International Journal of Optics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Ray Tracing Methods for Correcting Chromatic Aberrations in Imaging Systems Sun, 30 Mar 2014 08:29:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2014/351584/ The correction of chromatic aberrations is typically performed using aberration formulas or by using real ray tracing. While the use of aberration formulas might be effective for some simple optical systems, it has limitations for complex and fast systems. For this reason chromatic aberration correction is usually accomplished with real ray tracing. However, existing optimization tools in lens design software typically mix the correction of monochromatic and chromatic aberrations by construction of an error function that minimizes both aberrations at the same time. This mixing makes the correction of one aberration type dependent on the correction of the other aberration type. We show two methods to separate the chromatic aberrations correction of a lens system. In the first method we use forward and reverse ray tracing and fictitious nondispersive glasses, to cancel the monochromatic aberration content and allow the ray tracing optimization to focus mainly on the color correction. On the second method we provide the algorithm for an error function that separates aberrations. Furthermore, we also demonstrate how these ray tracing methods can be applied to athermalize an optical system. We are unaware that these simple but effective methods have been already discussed in detail by other authors. Dmitry Reshidko, Masatsugu Nakanato, and José Sasián Copyright © 2014 Dmitry Reshidko et al. All rights reserved. Three Multiple-Pulse Operation States of an All-Normal-Dispersion Dissipative Soliton Fiber Laser Mon, 17 Mar 2014 09:18:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2014/169379/ Multiple-pulse operation states of an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped double-clad dissipative soliton fiber laser are investigated in this paper. The proposed laser can deliver harmonic mode-locked pulses, bound states of dissipative solitons, and dual-wavelength dual-pulses. Stable second-harmonic and third-harmonic mode-locked pulse trains are obtained with the output power of 1.39 W and 1.46 W, respectively, and the corresponding single pulse energies are 12.1 nJ and 8.5 nJ. With the adjustment of pump power and the wave plates, the fiber laser generates bound states of two or three dissipative solitons. Moreover, a dual-wavelength dual-pulse state is presented, where the output pulses from the nonlinear polarization rotation rejection port consists of the leading and trailing edges of the pulses circulating in the cavity. Liqiang Zhang, Zhiyong Pan, Zhuang Zhuo, and Yunzheng Wang Copyright © 2014 Liqiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Study of Bi3+ and Pb2+ Activated Ca3(BO3)2 Thu, 13 Feb 2014 14:25:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2014/418459/ The photoluminescence properties of Pb2+ and Bi3+ doped Ca3(BO3)2 prepared by solution combustion synthesis technique are discussed. The structure of the prepared phosphor is characterized and conformed by XRD and FTIR. SEM images of the prepared materials show irregular grains with agglomerate phenomena. Prepared phosphors achieved the band emissions, respectively, at 365 nm and 335 nm corresponding to the transition . Optimum concentration, critical transfer distance, and Stokes shift of the synthesized materials were measured. These phosphors may provide an efficient kind of luminescent materials for various applications in medical and industry. A. B. Gawande, R. P. Sonekar, and S. K. Omanwar Copyright © 2014 A. B. Gawande et al. All rights reserved. Determination of the Size of Irregular Particles Using Interferometric Out-of-Focus Imaging Thu, 09 Jan 2014 11:19:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2014/143904/ We present a mathematical formalism to predict speckle-like interferometric out-of-focus patterns created by irregular scattering objects. We describe the objects by an ensemble of Dirac emitters. We show that it is not necessary to describe rigorously the scattering properties of an elliptical irregular object to predict some physical properties of the interferometric out-of-focus pattern. The fit of the central peak of the 2D autocorrelation of the pattern allows the prediction of the size of the scattering element. The method can be applied to particles in a size range from a tenth of micrometers to the millimeter. Marc Brunel, Huanhuan Shen, Sébastien Coëtmellec, Gérard Gréhan, and Tony Delobel Copyright © 2014 Marc Brunel et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Photon Absorption on Thin-Film Semiconductor Using Photonic Crystal Thu, 09 Jan 2014 09:24:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2014/534145/ Enhancement of photon absorption on barium strontium titanate () thin-film semiconductor for mole fraction , 0.35, 0.45, and 0.55 using one-dimensional photonic crystal with defect was investigated experimentally. The thin film was grown on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrate using chemical solution deposition method and annealed at 500°C for 15 hours with increasing rate of 1.6°C/min. From optical characterization in visible spectrum it was found that the average absorption percentages are 92.04%, 83.55%, 91.16%, and 80.12%, respectively. The BST thin film with embedded photonic crystal exhibited a relatively significant enhancement on photon absorption, with increasing value of 3.96%, 7.07%, 3.04%, and 13.33% for the respective mole fraction and demonstrating absorbance characteristic with flat feature. In addition, we also discuss the thin-film properties of attenuation constant and electrical conductivity. Abd. Wahidin Nuayi, Husin Alatas, Irzaman S. Husein, and Mamat Rahmat Copyright © 2014 Abd. Wahidin Nuayi et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterization of (Au/n-Sn/Si/Si/Al) MIS Device for Optoelectronic Application Sat, 28 Dec 2013 15:48:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/756402/ SnO2 thin films were prepared by using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of Sn at oxidation temperature 873 K and oxidation time 90 sec on semiconductor n-type and p-type silicon substrate. In order to characterize the prepared device, the electrical properties have been measured which revealed that the barrier height is greatly depended on interfacial layer thickness (SiO2). The value of peak response (n-SnO2/SiO2/n-Si) device was 0.16 A/W which is greater than that of (n-SnO2/SiO2/p-Si) device whose value was 0.12 A/W, while the rise time was found to be shorter. Marwa Abdul Muhsien, Evan T. Salem, and Ibrahim R. Agool Copyright © 2013 Marwa Abdul Muhsien et al. All rights reserved. Pulse Propagation in Presence of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Chromatic Dispersion in Single Mode Fibers Wed, 11 Dec 2013 08:08:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/345154/ The presence of (first and second orders) polarization mode dispersion (PMD), chromatic dispersion, and initial chirp makes effects on the propagated pulses in single mode fiber. Nowadays, there is not an accurate mathematical formula that describes the pulse shape in the presence of these effects. In this work, a theoretical study is introduced to derive a generalized formula. This formula is exactly approached to mathematical relations used in their special cases. The presence of second-order PMD (SOPMD) will not affect the orthogonality property between the principal states of polarization. The simulation results explain that the interaction of the SOPMD components with the conventional effects (chromatic dispersion and chirp) will cause a broadening/narrowing and shape distortion. This changes depend on the specified values of SOPMD components as well as the present conventional parameters. Hassan Abid Yasser and Nizar Salim Shnan Copyright © 2013 Hassan Abid Yasser and Nizar Salim Shnan. All rights reserved. Ultrabroadband, Midinfrared Supercontinuum Generation in Dispersion Engineered As2Se3-Based Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers Sun, 08 Dec 2013 13:44:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/876474/ Small core As2Se3-based photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are accurately characterized for compact, high power, ultrabroadband, and coherent supercontinuum generation within few millimeters fiber length. Bandwidths of ~5.3 μm, 5 μm, and 3.2 μm were calculated for hole-to-hole spacings 3.5 μm, 4.5 μm, and 5.5 μm, respectively. The spectral broadening in the chalcogenide PCF is mainly caused by self-phase modulation and Raman-induced soliton self-frequency shift. The results show that small core As2Se3 PCFs are a promising candidate for mid-IR SCG up to ~8 μm. Rim Cherif and Mourad Zghal Copyright © 2013 Rim Cherif and Mourad Zghal. All rights reserved. Relativity and the Tunneling Problem in a “Reduced” Waveguide Mon, 18 Nov 2013 10:30:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/947068/ Wave packets are considered as solutions of the Maxwell equations in a reduced waveguide exhibiting tunneling due to a stepwise change of the index of refraction. We discuss several concepts of “tunneling time” during the propagation of an electromagnetic pulse and analyze their compatibility with standard relativity. Eckehard W. Mielke and Miguel A. Marquina Carmona Copyright © 2013 Eckehard W. Mielke and Miguel A. Marquina Carmona. All rights reserved. Spectral Intensity Variation by the Correlation Function of Refractive Index Fluctuations of the Liquid Medium Tue, 24 Sep 2013 08:56:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/525142/ It is proposed that a macroscopic theory of propagation and scattering of light through random media can be functional for the dye liquid flowing media in the microscopic levels too, with modest approximations. Maxwell’s equation for a random refractive index medium is approximated and solved for the electric field. An analytical expression for the spectral intensity of the field scattered by the refractive index fluctuations inside a medium has been derived which was valid within the first Born approximation. Far field spectral intensity variation of the radiation propagating through the liquid medium is a consequence of variation in correlation function of the refractive index inhomogeneities. The strength of radiation scattered in a particular direction depends on the spatial correlation function of the refractive index fluctuations of the medium. An attempt is made to explain some of the experimentally observed spectral intensity variations, particularly dye emission propagation through liquid flowing medium, in the presence of thermal and flow field. Nageshwar Singh Copyright © 2013 Nageshwar Singh. All rights reserved. Spatial-Frequency Azimuthally Stable Cartography of Biological Polycrystalline Networks Thu, 12 Sep 2013 15:05:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/683174/ A new azimuthally stable polarimetric technique processing microscopic images of optically anisotropic structures of biological tissues histological sections is proposed. It has been used as a generalized model of phase anisotropy definition of biological tissues by using superposition of Mueller matrices of linear birefringence and optical activity. The matrix element has been chosen as the main information parameter, whose value is independent of the rotation angle of both sample and probing beam polarization plane. For the first time, the technique of concerted spatial-frequency filtration has been used in order to separate the manifestation of linear birefringence and optical activity. Thereupon, the method of azimuthally stable spatial-frequency cartography of biological tissues histological sections has been elaborated. As the analyzing tool, complex statistic, correlation, and fractal analysis of coordinate distributions of element has been performed. The possibility of using the biopsy of the uterine wall tissue in order to differentiate benign (fibromyoma) and malignant (adenocarcinoma) conditions has been estimated. V. A. Ushenko, N. D. Pavlyukovich, and L. Trifonyuk Copyright © 2013 V. A. Ushenko et al. All rights reserved. Laser Coherence Meter Based on Nanostructured Liquid Crystals Thu, 22 Aug 2013 10:40:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/287506/ We present the method for coherence length measurement using coherence meter based on hybrid liquid crystal structures doped with gold nanoparticles. The results indicate that the method is able to determine the coherence length of coherent light sources with precision of 0.01 m at wavelength range from 200 to 800 nm for wide range of initial beam powers starting from 1 mW. Given the increasing use of laser technology in industry, military, or medicine, our research may open up a possible route for the development of improved techniques of coherent diagnostic light sources. A. Anczykowska, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Mysliwiec Copyright © 2013 A. Anczykowska et al. All rights reserved. Development of Sandglass Shape FBG Sensor to Reduce Cross Sensitivity Effect Thu, 13 Jun 2013 09:53:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/636987/ Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have received considerable attention in applications of temperature, axial strain, and transverse pressure measurement. However, the cross-sensitivity of strain and temperature measurement is the key problem of FBG sensors. In this paper, a sandglass shape FBG is proposed to divide cross-sensitivity of temperature and transverse pressure. The principle and structure of sandglass FBG are introduced, and the experiment results show cross-sensitivity avoidable in the transverse pressure sensor. Bo Zhang Copyright © 2013 Bo Zhang. All rights reserved. Zeeman Effect of Sm Atoms by High-Resolution Diode-Laser Spectroscopy Mon, 20 May 2013 19:30:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/213684/ High-resolution atomic-beam diode-laser spectroscopy in Sm I has been performed. Zeeman spectra have been measured for the three optical transitions at different external magnetic fields and well resolved at the magnetic fields of stronger than 6.0 mT. Using the known precise Landé -factors of the ground multiplet, the Landé -factors of the upper 4f66s6p   and levels have been determined, and their precision has been improved compared with the reference values. Wei-Guo Jin and Tatsuya Minowa Copyright © 2013 Wei-Guo Jin and Tatsuya Minowa. All rights reserved. Generation of Bessel Surface Plasmon Polaritons in a Finite-Thickness Metal Film Wed, 24 Apr 2013 16:21:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/253692/ A theory of generation of low- and high-index Bessel surface plasmon polaritons and their superposition in a metal film of a finite thickness is developed. Correct analytical expressions are obtained for the field of two families of Bessel surface plasmon polariton modes formed inside and outside the metal layer. The intensity distribution near the boundary of the layer has been calculated and analyzed. A scheme for the experimental realization of a superposition of Bessel surface plasmon polaritons is suggested. Our study demonstrates that it is feasible to use the superposition of Bessel surface plasmon polaritons as a virtual tip for near-field optical microscopy with a nanoscale resolution. S. N. Kurilkina, V. N. Belyi, and N. S. Kazak Copyright © 2013 S. N. Kurilkina et al. All rights reserved. Insight into PMD Regimes: An Analysis on Buried Optical Fibres Thu, 11 Apr 2013 18:00:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2013/367967/ Polarization mode dispersion (PMD) field measurements on deployed buried fibres showed that the PMD variation over the 1520 to 1570 nm wavelength was stochastic. The PMD variation over the 98-hour period for each wavelength was directional and limited; they are due to the presence of random mode coupling along the fibre length and limited influence from extrinsic perturbations over time, respectively. PMD variation in the wavelength domain showed that the mean first-order PMD (FO-PMD) value is independent of whether the FO-PMD statistics of a fibre link approaches the Maxwellian theoretical distribution; the key factor is sufficient random mode coupling. The accompanying second-order PMD (SO-PMD) statistics, with FO-PMD statistics approaching Maxwellian, followed the PDF given by Foschini et al. (1999). The FO- and SO-PMD statistics at a given wavelength gave nonstochastic PMD distributions with time. Winston T. Ireeta, Vitalis Musara, Lorinda Wu, and Andrew W. R. Leitch Copyright © 2013 Winston T. Ireeta et al. All rights reserved. Nanoplasmonics and Metamaterials Sun, 30 Dec 2012 08:30:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/740487/ Zhaolin Lu, Xiaoyue Huang, Mark Mirotznik, Georgios Veronis, and Qiwen Zhan Copyright © 2012 Zhaolin Lu et al. All rights reserved. Advances in Lasers and Optical Amplifiers: Materials, Components, and Systems Mon, 10 Dec 2012 10:38:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/807052/ Francesco Prudenzano, Frédéric Smektala, and Luciano Mescia Copyright © 2012 Francesco Prudenzano et al. All rights reserved. Bottom-Up Abstract Modelling of Optical Networks-on-Chip: From Physical to Architectural Layer Thu, 22 Nov 2012 10:11:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/902849/ This work presents a bottom-up abstraction procedure based on the design-flow FDTD + SystemC suitable for the modelling of optical Networks-on-Chip. In this procedure, a complex network is decomposed into elementary switching elements whose input-output behavior is described by means of scattering parameters models. The parameters of each elementary block are then determined through 2D-FDTD simulation, and the resulting analytical models are exported within functional blocks in SystemC environment. The inherent modularity and scalability of the -matrix formalism are preserved inside SystemC, thus allowing the incremental composition and successive characterization of complex topologies typically out of reach for full-vectorial electromagnetic simulators. The consistency of the outlined approach is verified, in the first instance, by performing a SystemC analysis of a four-input, four-output ports switch and making a comparison with the results of 2D-FDTD simulations of the same device. Finally, a further complex network encompassing 160 microrings is investigated, the losses over each routing path are calculated, and the minimum amount of power needed to guarantee an assigned BER is determined. This work is a basic step in the direction of an automatic technology-aware network-level simulation framework capable of assembling complex optical switching fabrics, while at the same time assessing the practical feasibility and effectiveness at the physical/technological level. Alberto Parini, Luca Ramini, Fabio Lanzoni, Gaetano Bellanca, and Davide Bertozzi Copyright © 2012 Alberto Parini et al. All rights reserved. New Trends in Amplifiers and Sources via Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers Thu, 22 Nov 2012 09:27:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/575818/ Rare-earth-doped chalcogenide glass fiber lasers and amplifiers have great applicative potential in many fields since they are key elements in the near and medium-infrared (mid-IR) wavelength range. In this paper, a review, even if not exhaustive, on amplification and lasing obtained by employing rare-earth-doped chalcogenide photonic crystal fibers is reported. Materials, devices, and feasible applications in the mid-IR are briefly mentioned. L. Mescia, F. Smektala, and F. Prudenzano Copyright © 2012 L. Mescia et al. All rights reserved. Fourier Analysis of Slow and Fast Image Propagation through Single and Coupled Image Resonators Tue, 13 Nov 2012 10:17:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/960985/ We applied Fourier space analysis to a comprehensive study of the propagation of pulsed two-dimensional images through single and coupled image resonators. The Fourier method shows that the image can propagate through the resonator successfully as long as the spatial and temporal Fourier components of the image are within the bandwidth of the amplitude and phase transfer functions. The relevant steep dispersion of the cavity can yield delayed or advanced images. The Fourier method reproduces characteristic aspects of the experimental observations of the image propagation, and also predicts new aspects, such as the spatial image profile dependence on the observation time and the coupling strength. To demonstrate the time evolution of the experiment, space- and time-resolved image propagations were performed using a streak camera. Parvin Sultana, Takahiro Matsumoto, and Makoto Tomita Copyright © 2012 Parvin Sultana et al. All rights reserved. Anomalous Propagation in Low Index Contrast Metamaterials: Assessment of the Beam Collimation Condition Thu, 01 Nov 2012 15:07:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/120731/ Anomalous beam propagation in low index-contrast metamaterials has been analyzed. The condition for a well-collimated beam is found to be depending on the beam width and the pertinent Fourier component of the dielectric function. Guided by this condition, an ultra-compact metamaterial structure is designed to deflect a light beam at a wide angle. The structure is tolerant to structural parameter deviation and has a wide bandwidth. Jun Tan, Weiwei Song, and Wei Jiang Copyright © 2012 Jun Tan et al. All rights reserved. Deep Subwavelength Power Concentration-Based Hyperbolic Metamaterials Wed, 26 Sep 2012 14:59:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/879392/ Hyperbolic metamaterials can manipulate electromagnetic waves by converting evanescent waves into propagating waves and thus support light propagation without diffraction limit. In this paper, deep subwavelength focusing (or power concentration) is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally using hyperbolic metamaterials. The results verify that hyperbolic metamaterials can focus a broad collimated beam to spot size of ~λ0/6 using wired medium design for both normal and oblique incidence. The nonmagnetic design, no-cut-off operation, and preferred direction of propagation in these materials significantly reduce the attenuation in electromagnetic waves. Amanpreet Kaur, Saptarshi Banerjee, Wangshi Zhao, Jayanti Venkataraman, and Zhaolin Lu Copyright © 2012 Amanpreet Kaur et al. All rights reserved. Tuning Metamaterials for Applications at DUV Wavelengths Tue, 11 Sep 2012 08:57:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/603083/ The unique properties of metamaterials, namely, their negative refractive index, permittivity, or permeability, have gained much recent attention. Research into these materials has led to the realization of a host of applications that may be useful to enhance optical nanolithography. A selection of materials has been examined both experimentally and theoretically to verify their support of surface plasmons, or lack thereof, in the DUV spectrum via the attenuated total reflection (ATR) method using the Kretschmann configuration. At DUV wavelengths, materials that were previously useful at mid-UV and longer wavelengths no longer act as metamaterials. Structured materials comprised of alternating layers of aluminum and aluminum oxide (Al2O3), as well as some other absorption-free dielectrics, exhibit metamaterial behavior, as do some elemental materials such as aluminum. These elemental and structured materials exhibit the best properties for use in plasmonic nanolithographic applications. Therefore, a simulator was created to examine material and thickness combinations to generate a tunable metamaterial for use in the DUV. A method for performing plasmonic interference lithography with this metamaterial has been proposed, with calculations showing the potential for half-pitch imaging resolution of 25 nm. Andrew Estroff and Bruce W. Smith Copyright © 2012 Andrew Estroff and Bruce W. Smith. All rights reserved. Terahertz Generation in an Electrically Biased Optical Fiber: A Theoretical Investigation Sun, 09 Sep 2012 15:50:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/486849/ We propose and theoretically investigate a novel approach for generating terahertz (THz) radiation in a standard single-mode fiber. The optical fiber is mediated by an electrostatic field, which induces an effective second-order nonlinear susceptibility via the Kerr effect. The THz generation is based on difference frequency generation (DFG). A dispersive fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is utilized to phase match the two interacting optical carriers. A ring resonator is utilized to boost the optical intensities in the biased optical fiber. A mathematical model is developed which is supported by a numerical analysis and simulations. It is shown that a wide spectrum of a tunable THz radiation can be generated, providing a proper design of the FBG and the optical carriers. Montasir Qasymeh Copyright © 2012 Montasir Qasymeh. All rights reserved. Green Function Formulism for Electromagnetic Wave Generated in Nanostructured Metamaterial of Finite Thickness: Isotropy and Anisotropy Thu, 06 Sep 2012 11:54:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/532316/ A Green function formulism is developed to calculate the electromagnetic fields generated by sources embedded in nanostructured medium which could be represented by an effective electric permittivity tensor with finite thicknesses. The method begins with the decomposition of the generated mode into the eigenmodes in the medium, which have definite dispersions. To account the interface effect at boundaries, especially the mode conversion at the interface between anisotropic media, mode expansion method is combined into the theoretical framework. Thus, the electromagnetic wave in any given position can be gotten clearly. The formulism can provide conveniences of studying the novel properties of nanostructured metamaterials. Shunbo Li, Xiao Xiao, Bo Hou, and Weijia Wen Copyright © 2012 Shunbo Li et al. All rights reserved. Nanoscale Plasmonic Devices Based on Metal-Dielectric-Metal Stub Resonators Sun, 02 Sep 2012 10:46:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/372048/ We review some of the recent research activities on plasmonic devices based on metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) stub resonators for manipulating light at the nanoscale. We first introduce slow-light subwavelength plasmonic waveguides based on plasmonic analogues of periodically loaded transmission lines and electromagnetically induced transparency. In both cases, the structures consist of a MDM waveguide side-coupled to periodic arrays of MDM stub resonators. We then introduce absorption switches consisting of a MDM plasmonic waveguide side-coupled to a MDM stub resonator filled with an active material. Yin Huang, Changjun Min, Liu Yang, and Georgios Veronis Copyright © 2012 Yin Huang et al. All rights reserved. Interference of Light in a Michelson-Morley Interferometer: A Quantum Optical Approach Thu, 30 Aug 2012 13:39:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/408067/ The temporal coherence interference properties of light as revealed by single detector intensity measurements in a Michelson-Morley interferometer (MMI) is often described in terms of classical optics. We show, in a pedagogical manner, how such features of light also can be understood in terms of a more general quantum-optics framework. If a thermal reference source is used in the MMI local oscillator port in combination with a thermal source in the signal port, the interference pattern revealed by single detector intensity measurements shows a distinctive dependence on the differences in the temperature of the two sources. A related method has actually been used to perform high-precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation. The general quantum-optics framework allows us to consider any initial quantum state. As an example, we consider the interference of single photons as a tool to determine the peak angular-frequency of a single-photon pulse interfering with a single-photon reference pulse. A similar consideration for laser pulses, in terms of coherent states, leads to a different response in the detector. The MMI experimental setup is therefore an example of an optical device where one, in terms of intensity measurements, can exhibit the difference between classical and quantum-mechanical light. Ø. Langangen, A. Vaskinn, and B.-S. Skagerstam Copyright © 2012 Ø. Langangen et al. All rights reserved. Diffraction of Light by a Two-Dimensional Lattice of Spheres Tue, 14 Aug 2012 16:55:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/901970/ Two-dimensional arrays of particles are of great interest because of their very characteristic optical properties and numerous potential applications. Although a variety of theoretical approaches are available for the description of their properties, methods that are accurate and convenient for computational procedures are always sought. In this work, a new technique to study the diffraction of a monochromatic electromagnetic field by a two-dimensional lattice of spheres is presented. The method, based on Fourier series, can take into account an arbitrary number of terms in the multipole expansion of the field scattered by each sphere. This method has the advantage of leading to simple formulas that can be readily programmed and used as a powerful tool for nanostructure characterization. Bernard de Dormale and Vo-Van Truong Copyright © 2012 Bernard de Dormale and Vo-Van Truong. All rights reserved. Passive Infrared Sensing Using Plasmonic Resonant Dust Particles Wed, 08 Aug 2012 10:04:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijo/2012/651563/ We present computational and experimental results of dust particles that can be tuned to preferentially reflect or emit IR radiation within the 8–14 μm band. The particles consist of thin metallic subwavelength gratings patterned on the surface of a simple quarter wavelength cavity. This design creates distinct IR absorption resonances by combining the plasmonic resonance of the grating with the natural resonance of the cavity. We show that the resonance peaks are easily tuned by varying either the geometry of the grating or the thickness of the cavity. Here, we present a computational design algorithm along with experimental results that validate the design methodology. Mark Mirotznik, William Beck, Kimberly Olver, John Little, and Peter Pa Copyright © 2012 Mark Mirotznik et al. All rights reserved.