chronic hemodialysis, because regularly undergoing hemodialysis for many years modifies vascular inflammatory status. To demonstrate whether annual change in PTX3 is associated with vascular events, we measured blood levels of pentraxins (PTX3 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) at baseline and in the next year in 76 hemodialysis patients and observed 20 patients with vascular access troubles during follow-up years. The annual decline in PTX3, but not hsCRP, is a significant risk of the incidence of vascular access trouble that is a critical and specific complication for hemodialysis patients (hazard ratio; 0.732 per +1 ng/mL/year in PTX3, ). This study is the first to focus on the annual change of pentraxins in a hemodialysis cohort. Kei Nagai, Atsushi Ueda, Chie Saito, Asako Zempo-Miyaki, and Kunihiro Yamagata Copyright © 2014 Kei Nagai et al. All rights reserved. Peritoneal Dialysis as a First versus Second Option after Previous Haemodialysis: A Very Long-Term Assessment Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:40:38 +0000 For renal replacement therapy, overall survival is more important than the choice of currently available individual therapy. Objectives. To compare patients and technique survival on peritoneal dialysis as first treatment (PDF) versus after previous haemodialysis (HDPD) and other indicators of follow-up. Methods. We prospectively studied 110 incident patients, during the period from August 4, 1993, to June 30, 2012, for patients and technique survival (Kaplan-Meier) (log rank ). Results. Groups: (A) PDF: 37 patients, 24 females, age: 52.2 ± 14.9 years old, time at risk: 2123 patient-months (p/m), mean: 57 ± 42 months; (B) HDPD: 73 patients, 42 females, age: 52.45 ± 14.7 years old, time in haemodialysis: 3569.2 (p/m), range: 3–216 months, mean: 49 ± 45 months, time at risk in PD: 3700 (p/m), mean: 51 ± 49 months. Patients’ survival: (A) PDF: 100%, 76.6%, 65.6%, and 19.7%; (B) HDPD: 95.4%, 65.6%, 43%, and 43% at 12, 60, 120, and 144 months, respectively, . Technique: (A) PDF: 100%, 90%, 59.8%, and 24%; (B) HDPD: 94%, 75%, 32%, and 32% at 12, 60, 120, and 144 months, respectively, . Conclusions. Comparable patient and technique survival were observed. Peritoneal dialysis enables a greater extension of renal replacement therapy for patients with serious difficulties continuing with haemodialysis. Roberto José Barone, María Inés Cámpora, Nélida Susana Gimenez, Liliana Ramirez, Sergio Alberto Panese, and Mónica Santopietro Copyright © 2014 Roberto José Barone et al. All rights reserved. Soluble Fas and the −670 Polymorphism of Fas in Lupus Nephritis Tue, 18 Nov 2014 10:45:46 +0000 This study was performed to clarify the role of soluble Fas (sFas) in lupus nephritis (LN) and establish a potential relationship between LN and the −670 polymorphism of Fas in 67 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), including a subset of 24 LN patients with proteinuria. Additionally, a group of 54 healthy subjects (HS) was included. The allelic frequency of the −670 polymorphism of Fas was determined using PCR-RFLP analysis, and sFas levels were assessed by ELISA. Additionally, the WT-1 protein level in urine was measured. The Fas receptor was determined in biopsies by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (FISH) and apoptotic features by TUNEL. Results. The −670 Fas polymorphism showed that the G allele was associated with increased SLE susceptibility, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.86. The sFas was significantly higher in LN patients with the G/G genotype, and this subgroup exhibited correlations between the sFas level and proteinuria and increased urinary WT-1 levels. LN group shows increased expression of Fas and apoptotic features. In conclusion, our results indicate that the G allele of the −670 polymorphism of Fas is associated with genetic susceptibility in SLE patients with elevated levels of sFas in LN with proteinuria. Juan José Bollain-y-Goytia, Mariela Arellano-Rodríguez, Felipe de Jesús Torres-Del-Muro, Leonel Daza-Benítez, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Esperanza Avalos-Díaz, and Rafael Herrera-Esparza Copyright © 2014 Juan José Bollain-y-Goytia et al. All rights reserved. Classification of Five Uremic Solutes according to Their Effects on Renal Tubular Cells Sun, 09 Nov 2014 12:01:35 +0000 Background/Aims. Uremic solutes, which are known to be retained in patients with chronic kidney disease, are considered to have deleterious effects on disease progression. Among these uremic solutes, indoxyl sulfate (IS) has been extensively studied, while other solutes have been studied less to state. We conducted a comparative study to examine the similarities and differences between IS, p-cresyl sulfate (PCS), phenyl sulfate (PhS), hippuric acid (HA), and indoleacetic acid (IAA). Methods. We used LLC-PK1 cells to evaluate the effects of these solutes on viable cell number, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Results. All the solutes reduced viable cell number after 48-hour incubation. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine inhibited this effect induced by all solutes except HA. At the concentration that reduced the cell number to almost 50% of vehicle control, IAA induced apoptosis but not cell cycle delay, whereas other solutes induced delay in cell cycle progression with marginal impact on apoptosis. Phosphorylation of p53 and Chk1 and expression of ATF4 and CHOP genes were detected in IS-, PCS-, and PhS-treated cells, but not in IAA-treated cells. Conclusions. Taken together, the adverse effects of PCS and PhS on renal tubular cells are similar to those of IS, while those of HA and IAA differ. Takeo Edamatsu, Ayako Fujieda, Atsuko Ezawa, and Yoshiharu Itoh Copyright © 2014 Takeo Edamatsu et al. All rights reserved. Associates of Cardiopulmonary Arrest in the Perihemodialytic Period Tue, 04 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Cardiopulmonary arrest during and proximate to hemodialysis is rare but highly fatal. Studies have examined peridialytic sudden cardiac event risk factors, but no study has considered associates of cardiopulmonary arrests (fatal and nonfatal events including cardiac and respiratory causes). This study was designed to elucidate patient and procedural factors associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Data for this case-control study were taken from the hemodialysis population at Fresenius Medical Care, North America. 924 in-center cardiopulmonary events (cases) and 75,538 controls were identified. Cases and controls were 1 : 5 matched on age, sex, race, and diabetes. Predictors of cardiopulmonary arrest were considered for logistic model inclusion. Missed treatments due to hospitalization, lower body mass, coronary artery disease, heart failure, lower albumin and hemoglobin, lower dialysate potassium, higher serum calcium, greater erythropoietin stimulating agent dose, and normalized protein catabolic rate (J-shaped) were associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. Of these, lower albumin, hemoglobin, and body mass index; higher erythropoietin stimulating agent dose; and greater missed sessions had the strongest associations with outcome. Patient health markers and procedural factors are associated with peridialytic cardiopulmonary arrest. In addition to optimizing nutritional status, it may be prudent to limit exposure to low dialysate potassium (<2 K bath) and to use the lowest effective erythropoietin stimulating agent dose. Jennifer E. Flythe, Nien-Chen Li, Shu-Fang Lin, Steven M. Brunelli, Jeffrey Hymes, and Eduardo Lacson Jr. Copyright © 2014 Jennifer E. Flythe et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Importance of Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 in Dialysis Patients Wed, 10 Sep 2014 08:25:48 +0000 Introduction. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the correlation of FGF-23 levels with bone-mineral metabolism, anemia, and the treatment in dialysis patients. Methods. Eighty-nine patients with similar age, gender, dialysis duration, and dialysis adequacy who were receiving hemodialysis replacement therapy for at least 6 months were included in the study. Serum iron, iron binding capacity, ferritin, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Htc), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), intact parathormone (iPTH), and FGF-23 levels were studied. In addition, active vitamin D and phosphate binders calcimimetic therapies that patients have received in the last 6 months were recorded. Results. It was determined that there was a positive correlation between serum FGF-23 values and PTH values () and CaP values (). A positive correlation was found between serum FGF-23 values and Ca values at a rate of 24,6% () and between values at a rate of 59,1% (). A positive correlation was determined between serum FGF-23 values and hemoglobin (Hb) values () and hematocrit (Htc) values (). In multivariate analysis, no significant correlation was found between serum FGF-23 levels and Hb and Htc. Conclusion. The effects of high serum FGF-23 levels on different parameters may be correlated with the development of refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism. Nilgül Akalin, Yıldız Okuturlar, Özlem Harmankaya, Asuman Gedıkbaşi, Selçuk Sezıklı, and Sibel Koçak Yücel Copyright © 2014 Nilgül Akalin et al. All rights reserved. Anti-VEGF Cancer Therapy in Nephrology Practice Sun, 24 Aug 2014 07:17:50 +0000 Expanded clinical experience with the antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents has come with increasing recognition of their renal adverse effects. Although renal histology is rarely sought in antiangiogenic-treated cancer patients, kidney damage related to anti-VEGF is now established. Its manifestations include hypertension, proteinuria, and mainly glomerular thrombotic microangiopathy. Then, in nephrology practice, should we continue to perform kidney biopsy, and what should be done with the anti-VEGF agents in case of renal toxicity? Hassan Izzedine Copyright © 2014 Hassan Izzedine. All rights reserved. Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Serum Cystatin C versus Creatinine in a Uruguayan Population Sun, 24 Aug 2014 06:28:42 +0000 Background. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from biomarkers has evolved and multiple equations are available to estimate renal function at bedside. Methods. In a random sample of 119 Uruguayans (54.5% women; 56.2 years (mean)), we used Bland and Altman’s method and Cohen’s kappa statistic to assess concordance on a continuous or categorical (eGFR < 60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) scale between eGFRcys (reference) and eGFR derived from serum creatinine according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFRmdrd) or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (eGFRepi) or from both serum cystatin C and creatinine (eGFRmix). Results. In all participants, eGFRmdrd, eGFRepi, and eGFRmix were, respectively, 9.7, 11.5, and 5.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher () than eGFRcys. The prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was the highest for eGFRcys (21.8%), intermediate for eGFRmix (11.8%), and the lowest for eGFRmdrd (5.9%) and eGFRepi (3.4%). Using eGFRcys as reference, we found only fair agreement with the equations based on creatinine (Cohen’s kappa statistic 0.15 to 0.23). Conclusion. Using different equations we reached clinically significant differences in the estimation of renal function. eGFRcys provides lower estimates, resulting in higher prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Inés Lujambio, Mariana Sottolano, Leonella Luzardo, Sebastián Robaina, Nadia Krul, Lutgarde Thijs, Florencia Carusso, Alicia da Rosa, Ana Carina Ríos, Alicia Olascoaga, Mariela Garau, Liliana Gadola, Oscar Noboa, Jan A. Staessen, and José Boggia Copyright © 2014 Inés Lujambio et al. All rights reserved. High Steroid Sensitivity among Children with Nephrotic Syndrome in Southwestern Nigeria Wed, 16 Jul 2014 06:55:13 +0000 Recent reports from both Caucasian and black populations suggest changes in steroid responsiveness of childhood nephrotic syndrome. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the features and steroid sensitivity pattern of a cohort of black children with nephrotic syndrome. Records of children managed for nephrotic syndrome from January 2008 to April 2013 were reviewed. Details including age, response to treatment, and renal histology were analysed. There were 108 children (median age: 5.9 years, peak: 1-2 years), 90.2% of whom had idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Steroid sensitivity was 82.8% among children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome but 75.9% overall. Median time to remission was 7 days. Median age was significantly lower in steroid sensitive compared with resistant patients. The predominant histologic finding in resistant cases was focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (53.3%). No cases of quartan malaria nephropathy or hepatitis B virus nephropathy were diagnosed. Overall mortality was 6.5%. In conclusion, unusually high steroid sensitivity is reported among a cohort of black children. This is likely attributable to the lower age structure of our cohort as well as possible changing epidemiology of some other childhood diseases. Surveillance of the epidemiology of childhood nephrotic syndrome and corresponding modifications in practice are therefore recommended. Taiwo Augustina Ladapo, Christopher Imokhuede Esezobor, and Foluso Ebun Lesi Copyright © 2014 Taiwo Augustina Ladapo et al. All rights reserved. Mortality in Patients on Renal Replacement Therapy and Permanent Cardiac Pacemakers Mon, 26 May 2014 11:37:44 +0000 End stage renal disease is a relatively frequent disease with high mortality due to cardiac causes. Permanent pacemaker (PM) implantation rates are also very common; thus combination of both conditions is not unusual. We hypothesized that patients with chronic kidney disease with a PM would have significantly higher mortality rates compared with end stage renal disease patients without PM. Our objectives were to analyze mortality of patients on renal replacement therapy with PM. 2778 patients were on renal replacement therapy (RRT) and 110 had a PM implanted during the study period. To reduce the confounding effects of covariates, a propensity-matched score was performed. 52 PM patients and 208 non-PM matched patients were compared. 41% of the PM were implanted before entering the RRT program and 59% while on RRT. Mortality was higher in the PM group. Cardiovascular disease and infections were the most frequent causes of death. Propensity analysis showed no differences in long-term mortality between groups. We concluded that in patients on RRT and PM mortality rates are higher. Survival curves did not differ from a RRT propensity-matched group. We concluded that the presence of a PM is not an independent mortality risk factor in RRT patients. Gabriel Vanerio, Cristina García, Carlota González, and Alejandro Ferreiro Copyright © 2014 Gabriel Vanerio et al. All rights reserved. A New Method to Make 24-Hour Urine Collection More Convenient: A Validity Study Tue, 20 May 2014 11:07:08 +0000 Background and Objectives. This study proposes a novel urine collection device that can divide each urine collection into 20 parts and store and cool just one part. The aim of the current study is to compare measured biomarkers from the proposed urine collection device to those of conventional 24-hour sampling method. We also hypothesized that the new method would significantly increase patients’ adherence to the timed urine collection. Methods. Two 24-hour urine samples with the conventional method and with the new automated urine collection device that uses just one-twentieth of each void were obtained from 40 healthy volunteers. Urine parameters including volume, creatinine, and protein levels were compared between the two methods and the agreement of two measurements for each subject was reported through Bland-Altman plots. Results. Our results confirmed that for all three variables, there is a positive correlation between the two measurements and high degree of agreement could be seen in Bland-Altman plots. Moreover, more subjects reported the new method as “more convenient” for 24-hour urine collection. Conclusions. Our results clearly indicate that a fixed proportion of each void may significantly reduce the urine volume in timed collections and this, in turn, may increase subjects’ adherence to this difficult sampling. Pooneh Nabavizadeh, Shadi Ghadermarzi, and Mohammad Fakhri Copyright © 2014 Pooneh Nabavizadeh et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Causes of Inflammation in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients Tue, 06 May 2014 15:26:54 +0000 Inflammation at both systemic and local intraperitoneal levels commonly affects peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Interest in inflammatory markers as targets of therapeutic intervention has been considerable as they are recognised as predictors of poor clinical outcomes. However, prior to embarking on strategies to reduce inflammatory burden, it is of paramount importance to define the underlying processes that drive the chronic active inflammatory status. The present review aims to comprehensively describe clinical causes of inflammation in PD patients to which potential future strategies may be targeted. Yeoungjee Cho, Carmel M. Hawley, and David W. Johnson Copyright © 2014 Yeoungjee Cho et al. All rights reserved. Estimated Visceral Adipose Tissue, but Not Body Mass Index, Is Associated with Reductions in Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Cystatin C in the Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease Sun, 04 May 2014 14:00:18 +0000 Information on the association between obesity and initial phases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still limited, principally those regarding the influence of visceral adipose tissue. We investigated whether the visceral adipose tissue is more associated with reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than total and abdominal obesity in hypertensive individuals with stage 1-2 CKD. A cross-sectional study was implemented which involved 241 hypertensive patients undergoing treatment at a primary health care facility. GFR was estimated using equations based on creatinine and cystatin C levels. Explanatory variables included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and estimated visceral adipose tissue (eVAT). The mean age was years old and 75.9% were female. According to BMI, 28.2% of subjects were obese. Prevalence of increased WC and eVAT was 63.9% and 58.5%, respectively. Results from the assessment of GFR by BMI, WC, and eVAT categories showed that only women with increased eVAT (≥150 cm2) had a lower mean GFR by Larsson (), Levey 2 (), and Levey 3 () equations. The same result was not observed when the MDRD equation was employed. No association was found between BMI, WC, eVAT, and GFR using only serum creatinine. In the early stages of CKD, increased eVAT in hypertensive women was associated with decreased GFR based on cystatin C. Ana Karina Teixeira da Cunha França, Alcione Miranda dos Santos, João Victor Salgado, Elane Viana Hortegal, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva, and Natalino Salgado Filho Copyright © 2014 Ana Karina Teixeira da Cunha França et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of CKD-EPI Cystatin C and Creatinine Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation Equations in Asian Indians Sun, 27 Apr 2014 14:00:27 +0000 Background. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is identified in the general population using estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) calculated from a serum creatinine-based equation, the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Using serum cystatin C in combination may improve eGFR accuracy. We evaluated the new CKD-EPI equations incorporating cystatin C in a population of Asian Indians in classifying CKD across body mass index, diabetes, and hypertension status. Methods. We retrieved standardized serum creatinine and serum cystatin C data from a cohort of 2877 Asian Indians aged 40–80 years from the Singapore Indian Eye Study and calculated eGFR (in mL/min/1.73 m2) with the new CKD-EPI equations and serum creatinine only equation. Results. The creatinine only equation mean eGFR (88 ± 17) was similar to using spline Log cystatin C (88 ± 22). The lowest mean eGFR (81 ± 21) was obtained with the spline Log cystatin C—age, sex, and weight equation. The creatinine only equation had the fewest participants (7.1%) with eGFR <60 and spline Log cystatin C—age, sex, and weight equation had the most (16.1%). Conclusions. Using serum cystatin C resulted in widely varying eGFR which significantly affected the classification of chronic kidney disease. Boon Wee Teo, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Jiemin Liao, Qi Chun Toh, Sharon Saw, Tien Yin Wong, and Sunil Sethi Copyright © 2014 Boon Wee Teo et al. All rights reserved. Expression of Tight Junction Protein Claudin-1 in Human Crescentic Glomerulonephritis Sun, 27 Apr 2014 13:18:36 +0000 The origin of crescent forming cells in human glomerulonephritis (GN) remains unknown. Some animal studies demonstrated that parietal epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule (PECs) were the main component of proliferating cells and PEC-specific tight junction protein claudin-1 was expressed in crescentic lesions. We investigated the expression of claudin-1 in human GN. Immunohistochemistry for claudin-1 was performed on 17 kidney biopsy samples with crescent formation. Colocalization of claudin-1 with intracellular tight junction protein ZO-1 was also evaluated by immunofluorescence double staining. Claudin-1 is expressed mainly at the cell to cell contact site of proliferating cells in cellular crescentic lesions in patients with these forms of human GN. Small numbers of crescent forming cells showed extrajunctional localization of claudin-1. Colocalization of claudin-1 with ZO-1 was found at cell to cell contact sites of adjacent proliferating cells. In control samples, staining of claudin-1 was positive in PECs, but not in podocytes. Our findings suggest that claudin-1 contributes to crescent formation as a component of the tight junction protein complex that includes ZO-1. Co-localization of claudin-1 with ZO-1 implies the formation of functional tight junction complexes in crescentic lesions to prevent the interstitial damage caused by penetration of filtered molecules from Bowman’s space. Ryo Koda, Atsunori Yoshino, Yuji Imanishi, Shinya Kawamoto, Yoshihiko Ueda, Eishin Yaoita, Junichiro James Kazama, Ichiei Narita, and Tetsuro Takeda Copyright © 2014 Ryo Koda et al. All rights reserved. Primary Nephrotic Syndrome in Adults as a Risk Factor for Pulmonary Embolism: An Up-to-Date Review of the Literature Wed, 16 Apr 2014 16:23:11 +0000 Patients with nephrotic syndrome are at an increased risk for thrombotic events; deep venous thrombosis, renal vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism are quite common in patients with nephrotic syndrome. It is important to note that nephrotic syndrome secondary to membranous nephropathy may impose a greater thrombotic risk for unclear reasons. Increased platelet activation, enhanced red blood cell aggregation, and an imbalance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors are thought to underlie the excessive thrombotic risk in patients with nephrotic syndrome. The current scientific literature suggests that patients with low serum albumin levels and membranous nephropathy may benefit from primary prophylactic anticoagulation. A thorough approach which includes accounting for all additional thrombotic risk factors is, therefore, essential. Patient counseling regarding the pros and cons of anticoagulation is of paramount importance. Future prospective randomized studies should address the question regarding the utility of primary thromboprophylaxis in patients with nephrotic syndrome. Aibek E. Mirrakhimov, Alaa M. Ali, Aram Barbaryan, Suartcha Prueksaritanond, and Nasir Hussain Copyright © 2014 Aibek E. Mirrakhimov et al. All rights reserved. Effect of AST-120 on Endothelial Dysfunction in Adenine-Induced Uremic Rats Mon, 14 Apr 2014 09:15:20 +0000 Aim. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) represents endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte adhesion is recognized as the initial step of arteriosclerosis. Indoxyl sulfate (IS) is considered to be a risk factor for arteriosclerosis in CKD. Oral adsorbent AST-120 retards deterioration of renal function, reducing accumulation of IS. In the present study, we determined the monocyte adhesion in the adenine-induced uremic rats in vivo and effects of AST-120 on the adhesion molecules. Methods. Twenty-four rats were divided into control, control+AST-120, adenine, and adenine+AST-120 groups. The number of monocytes adherent to the endothelium of thoracic aorta by imaging the entire endothelial surface and the mRNA expressions of adhesion and atherosclerosis-related molecules were examined on day 49. The mRNA expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were also examined. Results. Adenine increased the number of adherent monocytes, and AST-120 suppressed the increase. The monocyte adhesion was related to serum creatinine and IS in sera. Overexpression of VCAM-1 and TGF-β1 mRNA in the arterial walls was observed in uremic rats. IS induced increase of the ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions in vitro. Conclusion. It appears that uremic condition introduces the monocyte adhesion to arterial wall and AST-120 might inhibit increasing of the monocyte adherence with CKD progression. Yuko Inami, Chieko Hamada, Takuya Seto, Yoko Hotta, Seiki Aruga, Jiro Inuma, Kosuke Azuma, Hiroaki Io, Kayo Kaneko, Hirotaka Watada, and Yasuhiko Tomino Copyright © 2014 Yuko Inami et al. All rights reserved. Thyroid Disorders and Chronic Kidney Disease Sun, 13 Apr 2014 11:20:06 +0000 Thyroid hormones play a very important role regulating metabolism, development, protein synthesis, and influencing other hormone functions. The two main hormones produced by the thyroid are triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones can also have significant impact on kidney disease so it is important to consider the physiological association of thyroid dysfunction in relation to chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD has been known to affect the pituitary-thyroid axis and the peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones. Low T3 levels are the most common laboratory finding followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in CKD patients. Hyperthyroidism is usually not associated with CKD but has been known to accelerate it. One of the most important links between thyroid disorders and CKD is uremia. Patients who are appropriately treated for thyroid disease have a less chance of developing renal dysfunction. Clinicians need to be very careful in treating patients with low T3 levels who also have an elevation in TSH, as this can lead to a negative nitrogen balance. Thus, clinicians should be well educated on the role of thyroid hormones in relation to CKD so that proper treatment can be delivered to the patient. Mohamed Mohamedali, Srikanth Reddy Maddika, Anix Vyas, Viswanathan Iyer, and Pramil Cheriyath Copyright © 2014 Mohamed Mohamedali et al. All rights reserved. Salivary Creatinine Estimation as an Alternative to Serum Creatinine in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Thu, 10 Apr 2014 14:19:31 +0000 Context. Sampling blood for serum analysis is an invasive procedure. A noninvasive alternative would be beneficial to patients and health care professionals. Aim. To correlate serum and salivary creatinine levels and evaluate the role of saliva as a noninvasive alternative to serum for creatinine estimation in chronic kidney disease patients. Study Design. Case-control study. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 37 healthy individuals and 105 chronic kidney disease patients. Serum and salivary creatinine levels were estimated using automatic analyser. Statistical Analysis. The serum and salivary creatinine levels between controls and cases were compared using -test. Correlation between serum and salivary creatinine was obtained in controls and cases using Pearson correlation coefficient. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was done to assess the diagnostic performance of salivary creatinine. Cut-off values were established for salivary creatinine. Results. Serum and salivary creatinine levels were significantly higher in CKD patients than controls. The correlation was negative in controls and positive in cases. Area under the curve for salivary creatinine was found to be 0.967. A cut-off value of 0.2 mg/dL gave a sensitivity of 97.1% and specificity of 86.5%. Conclusion. Saliva can be used as a noninvasive alternative to serum for creatinine estimation. Ramesh Venkatapathy, Vasupradha Govindarajan, Nirima Oza, Sreejith Parameswaran, Balamurali Pennagaram Dhanasekaran, and Karthikshree V. Prashad Copyright © 2014 Ramesh Venkatapathy et al. All rights reserved. The Increasing Financial Impact of Chronic Kidney Disease in Australia Tue, 01 Apr 2014 16:08:07 +0000 The aim of this investigation was to determine and compare current and projected expenditure associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), renal replacement therapy (RRT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Australia. Data published by Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and World Bank were used to compare CKD-, RRT-, and CVD-related expenditure and prevalence rates. Prevalence and expenditure predictions were made using a linear regression model. Direct statistical comparisons of rates of annual increase utilised indicator variables in combined regressions. Statistical significance was set at . Dollar amounts were adjusted for inflation prior to analysis. Between 2012 and 2020, prevalence, per-patient expenditure, and total disease expenditure associated with CKD and RRT are estimated to increase significantly more rapidly than CVD. RRT prevalence is estimated to increase by 29%, compared to 7% in CVD. Average annual RRT per-patient expenditure is estimated to increase by 16%, compared to 8% in CVD. Total CKD- and RRT-related expenditure had been estimated to increase by 37%, compared to 14% in CVD. Per-patient, CKD produces a considerably greater financial impact on Australia’s healthcare system, compared to CVD. Research focusing on novel preventative/therapeutic interventions is warranted. Patrick S. Tucker, Michael I. Kingsley, R. Hugh Morton, Aaron T. Scanlan, and Vincent J. Dalbo Copyright © 2014 Patrick S. Tucker et al. All rights reserved. Impaired Urine Dilution Capability in HIV Stable Patients Mon, 31 Mar 2014 15:16:14 +0000 Renal disease is a well-recognized complication among patients with HIV infection. Viral infection itself and the use of some antiretroviral drugs contribute to this condition. The thick ascending limb of Henle’s loop (TALH) is the tubule segment where free water clearance is generated, determining along with glomerular filtration rate the kidney’s ability to dilute urine. Objective. We analyzed the function of the proximal tubule and TALH in patients with HIV infection receiving or not tenofovir-containing antiretroviral treatment in comparison with healthy seronegative controls, by applying a tubular physiological test, hyposaline infusion test (Chaimowitz’ test). Material & Methods. Chaimowitz’ test was performed on 20 HIV positive volunteers who had normal renal functional parameters. The control group included 10 healthy volunteers. Results. After the test, both HIV groups had a significant reduction of serum sodium and osmolarity compared with the control group. Free water clearance was lower and urine osmolarity was higher in both HIV+ groups. Proximal tubular function was normal in both studied groups. Conclusion. The present study documented that proximal tubule sodium reabsorption was preserved while free water clearance and maximal urine dilution capability were reduced in stable HIV patients treated or not with tenofovir. Waldo H. Belloso, Mariana de Paz Sierra, Matilde Navarro, Marisa L. Sanchez, Ariel G. Perelsztein, and Carlos G. Musso Copyright © 2014 Waldo H. Belloso et al. All rights reserved. The Evaluation of Red Cell Distribution Width in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients Sun, 30 Mar 2014 13:50:09 +0000 Background. Red cell distribution width (RDW) has been used as a marker of iron deficiency; however, it is accepted as a marker of cardiovascular survival. We aimed to study RDW levels in hemodialysis (HD) patients and the association between RDW and inflammatory, nutritional, and volume markers. Methods. We included 296 HD patients with sufficient iron storage and without anemia or hypervolemia. We grouped patients into four groups according to clinical parameters, albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results. The lowest RDW levels were found in group 1 (13.2%). Although RDW of group 2 was higher than that of group 1, it was still in normal range (14.7% versus 13.2%, ). RDW levels of groups 3 (17.8%) and 4 (18.5%) were significantly higher than those of groups 1 and 2 and above normal range. A positive correlation was detected between RDW and HD duration, interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), serum phosphate, and CRP levels and a negative correlation was detected with serum albumin. HD duration, CRP, IDWG, and serum albumin have been found as independent predictors of RDW elevation. Conclusions. Results of the present study reflect adverse effects of inflammation, malnutrition, and excess IDWG on RDW elevation in an HD study cohort with sufficient iron storage and without anemia and hypervolemia. Hikmet Tekce, Buket Kin Tekce, Gulali Aktas, Mehmet Tanrisev, and Mustafa Sit Copyright © 2014 Hikmet Tekce et al. All rights reserved. The Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers for Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Wed, 26 Mar 2014 13:05:39 +0000 Background. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a glomerular injury with various pathogenic mechanisms. Urine proteome panel might help in noninvasive diagnosis and better understanding of pathogenesis of FSGS. Method. We have analyzed the urine sample of 11 biopsy-proven FSGS subjects, 8 healthy controls, and 6 patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (disease controls) by means of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). Multivariate analysis of quantified proteins was performed by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). Results. Of the total number of 389 proteins, after multivariate analysis and additional filter criterion and comparing FSGS versus IgA nephropathy and healthy subjects, 77 proteins were considered as putative biomarkers of FSGS. CD59, CD44, IBP7, Robo4, and DPEP1 were the most significant differentially expressed proteins. These proteins are involved in pathogenic pathways: complement pathway, sclerosis, cell proliferation, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and activity of TRPC6.There was complete absence of DPEP1 in urine proteome of FSGS subjects compared with healthy and disease controls. DPEP1 acts via leukotrienes on TRPC6 and results in increased podocyte motility and proteinuria. Conclusion. The results suggest a panel of candidate biomarkers for noninvasive diagnosis of FSGS, while complete absence of DPEP1 might represent a novel marker of FSGS. Mohsen Nafar, Shiva Kalantari, Shiva Samavat, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Dorothea Rutishuser, and Roman A. Zubarev Copyright © 2014 Mohsen Nafar et al. All rights reserved. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Risk and Liver Disease Sun, 23 Mar 2014 09:51:45 +0000 Objective. Evaluate the incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with liver disease in the peritransplant period. Materials and Methods. This IRB approved study retrospectively reviewed patients requiring transplantation for cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), or both from 2003 to 2013. Records were reviewed identifying those having gadolinium enhanced MRI within 1 year of posttransplantation to document degree of liver disease, renal disease, and evidence for NSF. Results. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI was performed on 312 of 837 patients, including 23 with severe renal failure (GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 cm2) and 289 with GFR > 30. Two of 23 patients with renal failure developed NSF compared to zero NSF cases in 289 patients with GFR > 30 (0/289; ). High dose gadodiamide was used in the two NSF cases. There was no increased incidence of NSF with severe liver disease (1/71) compared to nonsevere liver disease (1/241; ). Conclusion. Renal disease is a risk factor for NSF, but in our small sample our evidence suggests liver disease is not an additional risk factor, especially if a low-risk gadolinium agent is used. Noting that not all patients received high-risk gadolinium, a larger study focusing on patients receiving high-risk gadolinium is needed to further evaluate NSF risk in liver disease in the peritransplant period. Robert F. Hanna, Lee A. Finkelstone, Daniel S. Chow, Vesselin Z. Miloushev, Mark R. Escudero, Stephen M. Lagana, and Martin R. Prince Copyright © 2014 Robert F. Hanna et al. All rights reserved. Early Trends in Cystatin C and Outcomes in Patients with Cirrhosis and Acute Kidney Injury Tue, 18 Mar 2014 06:29:33 +0000 Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and severe complication in patients with cirrhosis. Progression of AKI to a higher stage associates with increased mortality. Intervening early in AKI when renal dysfunction is worsening may improve outcomes. However, serum creatinine correlates poorly with glomerular filtration in patients with cirrhosis and fluctuations may mask progression early in the course of AKI. Cystatin C, a low-molecular-weight cysteine proteinase inhibitor, is a potentially more accurate marker of glomerular filtration. Methods. We conducted a prospective multicenter study in patients with cirrhosis comparing changes in cystatin and creatinine immediately following onset of AKI as predictors of a composite endpoint of dialysis or mortality. Results. Of 106 patients, 37 (35%) met the endpoint. Cystatin demonstrated less variability between samples than creatinine. Patients were stratified into four groups reflecting changes in creatinine and cystatin: both unchanged or decreased 38 (36%) (Scr−/CysC−); only cystatin increased 25 (24%) (Scr−/CysC+); only creatinine increased 15 (14%) (Scr+/CysC−); and both increased 28 (26%) (Scr+/CysC+). With Scr−/CysC− as the reference, in both instances where cystatin rose, Scr−/CysC+ and Scr+/CysC+, the primary outcome was significantly more frequent in multivariate analysis, and , respectively. However, when only creatinine rose, outcomes were similar to the reference group. Conclusions. Changes in cystatin levels early in AKI are more closely associated with eventual dialysis or mortality than creatinine and may allow more rapid identification of patients at risk for adverse outcomes. Justin M. Belcher, Arun J. Sanyal, Guadalupe Garcia-Tsao, Naheed Ansari, Steven G. Coca, Michael G. Shlipak, and Chirag R. Parikh Copyright © 2014 Justin M. Belcher et al. All rights reserved. Protection of Liver as a Remote Organ after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Renal Ischemic Postconditioning Wed, 12 Mar 2014 12:43:03 +0000 This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of local renal ischemic postconditioning (POC) on liver damage after renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Male rats were divided into three groups  . They underwent a right nephrectomy before induction of 45 minutes of left kidney ischemia or sham operation. POC was performed by four cycles of 10 seconds of ischemia and 10 seconds of reperfusion just at the beginning of 24 hours of reperfusion. Then blood and liver samples were collected to measure serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and liver oxidative stress parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Renal IR caused a significant increase in liver functional indices as demonstrated by increased serum AST and ALT compared to sham group. These parameters reduced significantly in POC group compared to IR group. Liver MDA levels increased and SOD activity decreased in IR group compared to sham group. Induction of POC reduced the elevated liver MDA levels and increased the reduced liver SOD activity. These results revealed that renal IR injury causes liver damage as a remote organ and POC protects liver from renal IR injury by a modification in the hepatic oxidative stress status. Behjat Seifi, Mehri Kadkhodaee, Atefeh Najafi, and Atefeh Mahmoudi Copyright © 2014 Behjat Seifi et al. All rights reserved. An Update on Coronary Artery Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease Mon, 10 Mar 2014 07:06:15 +0000 Despite the improvements in diagnostic tools and medical applications, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially coronary artery disease (CAD), remain the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The main factors for the heightened risk in this population, beside advanced age and a high proportion of diabetes and hypertension, are malnutrition, chronic inflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, coronary artery calcification, left ventricular structural and functional abnormalities, and bone mineral disorders. Chronic kidney disease is now recognized as an independent risk factor for CAD. In community-based studies, decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria were both found to be independently associated with CAD. This paper will discuss classical and recent epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, and clinical aspects of CAD in CKD patients. Baris Afsar, Kultigin Turkmen, Adrian Covic, and Mehmet Kanbay Copyright © 2014 Baris Afsar et al. All rights reserved. Persistent Microalbuminuria in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Children in Kano, Nigeria Mon, 03 Mar 2014 08:10:54 +0000 Microalbuminuria has been reported to be a precursor of HIV related renal disease, which if detected early and coupled with appropriate intervention may slow or retard the progress of the disease. One hundred and seventy-eight HIV infected children aged 15 years and below were recruited from the Paediatric Infectious Disease Clinic of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Kano, to determine the prevalence of persistent microalbuminuria using the albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Early morning urine samples and spot urine samples were analyzed using a dipstick specific for microalbumin. Those who tested positive had their samples reanalyzed in the laboratory using immunometric assay and Jaffe reaction method for albumin and creatinine, respectively. Patients that had ACR of 30–300 mg/g were said to have microalbuminuria and had their urine samples retested after 6 to 8 weeks. Twelve children (6.7%) had persistent microalbuminuria and had a mean age of years, with a male to female ratio of 1 : 1. There was no significant relationship between the finding of microalbuminuria and age, sex, duration of infection, and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Periodic screening for microalbuminuria using albumin specific dipstick should be considered for children with HIV infection. Abdullahi Mudi, Bashir U. Alhaj, Fatimah Hassan-Hanga, and Isah Adagiri Yahaya Copyright © 2014 Abdullahi Mudi et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and Rates of Oral Antidiabetic Prescribing in Accordance with Guidelines and Manufacturer Recommendations in Type 2 Diabetic Patients within a Long-Term Care Setting Tue, 25 Feb 2014 09:21:04 +0000 This retrospective study assessed the prevalence of moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) among nursing home (NH) residents with type 2 diabetes. The pattern of oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) use and their concordance with the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) guideline and prescribing information (PI) was also assessed. About half (47%) of diabetic residents had moderate to severe CKD. A little over a quarter of the 186 residents using OADs received at least one NKF-discordant OAD prescription. Metformin was the most commonly misused OAD. PI nonconcordance was observed in 58.6% of residents and was highest in glipizide and metformin users. With the high prevalence of moderate to severe CKD in NH residents with diabetes, physicians should consider residents’ renal function when choosing treatment plans and review treatments regularly to check compliance with the NKF guidelines or PIs. Ning Wu, Xia Yu, Mallik Greene, and Gary Oderda Copyright © 2014 Ning Wu et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on Proteinuria in Patients with Primary Glomerulonephritis Mon, 24 Feb 2014 12:11:00 +0000 Background. Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome. In most cases it is idiopathic, while it may also be secondary to many diseases. In this study, prevalence of H. pylori infection and the effects of H. pylori eradication on proteinuria levels were investigated. Methods. Thirty five patients with MN (19 male), 12 patients with IgA nephropathy (4 male) and 12 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (8 male) were studied. The presence of H. pylori antigen was investigated in renal tissues obtained by biopsy, and the effects of H. pylori eradication on proteinuria levels were investigated. Results. Immunohistochemistry with H. pylori antigen revealed no positive staining in the glomeruli of all patients. 19 patients (54%) with MN, 10 (83%) with IgA nephropathy and 4 (33%) with FSGS were positive for H. pylori stool antigen test . Patients with H. pylori infection were administered eradication therapy (lansoprazole, 30 mg twice daily, plus amoxicillin, 0.75 g twice daily, plus clarithromycin, 250 mg twice daily, for 14 days). Before the eradication therapy the mean proteinuria of patients with MN, IgA nephropathy and FSGS were 2.42 ± 3.24 g/day, 2.12 ± 1.63 g/day and 1.80 ± 1.32 g/day, respectively. Three months after eradication, baseline proteinuria levels of patients with MN significantly decreased to 1.26 ± 1.73 g/day . In all three groups there were no significant differences with regard to serum creatinine, albumin and C-reactive protein levels before and after eradication therapy. Conclusions. The eradication of H. pylori infection may be effective to reduce proteinuria in patients with MN, while spontaneous remission of MN could not be excluded in this patient cohort. This trial is registered with NCT00983034. Bahar Caliskan, Halil Yazici, Yasar Caliskan, Yasemin Ozluk, Mine Gulluoglu, Isin Kilicaslan, Aydin Turkmen, and Mehmet Sukru Sever Copyright © 2014 Bahar Caliskan et al. All rights reserved.