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International Journal of Optics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 361818, 8 pages
Research Article

Multiple Reflections and Fresnel Absorption of Gaussian Laser Beam in an Actual 3D Keyhole during Deep-Penetration Laser Welding

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Hunan, Changsha 410082, China

Received 13 February 2012; Accepted 26 March 2012

Academic Editor: Hongming Zhao

Copyright © 2012 Xiangzhong Jin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In deep penetration laser welding, a keyhole is formed in the material. Based on an experimentally obtained bending keyhole from low- and medium-speed laser penetration welding of glass, the keyhole profiles in both the symmetric plane are determined by polynomial fitting. Then, a 3D bending keyhole is reconstructed under the assumption of circular cross-section of the keyhole at each keyhole depth. In this paper, the behavior of focused Gaussian laser beam in the keyhole is analyzed by tracing a ray of light using Gaussian optics theory, the Fresnel absorption and multiple reflections in the keyhole are systematically studied, and the laser intensities absorbed on the keyhole walls are calculated. Finally, the formation mechanism of the keyhole is deduced.