- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Optics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 431826, 4 pages
Minimum Total Noise in Wave-Mixing Processes
1Department of Applied Physics, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra 136 119, India
2Department of Applied Physics, S.K. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Kurukshetra 136 118, India
3Department of Physics, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India
Received 1 November 2011; Accepted 9 February 2012
Academic Editor: Nicusor Iftimia
Copyright © 2012 Savita Gill et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Higher-order squeezing in different optical processes such as seven-wave mixing and five-wave mixing has been studied. The total noise of a field state is a measure of the fluctuations of the field amplitude. It is shown that the minimum total noise () of a higher-order squeezed state always increases with the increase in nonclassicality associated with higher-order squeezing. Thus, from , one can conclude that highly nonclassical states have large amplitude fluctuations.
The concept of the total noise of a quantum state was introduced by Schumaker . As was pointed by Schumaker, the total noise is always greater than or equal to a half and reaches this value only for coherent states. The total noise of a field state increases as the depth of nonclassicality associated with a state increases . A nonclassical state of electromagnetic field is one for which the Glauber-Sudarshan P-function either goes negative or contains derivatives of delta function . Standard deviation of an observable is considered to be the most natural measure of quantum fluctuations associated with an observable . Reduction of quantum fluctuation below the coherent state level corresponds to a nonclassical state. Optical fields in states with purely quantum mechanical properties are the key ingredients of quantum optics. Nonclassical properties of a radiation field such as photon antibunching and squeezing are currently of great interest and have attracted considerable attention owing to its low noise property [5–9]. Higher-order squeezing has drawn the greater attention of the community due to the rapid development of techniques for making higher-order correlation measurements in quantum optics [10–15].
In the present work, we have reported that the generation of higher-order squeezed state is possible by using seven-wave mixing and five-wave mixing processes, respectively. Further, we have also shown that T min can be used as an indirect measure of nonclassicality of a system associated with higher-order squeezing.
2. Higher-Order Squeezing and Total Noise
Higher-order squeezing is defined in various ways. Hong and Mandel  and Hillery  have introduced the notion of higher-order squeezing of quantized electromagnetic field as generalization of normal squeezing. Amplitude-squared squeezing is defined in terms of operators and as where and are the real and imaginary parts of the square of field amplitude, respectively. and are slowly varying operators defined by and .
The operators and obey the commutation relation This leads to the uncertainty relation where N is the usual number operator.
Amplitude-squared squeezing is said to exist in variable if or the squeezing is Total noise of a quantum state of a single mode, having density matrix , is defined as Increased nonclassicality gives rise to increase in the total noise. This fact can be verified by associating total noise with higher-order squeezing. The uncertainty relations for the quadrature variables using Hillery’s approach  may be written as follows: We can combine the above relations with the identity to obtain or From condition (4), T will be greater than 1/2. The minimum total noise of a state is greater as a state becomes more nonclassical: Here again we see that, for fixed as decreases, the total noise must increase. Thus, increases as a state becomes more squeezed and may be considered as a measure of depth of nonclassicality.
3. Seven-Wave Mixing Process
In this process, the interaction is looked upon as a process which involves the absorption of two pump photons, each having frequency ω1 and emission of two probe photons of frequency ω2, and three signal photons of frequency ω3 where The Hamiltonian for this process is given as follows ( = 1): in which g is a coupling constant. (iω1t), (iω2t), and (iω3t) are the slowly varying operators at frequencies , , and , a (), b (), and c () are the usual annihilation (creation) operators, respectively. The Heisenberg equation of motion for fundamental mode A is given as ( = 1): By using the short-time approximation technique, we expand A(t) by using Taylors series expansion and retaining the terms up to as where , , and .
Initially, we consider the quantum state of the field amplitude as a product of coherent state for the fundamental mode and the vacuum state for modes B and C, that is, Using (1), (15), and (16), a straightforward but strenuous calculation yields Using (15) and (16), number of photons in mode A may be expressed as Now, we can substitute (17) and (18) in (5) to obtain a closed form analytic expression for f as And similarly substituting (17) and (18) in (11), we have where θ is the phase angle, with . The right-hand side of (19) is negative and thus indicating the presence of higher-order squeezing within the short time domain of the second-order solution.
4. Five-Wave Mixing Process
In this process, the interaction is looked upon as a process which involves the absorption of two pump photons, each having frequency ω1 and emission of two probe photons of frequency ω2 and signal photon of frequency ω3, where The Hamiltonian for this process is given as follows ( = 1): Short-time second-order solution of this Hamiltonian is where , , and .
Using (23) and (16), a straightforward but strenuous calculation yields Using (23) and (16), number of photons in mode A may be expressed as The respective values of and T min can similarly be calculated as we have done for seven-wave mixing and that yields The right-hand side of (26) is always negative within the domain of the validity of the solution which shows the existence of higher-order squeezing.
The presence of higher-order squeezing in seven-wave mixing and five-wave mixing processes is being shown in (19) and (26), respectively. Again, from (5), (10), and (11), it is clear that highly nonclassical states have large amplitude fluctuations. Taking = 10−6 and = 50, the variation of squeezing (−f) and minimum total noise () in seven-wave mixing and five-wave mixing processes are shown in Figures 1 and 2, respectively.
The degree of higher-order squeezing varies with the phase of the input coherent light θ, initial photon number , and the interaction time t. Further, Figures 1(b) and 2(b) show that the depth of nonclassicality in higher-order squeezing can be measured in terms of .
The results show the presence of higher-order squeezing in seven-wave mixing and five-wave mixing processes. The total noise which is a measure of the size of amplitude fluctuations of a state of the field always increases with the increase in nonclassicality of a system associated with higher-order squeezing. This fact is more conspicuous in Figures 1 and 2. Again, from (19), (20), (26), and (27), we can conclude that squeezing and the amount of total noise present in the system can be tuned by varying the values of initial phase of the coherent state (), number of photons present in the radiation field prior to the interaction (), and the interaction time (t).
- B. L. Schumaker, “Quantum mechanical pure states with gaussian wave functions,” Physics Reports, vol. 135, no. 6, pp. 317–408, 1986.
- M. Hillery, “Total noise and nonclassical states,” Physical Review A, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 2994–3002, 1989.
- P. Meystre and M. Sargent III, Elementof Quantum Optics, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1991.
- A. Orlowski, “Classical entropy of quantum states of light,” Physical Review A, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 727–731, 1993.
- T. Eberle, S. Steinlechner, J. Bauchrowitz et al., “Quantum enhancement of the zero-area sagnac interferometer topology for gravitational wave detection,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 104, no. 25, Article ID 251102, 2010.
- H. Vahlbruch, A. Khalaidovski, N. Lastzka, C. Gräf, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, “The GEO 600 squeezed light source,” Classical and Quantum Gravity, vol. 27, no. 8, Article ID 084027, 2010.
- N. Takei, T. Aoki, S. Koike et al., “Experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation of a squeezed state,” Physical Review A, vol. 72, no. 4, Article ID 042304, 2005.
- J. Calsamiglia, M. Aspachs, R. Muñoz-Tapia, and E. Bagan, “Phase-covariant quantum benchmarks,” Physical Review A, vol. 79, no. 5, Article ID 050301, 2009.
- J. S. Neergaard-Nielsen, B. M. Nielsen, C. Hettich, K. Mølmer, and E. S. Polzik, “Generation of a superposition of odd photon number states for quantum information networks,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 97, no. 8, Article ID 083604, 2006.
- C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Higher-order squeezing of a quantum field,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 323–325, 1985.
- C. K. Hong and L. Mandel, “Generation of higher-order squeezing of quantum electromagnetic fields,” Physical Review A, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 974–982, 1985.
- M. Hillery, “Amplitude-squared squeezing of the electromagnetic field,” Physical Review A, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 3796–3802, 1987.
- S. Rani, J. Lal, and N. Singh, “Squeezing up to fourth-order in the pump mode of eight-wave mixing process,” Optical and Quantum Electronics, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 735–745, 2007.
- S. Rani, J. Lal, and N. Singh, “Squeezing and sub-Poissonian effects up-to fourth order in fifth harmonic generation,” Optics Communications, vol. 281, no. 2, pp. 341–346, 2008.
- D. K. Giri and P. S. Gupta, “Higher-order squeezing of the electromagnetic field in spontaneous and stimulated Raman processes,” Journal of Modern Optics, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1769–1781, 2005.