International Journal of Optics The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Bessel Beam Diffraction by an Aperture in an Opaque Screen Thu, 26 Nov 2015 14:19:55 +0000 The scattering of the Bessel beam by a circular aperture in an opaque screen is investigated by the geometrical theory of diffraction approach. The geometrical optics and diffracted and scattered fields are obtained. The effect of the aperture to the scattering process is analyzed. The uniform versions of field expressions are derived. The geometrical optics and diffracted and scattered fields are examined numerically. Husnu Deniz Basdemir Copyright © 2015 Husnu Deniz Basdemir. All rights reserved. A Novel Coupled Resonator Photonic Crystal Design in Lithium Niobate for Electrooptic Applications Wed, 18 Nov 2015 08:50:53 +0000 High-aspect-ratio photonic crystal air-hole fabrication on bulk Lithium Niobate (LN) substrates is extremely difficult due to its inherent resistance to etching, resulting in conical structures and high insertion losses. Here, we propose a novel coupled resonator photonic crystal (CRPC) design, combining a coupled resonator approach with that of Bragg gratings. CRPC design parameters were optimized by analytical calculations and FDTD simulations. CRPC structures with optimized parameters were fabricated and electrooptically tested on bulk LN annealed proton exchange waveguides. Low insertion loss and large electrooptic effect were observed with the fabricated devices, making the CRPC design a promising structure for electrooptic device applications. Birol Ozturk, Ozgur Yavuzcetin, and Srinivas Sridhar Copyright © 2015 Birol Ozturk et al. All rights reserved. Free Space Optics: Current Applications and Future Challenges Tue, 17 Nov 2015 08:23:33 +0000 FSO is a communication system where free space acts as medium between transceivers and they should be in LOS for successful transmission of optical signal. Medium can be air, outer space, or vacuum. This system can be used for communication purpose in hours and in lesser economy. There are many advantages of FSO like high bandwidth and no spectrum license. The transmission in FSO is dependent on the medium because the presence of foreign elements like rain, fog, and haze, physical obstruction, scattering, and atmospheric turbulence are some of these factors. Different studies on weather conditions and techniques employed to mitigate their effect are discussed in this paper. Aditi Malik and Preeti Singh Copyright © 2015 Aditi Malik and Preeti Singh. All rights reserved. Integrated Wavelength-Tunable Light Source for Optical Gas Sensing Systems Mon, 16 Nov 2015 14:27:02 +0000 A compact instrument consisting of a distributed feedback laser (DFB) at 1.65 μm was developed as a light source for gas sensing systems using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technique. The wavelength of laser is tuned by adjusting the laser working temperature and injection current, which are performed by self-developed temperature controller and current modulator respectively. Stability test shows the fluctuation of the laser temperature is within the range of ±0.02°C. For gas detection experiments, the wavelength is tuned around the gas absorption line by adjusting laser temperature and is then shifted periodically to scan across the absorption line by the laser current modulator, which generates a 10 Hz saw wave signal. In addition, the current modulator is able to generate sine wave signal for gas sensing systems using wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) technique involving extraction of harmonic signals. The spectrum test proves good stability that the spectrum was measured 6 times every 10 minutes at the constant temperature and current condition. This standalone instrument can be applied as a light source for detection systems of different gases by integrating lasers at corresponding wavelength. Bin Li, Qi-Xin He, Hui-Fang Liu, and Yi-Ding Wang Copyright © 2015 Bin Li et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Optical Characterization of Mixed Ligands Beryllium Complexes for Display Device Applications Wed, 28 Oct 2015 11:31:29 +0000 Synthesis and photoluminescent behaviour of mixed ligand based beryllium complexes with 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HPB) and 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (Clq) or 5,7-dichloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (Cl2q) or 2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (Meq) or 8-hydroxyquinoline (q) are reported in this work. These complexes, that is, [BeHPB(Clq)], [BeHPB(Cl2q)], [BeHPB(Meq)], and [BeHPB(q)], were prepared and their structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. The beryllium complexes exhibited good thermal stability up to ~300°C temperature. The photophysical properties of beryllium complexes were studied using ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence emission spectroscopy. The complexes showed absorption peaks due to and electronic transitions. The complexes emitted greenish blue light with peak wavelength at 496 nm, 510 nm, 490 nm, and 505 nm, respectively, consisting of high intensity. Color tuning was observed with changing the substituents in quinoline ring ligand in metal complexes. The emitted light had Commission Internationale d’Eclairage color coordinates values at and for [BeHPB(Clq)], and for [BeHPB(Cl2q)], and for [BeHPB(Meq)], and for [BeHPB(q)]. Theoretical calculations using DFT/B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method were performed to reveal the three-dimensional geometries and the frontier molecular orbital energy levels of these synthesized metal complexes. Vandna Nishal, Devender Singh, Raman Kumar Saini, Vijeta Tanwar, Shri Bhagwan, Sonika Kadyan, Ishwar Singh, and Pratap Singh Kadyan Copyright © 2015 Vandna Nishal et al. All rights reserved. Gait Recognition Using GEI and AFDEI Sun, 11 Oct 2015 08:14:54 +0000 Gait energy image (GEI) preserves the dynamic and static information of a gait sequence. The common static information includes the appearance and shape of the human body and the dynamic information includes the variation of frequency and phase. However, there is no consideration of the time that normalizes each silhouette within the GEI. As regards this problem, this paper proposed the accumulated frame difference energy image (AFDEI), which can reflect the time characteristics. The fusion of the moment invariants extracted from GEI and AFDEI was selected as the gait feature. Then, gait recognition was accomplished using the nearest neighbor classifier based on the Euclidean distance. Finally, to verify the performance, the proposed algorithm was compared with the GEI + 2D-PCA and SFDEI + HMM on the CASIA-B gait database. The experimental results have shown that the proposed algorithm performs better than GEI + 2D-PCA and SFDEI + HMM and meets the real-time requirements. Jing Luo, Jianliang Zhang, Chunyuan Zi, Ying Niu, Huixin Tian, and Chunbo Xiu Copyright © 2015 Jing Luo et al. All rights reserved. Analytical Model for Optical Scattering of Infrared Laser by Nonspherical Raindrops Mon, 05 Oct 2015 13:59:07 +0000 Analytic model was developed to investigate the interaction of infrared laser with nonspherical raindrops. The method based on Fraunhofer diffraction and geometrical optics was presented to obtain the analytic solution for single-scattering properties by approximate ellipsoid raindrops. Light scattering patterns were obtained for different drop sizes and shapes. Computational results demonstrate that the scattering of raindrops was contributed by both Fraunhofer diffraction and geometric scattering, and the results obtained from analytic formulas were consistent with the conclusions of using Monte Carlo ray tracing approach. Jing Guo, He Zhang, and Xiang-jin Zhang Copyright © 2015 Jing Guo et al. All rights reserved. Automated 3D Scenes Reconstruction Using Multiple Stereo Pairs from Portable Four-Camera Photographic Measurement System Mon, 17 Aug 2015 06:03:33 +0000 An effective automatic 3D reconstruction method using a portable four-camera photographic measurement system (PFCPMS) is proposed. By taking advantage of the complementary stereo information from four cameras, a fast and highly accurate feature point matching algorithm is developed for 3D reconstruction. Specifically, we first utilize a projection method to obtain a large number of dense feature points. And then a reduction and clustering treatment is applied to simplify the Delaunay triangulation process and reconstruct a 3D model for each scene. In addition, a 3D model stitching approach is proposed to further improve the performance of the limited field-of-view for image-based method. The experimental results tested on the 172 cave in Mogao Grottoes indicate that the proposed method is effective to reconstruct a 3D scene with a low-cost four-camera photographic measurement system. Qi Peng, Lifen Tu, Kaibing Zhang, and Sidong Zhong Copyright © 2015 Qi Peng et al. All rights reserved. Investigation on the Effect of Underwater Acoustic Pressure on the Fundamental Mode of Hollow-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers Sun, 29 Mar 2015 08:02:08 +0000 Recently, microstructured optical fibers have become the subject of extensive research as they can be employed in many civilian and military applications. One of the recent areas of research is to enhance the normalized responsivity (NR) to acoustic pressure of the optical fiber hydrophones by replacing the conventional single mode fibers (SMFs) with hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers (HC-PBFs). However, this needs further investigation. In order to fully understand the feasibility of using HC-PBFs as acoustic pressure sensors and in underwater communication systems, it is important to study their modal properties in this environment. In this paper, the finite element solver (FES) COMSOL Multiphysics is used to study the effect of underwater acoustic pressure on the effective refractive index of the fundamental mode and discuss its contribution to NR. Besides, we investigate, for the first time to our knowledge, the effect of underwater acoustic pressure on the effective area and the numerical aperture (NA) of the HC-PBF. Adel Abdallah, Zhang Chaozhu, and Zhong Zhi Copyright © 2015 Adel Abdallah et al. All rights reserved. Performance Comparison of Wavefront-Sensorless Adaptive Optics Systems by Using of the Focal Plane Thu, 08 Jan 2015 06:49:15 +0000 The correction capability and the convergence speed of the wavefront-sensorless adaptive optics (AO) system are compared based on two different system control algorithms, which both use the information of focal plane. The first algorithm is designed through the linear relationship between the second moment of the aberration gradients and the masked far-field intensity distribution and the second is stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD), which is the most commonly used algorithm in wavefront-sensorless AO systems. A wavefront-sensorless AO model is established with a 61-element deformable mirror (DM) and a CCD. Performance of the two control algorithms is investigated and compared through correcting different wavefront aberrations. Results show that the correction ability of AO system based on the proposed control algorithm is obviously better than that of AO system based on SPGD algorithm when the wavefront aberrations increase. The time needed by the proposed control algorithm is much less than that of SPGD when the AO system achieves similar correction results. Additionally, the convergence speed of the proposed control algorithm is independent of the turbulence strength while the number of intensity measurements needed by SPGD increases as the turbulence strength magnifies. Huizhen Yang, Zhen Zhang, and Jian Wu Copyright © 2015 Huizhen Yang et al. All rights reserved. On Optimal Frequencies for Reconstruction of a One-Dimensional Profile of Gradient Layer’s Refractive Index Tue, 16 Dec 2014 07:24:37 +0000 The problem of reconstruction of a one-dimensional profile of gradient layer’s refractive index is investigated. An algorithm for choosing a right frequency, at which a scattered field is measured, is proposed. It is concluded that at the correct choice of frequency one measurement must be sufficient. Moreover, in this case, regularization parameters of the residual functional are chosen as zero. It is shown that in case of measurements being carried out with errors, residual terms must be added to the functional. Dmitrii Tumakov Copyright © 2014 Dmitrii Tumakov. All rights reserved. Omnigradient Based Total Variation Minimization for Enhanced Defocus Deblurring of Omnidirectional Images Mon, 08 Dec 2014 11:24:36 +0000 We propose a new method of image restoration for catadioptric defocus blur using omnitotal variation (Omni-TV) minimization based on omnigradient. Catadioptric omnidirectional imaging systems usually consist of conventional cameras and curved mirrors for capturing 360° field of view. The problem of catadioptric omnidirectional imaging defocus blur, which is caused by lens aperture and mirror curvature, becomes more severe when high resolution sensors and large apertures are used. In an omnidirectional image, two points near each other may not be close to one another in the 3D scene. Traditional gradient computation cannot be directly applied to omnidirectional image processing. Thus, omnigradient computing method combined with the characteristics of catadioptric omnidirectional imaging is proposed. Following this Omni-TV minimization is used as the constraint for deconvolution regularization, leading to the restoration of defocus blur in an omnidirectional image to obtain all sharp omnidirectional images. The proposed method is important for improving catadioptric omnidirectional imaging quality and promoting applications in related fields like omnidirectional video and image processing. Yongle Li and Jingtao Lou Copyright © 2014 Yongle Li and Jingtao Lou. All rights reserved. A Novel Shared Protection Scheme Based on Aggregate Wavelength in High Speed Networks Thu, 20 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 We propose novel analytical model of dynamic link cost evaluation in IP over WDM networks. We suggest disjoint path algorithm for the primary and backup path based on wavelength aggregate information, to provide shared backup. We show the optimality of pair selected because of joint optimization of the pair paths. The shareable capacity factor is introduced to establish the effect of load balancing on resources. We compared our simulation results with that of separate protection at connection and showed improvement on resource utilization performance of the network. We also study the blocking probability of proposed scheme. Anshu Oberoi, J. S. Sohal, and R. S. Kaler Copyright © 2014 Anshu Oberoi et al. All rights reserved. A Method of Waypoint Selection in Aerial Images for Vision Navigation Wed, 08 Oct 2014 14:07:41 +0000 We present a novel method to select waypoints from aerial images of candidate flying regions via matching suitability analysis, which is based on visual attention mechanism and feature attribute classification. At first, visual attention mechanism is used to get the saliency map of the initial image by low-rank recovery and sparse coding. The salient regions are selected to be as preparatory results with threshold constraint and nonmaxima suppression. Then we use support vector machine (SVM) to divide the preparatory results into two classes for suitable or unsuitable waypoints based on their feature attributes, which can be represented by two edge-based descriptors and two correlation-based descriptors. The experimental results show that the proposed method is valid and effective. Lin Song, Yong-mei Cheng, Lu Yu, and Liang Yu Copyright © 2014 Lin Song et al. All rights reserved. Noncontact Measurement for Radius of Curvature of Unpolished Lens Tue, 30 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 A noncontact mathematical model to measure radius of curvature (ROC) of an unpolished spherical lens was proposed and also proved by experiments. This model gives ROC as a function of arcs radii and their separation distance, where the radii of the corresponding arcs could be acquired by taking coordinates of points on the arcs when two parallel lines of light project onto a lens surface. Our experiments demonstrated that the measured maximum relative error was 0.027% for a concave surface with a 38.19 mm ROC and 0.021% for a convex surface with a 97.75 mm ROC, which were all in agreement with those of theory prediction error. The suggested method presented a fast noncontact method for testing ROC of lens during coarse grinding and fine grinding. Haifeng Liang Copyright © 2014 Haifeng Liang. All rights reserved. Studying the Recent Improvements in Holograms for Three-Dimensional Display Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Displayers tend to become three-dimensional. The most advantage of holographic 3D displays is the possibility to observe 3D images without using glasses. The quality of created images by this method has surprised everyone. In this paper, the experimental steps of making a transmission hologram have been mentioned. In what follows, current advances of this science-art will be discussed. The aim of this paper is to study the recent improvements in creating three-dimensional images and videos by means of holographic techniques. In the last section we discuss the potentials of holography to be applied in future. Hamed Abbasi, Talie Zarei, Neda Jalali Farahani, and Adeleh Granmayeh Rad Copyright © 2014 Hamed Abbasi et al. All rights reserved. An Optical Multicast Routing with Minimal Network Coding Operations in WDM Networks Thu, 10 Jul 2014 08:28:40 +0000 Network coding can improve the optical multicast routing performance in terms of network throughput, bandwidth utilization, and traffic load balance. But network coding needs high encoding operations costs in all-optical WDM networks due to shortage of optical RAM. In the paper, the network coding operation is defined to evaluate the number of network coding operation cost in the paper. An optical multicast routing algorithm based on minimal number of network coding operations is proposed to improve the multicast capacity. Two heuristic criteria are designed to establish the multicast routing with low network coding cost and high multicast capacity. One is to select one path from the former shortest paths with the least probability of dropping the multicast maximal capacity. The other is to select the path with lowest potential coding operations with the highest link shared degree among the multiple wavelength disjoint paths cluster from source to each destination. Comparing with the other multicast routing based on network coding, simulation results show that the proposed multicast routing algorithm can effectively reduce the times of network coding operations, can improve the probability of reaching multicast maximal capacity, and can keep the less multicast routing link cost for optical WDM networks. Huanlin Liu, Qinren Shen, and Yong Chen Copyright © 2014 Huanlin Liu et al. All rights reserved. Optical Properties of Malachite Green Dye Doped SiO2 Glasses: Effect of Transition Metal (Fe-I) Used as a Codopant Thu, 22 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Enhanced luminescence properties of Malachite Green (MG) (oxalate) in Fe-MG codoped SiO2 glasses compared to its values in MG doped SiO2 glasses are reported here. The enhancement is chiefly attributed to a resonance nonradiative energy transfer between Fe and MG. The quantum yield of Malachite Green (MG), in presence of Iron, trapped in sol-gel derived SiO2 glass increases by an order of ~103 compared to that in low viscous solvent while a lifetime of 3.29 ns is reported. Dulen Bora and Subrata Hazarika Copyright © 2014 Dulen Bora and Subrata Hazarika. All rights reserved. Devil’s Vortex Phase Structure as Frequency Plane Mask for Image Encryption Using the Fractional Mellin Transform Wed, 07 May 2014 10:09:58 +0000 A frequency plane phase mask based on Devil’s vortex structure has been used for image encryption using the fractional Mellin transform. The phase key for decryption is obtained by an iterative phase retrieval algorithm. The proposed scheme has been validated for grayscale secret target images, by numerical simulation. The efficacy of the scheme has been evaluated by computing mean-squared-error between the secret target image and the decrypted image. Sensitivity analysis of the decryption process to variations in various encryption parameters has been carried out. The proposed encryption scheme has been seen to exhibit reasonable robustness against occlusion attack. Sunanda Vashisth, Hukum Singh, A. K. Yadav, and Kehar Singh Copyright © 2014 Sunanda Vashisth et al. All rights reserved. Optical Emission of the Nuclear-Induced Plasmas of Gas Mixtures Sun, 27 Apr 2014 12:00:01 +0000 The characteristic properties of the inverted-population-forming processes in lasers with ionizing pumping are considered. Results obtained from research of active laser media concerning the p-s transitions of atoms of neon, mercury, and cadmium are presented. The feasibility of ion-ion recombination in lasers with nuclear pumping is discussed. The excitation kinetics of the first negative system of CO, heteronuclear ionic molecules of inert gases, and halogenides of inert gases under ionizing radiation are considered. Mendykhan U. Khasenov Copyright © 2014 Mendykhan U. Khasenov. All rights reserved. Ray Tracing Methods for Correcting Chromatic Aberrations in Imaging Systems Sun, 30 Mar 2014 08:29:30 +0000 The correction of chromatic aberrations is typically performed using aberration formulas or by using real ray tracing. While the use of aberration formulas might be effective for some simple optical systems, it has limitations for complex and fast systems. For this reason chromatic aberration correction is usually accomplished with real ray tracing. However, existing optimization tools in lens design software typically mix the correction of monochromatic and chromatic aberrations by construction of an error function that minimizes both aberrations at the same time. This mixing makes the correction of one aberration type dependent on the correction of the other aberration type. We show two methods to separate the chromatic aberrations correction of a lens system. In the first method we use forward and reverse ray tracing and fictitious nondispersive glasses, to cancel the monochromatic aberration content and allow the ray tracing optimization to focus mainly on the color correction. On the second method we provide the algorithm for an error function that separates aberrations. Furthermore, we also demonstrate how these ray tracing methods can be applied to athermalize an optical system. We are unaware that these simple but effective methods have been already discussed in detail by other authors. Dmitry Reshidko, Masatsugu Nakanato, and José Sasián Copyright © 2014 Dmitry Reshidko et al. All rights reserved. Three Multiple-Pulse Operation States of an All-Normal-Dispersion Dissipative Soliton Fiber Laser Mon, 17 Mar 2014 09:18:11 +0000 Multiple-pulse operation states of an all-normal-dispersion Yb-doped double-clad dissipative soliton fiber laser are investigated in this paper. The proposed laser can deliver harmonic mode-locked pulses, bound states of dissipative solitons, and dual-wavelength dual-pulses. Stable second-harmonic and third-harmonic mode-locked pulse trains are obtained with the output power of 1.39 W and 1.46 W, respectively, and the corresponding single pulse energies are 12.1 nJ and 8.5 nJ. With the adjustment of pump power and the wave plates, the fiber laser generates bound states of two or three dissipative solitons. Moreover, a dual-wavelength dual-pulse state is presented, where the output pulses from the nonlinear polarization rotation rejection port consists of the leading and trailing edges of the pulses circulating in the cavity. Liqiang Zhang, Zhiyong Pan, Zhuang Zhuo, and Yunzheng Wang Copyright © 2014 Liqiang Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Photoluminescence Study of Bi3+ and Pb2+ Activated Ca3(BO3)2 Thu, 13 Feb 2014 14:25:31 +0000 The photoluminescence properties of Pb2+ and Bi3+ doped Ca3(BO3)2 prepared by solution combustion synthesis technique are discussed. The structure of the prepared phosphor is characterized and conformed by XRD and FTIR. SEM images of the prepared materials show irregular grains with agglomerate phenomena. Prepared phosphors achieved the band emissions, respectively, at 365 nm and 335 nm corresponding to the transition . Optimum concentration, critical transfer distance, and Stokes shift of the synthesized materials were measured. These phosphors may provide an efficient kind of luminescent materials for various applications in medical and industry. A. B. Gawande, R. P. Sonekar, and S. K. Omanwar Copyright © 2014 A. B. Gawande et al. All rights reserved. Determination of the Size of Irregular Particles Using Interferometric Out-of-Focus Imaging Thu, 09 Jan 2014 11:19:34 +0000 We present a mathematical formalism to predict speckle-like interferometric out-of-focus patterns created by irregular scattering objects. We describe the objects by an ensemble of Dirac emitters. We show that it is not necessary to describe rigorously the scattering properties of an elliptical irregular object to predict some physical properties of the interferometric out-of-focus pattern. The fit of the central peak of the 2D autocorrelation of the pattern allows the prediction of the size of the scattering element. The method can be applied to particles in a size range from a tenth of micrometers to the millimeter. Marc Brunel, Huanhuan Shen, Sébastien Coëtmellec, Gérard Gréhan, and Tony Delobel Copyright © 2014 Marc Brunel et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Photon Absorption on Thin-Film Semiconductor Using Photonic Crystal Thu, 09 Jan 2014 09:24:36 +0000 Enhancement of photon absorption on barium strontium titanate () thin-film semiconductor for mole fraction , 0.35, 0.45, and 0.55 using one-dimensional photonic crystal with defect was investigated experimentally. The thin film was grown on transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrate using chemical solution deposition method and annealed at 500°C for 15 hours with increasing rate of 1.6°C/min. From optical characterization in visible spectrum it was found that the average absorption percentages are 92.04%, 83.55%, 91.16%, and 80.12%, respectively. The BST thin film with embedded photonic crystal exhibited a relatively significant enhancement on photon absorption, with increasing value of 3.96%, 7.07%, 3.04%, and 13.33% for the respective mole fraction and demonstrating absorbance characteristic with flat feature. In addition, we also discuss the thin-film properties of attenuation constant and electrical conductivity. Abd. Wahidin Nuayi, Husin Alatas, Irzaman S. Husein, and Mamat Rahmat Copyright © 2014 Abd. Wahidin Nuayi et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Characterization of (Au/n-Sn/Si/Si/Al) MIS Device for Optoelectronic Application Sat, 28 Dec 2013 15:48:05 +0000 SnO2 thin films were prepared by using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of Sn at oxidation temperature 873 K and oxidation time 90 sec on semiconductor n-type and p-type silicon substrate. In order to characterize the prepared device, the electrical properties have been measured which revealed that the barrier height is greatly depended on interfacial layer thickness (SiO2). The value of peak response (n-SnO2/SiO2/n-Si) device was 0.16 A/W which is greater than that of (n-SnO2/SiO2/p-Si) device whose value was 0.12 A/W, while the rise time was found to be shorter. Marwa Abdul Muhsien, Evan T. Salem, and Ibrahim R. Agool Copyright © 2013 Marwa Abdul Muhsien et al. All rights reserved. Pulse Propagation in Presence of Polarization Mode Dispersion and Chromatic Dispersion in Single Mode Fibers Wed, 11 Dec 2013 08:08:57 +0000 The presence of (first and second orders) polarization mode dispersion (PMD), chromatic dispersion, and initial chirp makes effects on the propagated pulses in single mode fiber. Nowadays, there is not an accurate mathematical formula that describes the pulse shape in the presence of these effects. In this work, a theoretical study is introduced to derive a generalized formula. This formula is exactly approached to mathematical relations used in their special cases. The presence of second-order PMD (SOPMD) will not affect the orthogonality property between the principal states of polarization. The simulation results explain that the interaction of the SOPMD components with the conventional effects (chromatic dispersion and chirp) will cause a broadening/narrowing and shape distortion. This changes depend on the specified values of SOPMD components as well as the present conventional parameters. Hassan Abid Yasser and Nizar Salim Shnan Copyright © 2013 Hassan Abid Yasser and Nizar Salim Shnan. All rights reserved. Ultrabroadband, Midinfrared Supercontinuum Generation in Dispersion Engineered As2Se3-Based Chalcogenide Photonic Crystal Fibers Sun, 08 Dec 2013 13:44:46 +0000 Small core As2Se3-based photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) are accurately characterized for compact, high power, ultrabroadband, and coherent supercontinuum generation within few millimeters fiber length. Bandwidths of ~5.3 μm, 5 μm, and 3.2 μm were calculated for hole-to-hole spacings 3.5 μm, 4.5 μm, and 5.5 μm, respectively. The spectral broadening in the chalcogenide PCF is mainly caused by self-phase modulation and Raman-induced soliton self-frequency shift. The results show that small core As2Se3 PCFs are a promising candidate for mid-IR SCG up to ~8 μm. Rim Cherif and Mourad Zghal Copyright © 2013 Rim Cherif and Mourad Zghal. All rights reserved. Relativity and the Tunneling Problem in a “Reduced” Waveguide Mon, 18 Nov 2013 10:30:31 +0000 Wave packets are considered as solutions of the Maxwell equations in a reduced waveguide exhibiting tunneling due to a stepwise change of the index of refraction. We discuss several concepts of “tunneling time” during the propagation of an electromagnetic pulse and analyze their compatibility with standard relativity. Eckehard W. Mielke and Miguel A. Marquina Carmona Copyright © 2013 Eckehard W. Mielke and Miguel A. Marquina Carmona. All rights reserved. Spectral Intensity Variation by the Correlation Function of Refractive Index Fluctuations of the Liquid Medium Tue, 24 Sep 2013 08:56:52 +0000 It is proposed that a macroscopic theory of propagation and scattering of light through random media can be functional for the dye liquid flowing media in the microscopic levels too, with modest approximations. Maxwell’s equation for a random refractive index medium is approximated and solved for the electric field. An analytical expression for the spectral intensity of the field scattered by the refractive index fluctuations inside a medium has been derived which was valid within the first Born approximation. Far field spectral intensity variation of the radiation propagating through the liquid medium is a consequence of variation in correlation function of the refractive index inhomogeneities. The strength of radiation scattered in a particular direction depends on the spatial correlation function of the refractive index fluctuations of the medium. An attempt is made to explain some of the experimentally observed spectral intensity variations, particularly dye emission propagation through liquid flowing medium, in the presence of thermal and flow field. Nageshwar Singh Copyright © 2013 Nageshwar Singh. All rights reserved.