About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Otolaryngology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 865731, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/865731
Research Article

Processing Load Induced by Informational Masking Is Related to Linguistic Abilities

1Department of ENT/Audiology and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, VU University Medical Center, Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2Linnaeus Centre HEAD, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden
3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping, Sweden

Received 21 June 2012; Revised 31 August 2012; Accepted 4 September 2012

Academic Editor: Harvey B. Abrams

Copyright © 2012 Thomas Koelewijn et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. L. E. Humes and L. Christopherson, “Speech identification difficulties of hearing-impaired elderly persons: the contributions of auditory processing deficits,” Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 686–693, 1991. View at Scopus
  2. M. K. Pichora-Fuller, “Processing speed and timing in aging adults: psychoacoustics, speech perception, and comprehension,” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. S59–S67, 2003. View at Scopus
  3. E. L. J. George, A. A. Zekveld, S. E. Kramer, S. T. Goverts, J. M. Festen, and T. Houtgast, “Auditory and nonauditory factors affecting speech reception in noise by older listeners,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 2362–2375, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. K. Pichora-Fuller, B. A. Schneider, and M. Daneman, “How young and old adults listen to and remember speech in noise,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 593–608, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. K. Pichora-Fuller and P. E. Souza, “Effects of aging on auditory processing of speech,” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 42, supplement 2, pp. 2–S11, 2003. View at Scopus
  6. R. Plomp and A. M. Mimpen, “Speech-reception threshold for sentences as a function of age and noise level,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 1333–1342, 1979. View at Scopus
  7. S. E. Kramer, A. A. Zekveld, and T. Houtgast, “Measuring cognitive factors in speech comprehension: the value of using the text reception threshold test as a visual equivalent of the SRT test,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 507–515, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Rönnberg, M. Rudner, C. Foo, and T. Lunner, “Cognition counts: a working memory system for ease of language understanding (ELU),” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 47, supplement 2, pp. S99–S105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Arlinger, T. Lunner, B. Lyxell, and M. Kathleen Pichora-Fuller, “The emergence of cognitive hearing science,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 371–384, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Edwards, “The future of hearing aid technology,” Trends in Amplification, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 31–45, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Lunner, M. Rudner, and J. Rönnberg, “Cognition and hearing aids,” Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 395–403, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Gatehouse, G. Naylor, and C. Elberling, “Benefits from hearing aids in relation to the interaction between the user and the environment,” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 42, supplement 1, pp. S77–S85, 2003. View at Scopus
  13. S. Gatehouse, G. Naylor, and C. Elberling, “Linear and nonlinear hearing aid fittings—2. Patterns of candidature,” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 153–171, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. T. Koelewijn, A. A. Zekveld, J. M. Festen, and S. E. Kramer, “Pupil dilation uncovers extra listening effort in the presence of an interfering speaker,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 291–300, 2012.
  15. M. A. Akeroyd, “Are individual differences in speech reception related to individual differences in cognitive ability? A survey of twenty experimental studies with normal and hearing-impaired adults,” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 47, supplement2, pp. S53–S71, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. L. Francis and H. C. Nusbaum, “Effects of intelligibility on working memory demand for speech perception,” Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 1360–1374, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Sörqvist, J. K. Ljungberg, and R. Ljung, “A sub-process view of working memory capacity: evidence from effects of speech on prose memory,” Memory, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 310–326, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Sörqvist and J. Rönnberg, “Episodic long-term memory of spoken discourse masked by speech: what is the role for working memory capacity?” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 210–218, 2012.
  19. L. E. Humes, M. H. Burk, M. P. Coughlin, T. A. Busey, and L. E. Strauser, “Auditory speech recognition and visual text recognition in younger and older adults: similarities and differences between modalities and the effects of presentation rate,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 283–303, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. A. Zekveld, E. L. J. George, S. E. Kramer, S. T. Goverts, and T. Houtgast, “The development of the text reception threshold test: a visual analogue of the speech reception threshold test,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 576–584, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. W. Bronkhorst, “The cocktail party phenomenon: a review of research on speech intelligibility in multiple-talker conditions,” Acustica, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 117–128, 2000. View at Scopus
  22. A. A. Zekveld, S. E. Kramer, and J. M. Festen, “Cognitive load during speech perception in noise: the influence of age, hearing loss, and cognition on the pupil response,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 498–510, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Beatty, “Task-evoked pupillary responses, processing load, and the structure of processing resources,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 276–292, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. Kahneman and J. Beatty, “Pupil diameter and load on memory,” Science, vol. 154, no. 3756, pp. 1583–1585, 1966. View at Scopus
  25. D. Kahneman, Attention and Effort, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1973.
  26. G. G. Brown, S. S. Kindermann, G. J. Siegle, E. Granholm, E. C. Wong, and R. B. Buxton, “Brain activation and pupil response during covert performance of the stroop color word task,” Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 308–319, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. Hyönä, J. Tommola, and A. M. Alaja, “Pupil dilation as a measure of processing load in simultaneous interpretation and other language tasks,” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 598–612, 1995. View at Scopus
  28. S. E. Kramer, T. S. Kapteyn, J. M. Festen, and D. J. Kuik, “Assessing aspects of auditory handicap by means of pupil dilatation,” Audiology, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 155–164, 1997. View at Scopus
  29. S. E. Kramer, A. Lorens, A. A. Coninx, A. A. Zekveld, A. Piotrowska, and H. Skarzynski, “Processing load during listening: the influence of task characteristics on the pupil response,” Language and cognitive processes. In press. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. E. Kuchinsky, M. A. Eckert, and J. R. Dubno, “The eyes are the windows to the ears: pupil size reflects listening effort,” Audiology Today, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 56–59, 2011.
  31. A. A. Zekveld, S. E. Kramer, and J. M. Festen, “Pupil response as an indication of effortful listening: the influence of sentence intelligibility,” Ear and Hearing, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 480–490, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. A. Zekveld, M. Rudner, I. S. Johnsrude, D. J. Heslenfeld, and J. Rönnberg, “Behavioural and fMRI evidence that cognitive ability modulates the effect of semantic context on speech intelligibility,” Brain and Language, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 103–113, 2012.
  33. C. Humphries, J. R. Binder, D. A. Medler, and E. Liebenthal, “Syntactic and semantic modulation of neural activity during auditory sentence comprehension,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, vol. 18, pp. 665–679, 2006.
  34. M. S. Gilzenrat, S. Nieuwenhuis, M. Jepma, and J. D. Cohen, “Pupil diameter tracks changes in control state predicted by the adaptive gain theory of locus coeruleus function,” Cognitive, Affective and Behavioral Neuroscience, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 252–269, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Rönnberg, “Cognition in the hearing impaired and deaf as a bridge between signal and dialogue: a framework and a model,” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 42, supplement 1, pp. S68–S76, 2003. View at Scopus
  36. J. Rönnberg, M. Rudner, T. Lunner, and A. A. Zekveld, “When cognition kicks in: working memory and speech understanding in noise,” Noise and Health, vol. 12, no. 49, pp. 263–269, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Lunner and E. Sundewall-Thorén, “Interactions between cognition, compression, and listening conditions: effects on speech-in-noise performance in a two-channel hearing aid,” Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 604–617, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. Baddeley, R. Logie, I. Nimmo-Smith, and N. Brereton, “Components of fluent reading,” Journal of Memory and Language, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 119–131, 1985. View at Scopus
  39. A. R. A. Conway, M. J. Kane, M. F. Bunting, D. Z. Hambrick, O. Wilhelm, and R. W. Engle, “Working memory span tasks: a methodological review and user's guide,” Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 769–786, 2005. View at Scopus
  40. M. Daneman and P. A. Carpenter, “Individual differences in working memory and reading,” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 450–466, 1980.
  41. J. Rönnberg, “Cognitive and communicative function: the effect of chronological age,” European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, vol. 2, pp. 253–275, 1990.
  42. J. Besser, A. A. Zekveld, S. E. Kramer, J. Rönnberg, and J. M. Festen, “New measures of masked text recognition in relation to speech-in-noise perception and their associations with age and cognitive abilities,” Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, vol. 55, pp. 194–209, 2012.
  43. I. L. Bailey and J. E. Lovie, “The design and use of a new near-vision chart,” American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 378–387, 1980. View at Scopus
  44. R. Plomp and A. M. Mimpen, “Improving the reliability of testing the speech reception threshold for sentences,” Audiology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 43–52, 1979. View at Scopus
  45. J. M. Festen and R. Plomp, “Effects of fluctuating noise and interfering speech on the speech-reception threshold for impaired and normal hearing,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 88, no. 4, pp. 1725–1736, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. H. Levitt, “Transformed up-down methods in psychoacoustics,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 467–477, 1971. View at Scopus
  47. N. J. Versfeld, L. Daalder, J. M. Festen, and T. Houtgast, “Method for the selection of sentence materials for efficient measurement of the speech reception threshold,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 1671–1684, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. U. Andersson, B. Lyxell, J. Rönnberg, and K. E. Spens, “Cognitive correlates of visual speech understanding in hearing-impaired individuals,” Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 103–116, 2001.
  49. D. Talsma and M. G. Woldorff, “Methods for the estimation and removal of artifacts and overlap in ERP data,” in Event-Related Potentials: a Methods Handbook, T. Handy, Ed., pp. 115–148, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2005.
  50. T. Koelewijn, A. Bronkhorst, and J. Theeuwes, “Attention and the multiple stages of multisensory integration: a review of audiovisual studies,” Acta Psychologica, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 372–384, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. P. Heitz, J. C. Schrock, T. W. Payne, and R. W. Engle, “Effects of incentive on working memory capacity: behavioral and pupillometric data,” Psychophysiology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 119–129, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. S. Kim, R. D. Frisina, F. M. Mapes, E. D. Hickman, and D. R. Frisina, “Effect of age on binaural speech intelligibility in normal hearing adults,” Speech Communication, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 591–597, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. K. Pichora-Fuller, “Cognitive aging and auditory information processing,” International Journal of Audiology, vol. 42, supplement 2, pp. S26–S32, 2003. View at Scopus