International Journal of Otolaryngology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Impact of Educational Program on the Management of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media among Children Sun, 22 Feb 2015 08:29:31 +0000 Background. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) remains one of the most common childhood chronic infectious diseases worldwide, affecting diverse racial and cultural groups in both developing and industrialized countries. Aim of the Study. This study aimed to assess the impact of educational program on the management of children with CSOM. Subjects and Methods. An experimental study design was used. This study included 100 children of both sexes of 2 years and less of age with CSOM. Those children were divided into 3 groups: group I: it involved 50 children with CSOM (naive) who received the designed educational program; control group: it involved 50 children who were under the traditional treatment and failed to respond; group II: those children in the control group were given the educational program and followed up in the same way as group I and considered as group II. Tools of the Study. Tool I is a structured questionnaire interview sheet for mothers. It consists of four parts: (1) personal and sociodemographic characteristics of child and (2) data about risk factors of otitis media (3) assessment of maternal practice about care of children with suppurative otitis medi (4) diagnostic criteria for suppurative otitis media. Tool II is the educational program: an educational program was developed by the researchers based on the knowledge and practices needs. This study was carried out through a period of 9 months starting from September 2013 to May 2014. The educational program was implemented for mothers of children with CSOM in the form of 5 scheduled sessions at the time of diagnosis, after one week, 1, 3, and 6 months. Results. There were significant differences between children who received the educational program and control group regarding the response to treatment after one and 3 months. The percentages of complete cure increased progressively 32%, 60%, and 84% after 1, 3, and 6 months in group I while they were 24%, 44%, and 64% in group II, respectively. Cure (dry perforation) was 64%, 36%, and 12% among children of group I after 1, 3, and 6 months while it was 64%, 44%, and 24% in group II, respectively. The percentages of compliance to the educational program improved with time in both groups: 44%, 64%, and 80% in group I and 32%, 48%, and 56% in group II after 1, 3, and 6 months, respectively. The percentages of cure were statistically significantly higher among children with complete compliance with the educational program in both groups in comparison to those with incomplete compliance (P = 0.000 for both). Conclusions. From this study we can conclude that the majority of children with CSOM had one or more risk factors for occurrence of the disease; the educational program is effective for management of CSOM (whether cure or complete cure); the higher the compliance of mothers with the program the higher the response rate; regular followup and explanation of the importance of the program played an important role in the compliance with the program. Yousseria Elsayed Yousef, Essam A. Abo El-Magd, Osama M. El-Asheer, and Safaa Kotb Copyright © 2015 Yousseria Elsayed Yousef et al. All rights reserved. The Complications of Sinusitis in a Tertiary Care Hospital: Types, Patient Characteristics, and Outcomes Mon, 02 Feb 2015 12:59:34 +0000 Objective. To study the complications of sinusitis in a referral hospital and the outcome of the treatment according to the type of complication. Methods. A retrospective study was performed on patients with sinusitis who were admitted to a referral hospital from 2003 to 2012. The data for the sinusitis patients who had complications were reviewed. Results and Discussion. Eighty-five patients were included in the study, of whom 50 were male (58.8%). Fourteen of the cases were less than 15 years old, and 27 of the patients (31.7%) had more than one type of complication. The most common complication was of the orbital type (100% in the children, 38% in the adults). After the treatment, all of the children and 45 of the adults (63.4%) recovered, eight of the adult patients died (11.3%), and 18 of the adults were cured with morbidity (25.3%). The patients with more numerous complications had poorer outcomes. When the types of complications were compared (adjusted for age, gender, and comorbidities), the intracranial complication was the only one that was statistically significant for mortality. Conclusion. The outcomes of the treatment depended on the number and type of complications, with the poorest results achieved in cases of intracranial complications. Saisawat Chaiyasate, Supranee Fooanant, Niramon Navacharoen, Kannika Roongrotwattanasiri, Pongsakorn Tantilipikorn, and Jayanton Patumanond Copyright © 2015 Saisawat Chaiyasate et al. All rights reserved. Pressure Flow Analysis in the Assessment of Preswallow Pharyngeal Bolus Presence in Dysphagia Thu, 29 Jan 2015 08:29:59 +0000 Objectives. Preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence is evident in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Pressure flow analysis (PFA) using high resolution manometry with impedance (HRMI) with AIMplot software is a method for objective interpretation of pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressures and bolus flow patterns during swallowing. This study aimed to observe alterations in PFA metrics in the event of preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence as seen on videofluoroscopy (VFSS). Methods. Swallows from 40 broad dysphagia patients and 8 controls were recorded with a HRMI catheter during simultaneous VFSS. Evidence of bolus presence and level reached prior to pharyngeal swallow onset was recorded. AIMPlot software derived automated PFA functional metrics. Results. Patients with bolus movement to the pyriform sinuses had a higher SRI, indicating greater swallow dysfunction. Amongst individual metrics, TNadImp to PeakP was shorter and flow interval longer in patient groups compared to controls. A higher pharyngeal mean impedance and UES mean impedance differentiated the two patient groups. Conclusions. This pilot study identifies specific altered PFA metrics in patients demonstrating preswallow pharyngeal bolus presence to the pyriform sinuses. PFA metrics may be used to guide diagnosis and treatment of patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and track changes in swallow function over time. Lara Ferris, Taher Omari, Margot Selleslagh, Eddy Dejaeger, Jan Tack, Dirk Vanbeckevoort, and Nathalie Rommel Copyright © 2015 Lara Ferris et al. All rights reserved. More Than One Disease Process in Chronic Sinusitis Based on Mucin Fragmentation Patterns and Amino Acid Analysis Mon, 26 Jan 2015 11:23:34 +0000 Objective. To characterise fragmentation patterns and amino acid composition of MUC2 and MUC5AC in chronic sinusitis. Methods. Antigenic identity of purified sinus mucins was determined by ELISA. Fragmentation patterns of a MUC5AC rich sample mucin were analysed by Sepharose CL-2B gel chromatography. Samples, divided into one MUC2 rich and one MUC5AC rich group, were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and their amino acid contents were analysed. Results. Reduction, trypsin digestion, and papain digestion produced progressively smaller mucin species. On SDS-PAGE, digested MUC5AC rich mucin produced four distinct products. Amino acid analysis was characteristic of mucins with high serine, threonine, and proline contents and reduction and proteolysis increased relative proportions of these amino acids. MUC5AC rich mucins contained more protein than MUC2 rich mucins. Conclusion. Sinus mucin fragmentation produced mucin subunits and glycopeptide units of smaller molecular sizes which are likely to have lower viscoelastic properties. Applying this in vivo could alter mucus physical properties and biologic functions. Amino acid contents of MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins are different. This could be contributing to biological properties and functions of sinus mucins. These data suggest that there may be different pathological processes occurring at the cellular level on chronic sinusitis. Mahmoud El-Sayed Ali and Jeffrey P. Pearson Copyright © 2015 Mahmoud El-Sayed Ali and Jeffrey P. Pearson. All rights reserved. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale in the Assessment of Sleep Disturbance in Veterans with Tinnitus Thu, 08 Jan 2015 06:49:37 +0000 Purpose. Tinnitus and sleep disturbance are prevalent in veterans, and a better understanding of their relationship can help with tinnitus treatment. Materials and Methods. Retrospective chart review of 94 veterans seen in audiology clinic between 2010 and 2013 is presented. Results. The mean age was 62 years, and 93 of 94 veterans were males. The majority (96%) had hearing loss. The positive predictive value of the ESS for sleep disorder was 97% and the negative predictive value was 100%. Veterans with a Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) score ≥38 had significantly higher Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores compared to those with THI score <38 (). The former had a significantly higher incidence of PTSD, anxiety, and sleep disorder. A subgroup of patients had normal sleep despite rising THI scores. Bilateral tinnitus, vertigo, and anxiety were found to be predictors of sleep disturbance. Conclusions. The ESS can be used as a tool in the initial assessment of sleep disorders in veterans with tinnitus. Higher tinnitus handicap severity is significantly associated with greater sleep disturbance. Optimal management of tinnitus may require concomitant treatment of sleep disorder, PTSD, anxiety, and depression. Yuan F. Liu, Jinwei Hu, Matthew Streelman, and O’neil W. Guthrie Copyright © 2015 Yuan F. Liu et al. All rights reserved. Nasal Involvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Thu, 20 Nov 2014 11:43:02 +0000 Numerous studies have reported an association between nasal obstruction and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), but the precise nature of this relationship remains to be clarified. This paper aimed to summarize data and theories on the role of the nose in the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as well as to discuss the benefits of surgical and medical nasal treatments. A number of pathophysiological mechanisms can potentially explain the role of nasal pathology in OSAS. These include the Starling resistor model, the unstable oral airway, the nasal ventilatory reflex, and the role of nitric oxide (NO). Pharmacological treatment presents some beneficial effects on the frequency of respiratory events and sleep architecture. Nonetheless, objective data assessing snoring and daytime sleepiness are still necessary. Nasal surgery can improve the quality of life and snoring in a select group of patients with mild OSAS and septal deviation but is not an effective treatment for OSA as such. Despite the conflicting results in the literature, it is important that patients who are not perfectly adapted to CPAP are evaluated in detail, in order to identify whether there are obstructive factors that could be surgically corrected. Daniel de Sousa Michels, Amanda da Mota Silveira Rodrigues, Márcio Nakanishi, André Luiz Lopes Sampaio, and Alessandra Ramos Venosa Copyright © 2014 Daniel de Sousa Michels et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Topical Application of Royal Jelly on Chemoradiotherapy-Induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer: A Preliminary Study Tue, 21 Oct 2014 07:48:27 +0000 Purpose. One of the common side effects experienced by head and neck cancer patients on chemoradiotherapy is mucositis. Severe mucositis may be controllable by limiting cancer therapy, but it has resulted in decreasing the completion rate of chemoradiotherapy. The efficacy of royal jelly (RJ) as prophylaxis against chemoradiotherapy-induced mucositis was evaluated through clinical scoring of oral and pharyngeal mucositis. Methods. In this randomized, single-blind (physician-blind), clinical trial, 13 patients with head and neck cancer requiring chemoradiation were randomly assigned to two groups. Seven patients assigned to the study group received RJ, and 6 patients were assigned to the control group. RJ group patients took RJ three times per day during treatment. The patients in both groups were evaluated twice a week for the development of mucositis using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Results. A significant reduction in mucositis was seen among RJ-treated patients compared with controls (). Conclusion. This study demonstrated that prophylactic use of RJ was effective in reducing mucositis induced by chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. However, further studies are needed because of the small sample size and the absence of double blinding. Kohichi Yamauchi, Yasunao Kogashiwa, Yorihisa Moro, and Naoyuki Kohno Copyright © 2014 Kohichi Yamauchi et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Preoperative Mastoid Ventilation on Tympanoplasty Success Sun, 12 Oct 2014 08:49:51 +0000 Purpose. This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the relationship between mastoid air cell volumes and graft success after tympanoplasty. Material and Methods. This study was performed retrospectively with patients undergoing type I tympanoplasty and antrostomy. A total of 57 patients (20–35.09% female and 37–64.91% male) with a mean age of (range 12–56 years) were included in the study. The patients were invited for a control at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months, and otoscopic examinations and audiometric tests were performed. The temporal bone computed tomography images were screened with the 4800 Dpi optic resolution scanner and transferred to the computer environment in JPG format in order to calculate the mastoid air cell volume, and the volumes were calculated using the Autocad 2007 program. Results. Although, the graft success was determined to be better in the well-ventilated group, no significant difference could be found between the groups in terms of graft success at the 1st, 3rd, and 12th months . No statistically significant difference could be found between the three groups in terms of the preoperative and postoperative hearing gains . Mehmet Metin, Zeynep Kizilkaya Kaptan, Sedat Dogan, Hasmet Yazici, Cem Bayraktar, Hakan Gocmen, and Etem Erdal Samim Copyright © 2014 Mehmet Metin et al. All rights reserved. A Clinical Prediction Formula for Apnea-Hypopnea Index Wed, 01 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objectives. There are many studies regarding unnecessary polysomnography (PSG) when obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is suspected. In order to reduce unnecessary PSG, this study aims to predict the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) via simple clinical data for patients who complain of OSAS symptoms. Method. Demographic, anthropometric, physical examination and laboratory data of a total of 390 patients (290 men, average age 50 ± 11) who were subject to diagnostic PSG were obtained and evaluated retrospectively. The relationship between these data and the PSG results was analyzed. A multivariate linear regression analysis was performed step by step to identify independent AHI predictors. Results. Useful parameters were found in this analysis in terms of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), neck circumference (NC), oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2), and tonsil size (TS) to predict the AHI. The formula derived from these parameters was the predicted AHI = (0.797 × BMI) + (2.286 × NC) − (1.272 × SpO2) + (5.114 × TS) + (0.314 × WC). Conclusion. This study showed a strong correlation between AHI score and indicators of obesity. This formula, in terms of predicting the AHI for patients who complain about snoring, witnessed apneas, and excessive daytime sleepiness, may be used to predict OSAS prior to PSG and prevent unnecessary PSG. Mustafa Sahin, Cem Bilgen, M. Sezai Tasbakan, Rasit Midilli, and Ozen K. Basoglu Copyright © 2014 Mustafa Sahin et al. All rights reserved. Patient Satisfaction with Postaural Incision Site Wed, 24 Sep 2014 07:04:52 +0000 Introduction. Controversy exists over the optimum incision placement when performing ear surgery via the postauricular approach. Little is known about the impact of incision placement on future comfort in wearing audio or visual aids or the effect on the minor auricular muscles cut in the approach. Objective. (1) To establish patient satisfaction with their postauricular surgical incision, and to establish the impact on comfort wearing hearing or visual aids. (2) To establish whether patients’ voluntary ear movements were affected by surgery. Materials and Methods. In January 2014, questionnaires were sent to 81 patients who underwent mastoid surgery requiring a postauricular incision between January 2004 and December 2012. The incision placement was broadly the same for all patients as they were operated on by the same surgeon (or under his supervision). The incision is sited far posteriorly at the hairline. Results. 42 (52%) of the patients contacted responded. 80% of patients wearing glasses reported no discomfort or problems associated with their incision. 82% of patients who wear hearing aids were comfortable. Only 1 of the 5 patients who could move their ears preoperatively noticed a change afterwards. Conclusion. A hairline incision is well tolerated by most of the patients. George Barrett, Susanne Koecher, Natalie Ronan, and David Whinney Copyright © 2014 George Barrett et al. All rights reserved. Importance of “Process Evaluation” in Audiological Rehabilitation: Examples from Studies on Hearing Impairment Wed, 03 Sep 2014 11:02:35 +0000 The main focus of this paper is to discuss the importance of “evaluating the process of change” (i.e., process evaluation) in people with disability by studying their lived experiences. Detailed discussion is made about “why and how to investigate the process of change in people with disability?” and some specific examples are provided from studies on patient journey of persons with hearing impairment (PHI) and their communication partners (CPs). In addition, methodological aspects in process evaluation are discussed in relation to various metatheoretical perspectives. The discussion has been supplemented with relevant literature. The healthcare practice and disability research in general are dominated by the use of outcome measures. Even though the values of outcome measures are not questioned, there seems to be a little focus on understanding the process of change over time in relation to health and disability. We suggest that the process evaluation has an additional temporal dimension and has applications in both clinical practice and research in relation to health and disability. Vinaya Manchaiah, Berth Danermark, Jerker Rönnberg, and Thomas Lunner Copyright © 2014 Vinaya Manchaiah et al. All rights reserved. Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery Wed, 03 Sep 2014 08:59:20 +0000 In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a “soft surgery” cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients. Priscila Carvalho Miranda, André Luiz Lopes Sampaio, Rafaela Aquino Fernandes Lopes, Alessandra Ramos Venosa, and Carlos Augusto Costa Pires de Oliveira Copyright © 2014 Priscila Carvalho Miranda et al. All rights reserved. Hearing Aids and the Brain Wed, 03 Sep 2014 07:51:49 +0000 K. L. Tremblay, S. Scollie, H. B. Abrams, J. R. Sullivan, and C. M. McMahon Copyright © 2014 K. L. Tremblay et al. All rights reserved. Subclinical Hearing Loss, Longer Sleep Duration, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Japanese General Population Tue, 12 Aug 2014 10:55:07 +0000 Hearing loss leads to impaired social functioning and quality of life. Hearing loss is also associated with sleeping disorders and cardiometabolic risk factors. Here, we determined whether subclinical hearing loss is associated with sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of healthy Japanese general population. 48,091 men and women aged 20–79 years who underwent medical checkups were included in a cross-sectional study, and 6,674 were included in an 8-year longitudinal study. The prevalence of audiometrically determined hearing loss (>25 dB) at 4000 and 1000 Hz increased significantly with increasing sleep duration in any age strata. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with reference sleep duration (6 h) longer sleep duration (≥8 h) was significantly associated with hearing loss, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Simultaneously, hearing loss was significantly associated with male sex, diabetes, and no habitual exercise. In the longitudinal study, the risk of longer sleep duration (≥8 h) after 8 years was significantly greater in subjects with hearing loss at 4000 Hz at baseline. In conclusion, current results suggest a potential association of subclinical hearing loss with longer sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Japanese general population. Kei Nakajima, Eiichiro Kanda, Ami Hosobuchi, and Kaname Suwa Copyright © 2014 Kei Nakajima et al. All rights reserved. Radiological Assessment of the Indian Children with Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Loss Mon, 14 Jul 2014 12:03:54 +0000 Introduction. Congenital sensorineural hearing loss is one of the most common birth defects with incidence of approximately 1 : 1000 live births. Imaging of cases of congenital sensorineural hearing loss is frequently performed in an attempt to determine the underlying pathology. There is a paucity of literature from India and for this reason we decided to conduct this study in Indian context to evaluate the various cochleovestibular bony and nerve anomalies by HRCT scan of temporal bone and MRI with 3D scan of inner ear in a tertiary care centre. Material and Methods. A total of 280 children with congenital deafness (158 males and 122 females), between January 2002 to June 2013 were included in the study and they were assessed radiologically by HRCT scan of temporal bone and MRI with 3D scan of inner ear. Results. In the present study we found various congenital anomalies of bony labyrinth and vestibulocochlear nerve. Out of 560 inner ears we found 78 anomalous inner ears. Out of these 78 inner ears 57 (73%) had cochlear anomaly, 68 (87.1%) had anomalous vestibule, 44 (56.4%) had abnormal vestibular aqueduct, 24 (30.7%) had anomalous IAC, and 23 (29.4%) had abnormal cochleovestibular nerves. Conclusion. In present study, we found lower incidences of congenital anomalies comparative to existing literature. Sangeet Kumar Agarwal, Satinder Singh, Samarjit Singh Ghuman, Shalabh Sharma, and Asish Kr. Lahiri Copyright © 2014 Sangeet Kumar Agarwal et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Vertigo: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Ginkgo biloba Extract EGb 761 and Betahistine Wed, 25 Jun 2014 06:09:35 +0000 A multicenter clinical trial was performed to compare the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 and betahistine at recommended doses in patients with vertigo. One hundred and sixty patients (mean age 58 years) were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with EGb 761 (240 mg per day) or betahistine (32 mg per day) for 12 weeks. An 11-point numeric analogue scale, the Vertigo Symptom Scale—short form, the Clinical Global Impression Scales and the Sheehan Disability Scale were used as outcome measures. Both treatment groups were comparable at baseline and improved in all outcome measures during the course of treatment. There was no significant intergroup difference with regard to changes in any outcome measure. Numerically, improvements of patients receiving EGb 761 were slightly more pronounced on all scales. Clinical global impression was rated “very much improved” or “much improved” in 79% of patients treated with EGb 761 and in 70% receiving betahistine. With 27 adverse events in 19 patients, EGb 761 showed better tolerability than betahistine with 39 adverse events in 31 patients. In conclusion, the two drugs were similarly effective in the treatment of vertigo, but EGb 761 was better tolerated. This trial is registered with ISRCTN02262139. Larysa Sokolova, Robert Hoerr, and Tamara Mishchenko Copyright © 2014 Larysa Sokolova et al. All rights reserved. How Neuroscience Relates to Hearing Aid Amplification Wed, 18 Jun 2014 08:30:01 +0000 Hearing aids are used to improve sound audibility for people with hearing loss, but the ability to make use of the amplified signal, especially in the presence of competing noise, can vary across people. Here we review how neuroscientists, clinicians, and engineers are using various types of physiological information to improve the design and use of hearing aids. K. L. Tremblay and C. W. Miller Copyright © 2014 K. L. Tremblay and C. W. Miller. All rights reserved. The Relationship between the Efficacy of Tonsillectomy and Renal Pathology in the Patients with IgA Nephropathy Mon, 19 May 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of tonsillectomy as a treatment for IgA nephropathy in relation to renal pathological findings. Methods. This is a retrospective analysis of 13 patients having IgA nephropathy treated by tonsillectomy. Results. UP/UCre levels decreased from 820.8 to 585.4 one month postsurgery and then showed slight worsening to 637.3 at the most recent follow-up. There was no significant difference in the improvement rate between pathological grades I–III and IV. There was positive correlation between Pre-UP/UCre level and the reduction rate of UP/UCre, which was statistically significant (R = 0.667, R2 = 0.445, and ). Conclusions. Reduction of UP/UCre at one month postsurgery is considered to be an overall prognostic factor, and tonsillectomy is considered to be an effective therapy for IgA patients regardless of the grade of renal pathology. Tsutomu Nomura, Yoshimi Makizumi, Tsuyoshi Yoshida, and Tatsuya Yamasoba Copyright © 2014 Tsutomu Nomura et al. All rights reserved. Aerodigestive Foreign Bodies in Adult Ethiopian Patients: A Prospective Study at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Ethiopia Tue, 15 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Foreign bodies (FBs) in the aerodigestive tract are important causes of morbidity and mortality and pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The best method of removal of an esophageal and tracheobronchial FB is endoscopic guided extraction. Objective. To present our experience of the removal of aerodigestive FBs in adult Ethiopian patients using rigid endoscopes. Methods. A hospital-based prospective study, at Tikur Anbessa Referral and Teaching Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012 (over two years). Results. A total of 32 patients (18 males and 14 females) with a mean age of years were treated for FB ingestion and aspiration at Tikur Anbessa Hospital. The FBs were impacted at the esophagus in 18 (56.2%) patients, at the pharynx in 7 (21.8%), and at the air way in 7 (21.8%) patients. Pieces of bones were the commonest objects found in the esophagus (17/18 of the cases) and the pharynx (4/7), while fractured tracheostomy tubes and needles were frequently seen in the air way (3/7 cases each). The foreign bodies were visible in plain radiographs of 26 (81.2%) patients. Successful extraction of FBs was achieved by using Mc gill forceps in 11 cases, rigid esophagoscopes in 9 patients, and bronchoscopes in 4 cases. Four cases required open surgery to remove the foreign bodies. Two complications (one pneumothorax and one esophageal perforation) occurred. All patients were discharged cured. Discussion and Recommendations. Aerodigestive FBs are not so rare in the hospital and timely diagnosis and removal of accidentally ingested and aspirated foreign body should be performed so as to avoid the potentially lethal complications associated. Rigid esophagoscopy requires general anesthesia and is associated with its own complications, but our experience and outcome of its use are encouraging. Abebe Bekele Copyright © 2014 Abebe Bekele. All rights reserved. Chronic Maxillary Rhinosinusitis of Dental Origin: A Systematic Review of 674 Patient Cases Tue, 08 Apr 2014 09:31:18 +0000 Objectives. The aim of this systematic review is to study the causes of odontogenic chronic maxillary rhinosinusitis (CMRS), the average age of the patients, the distribution by sex, and the teeth involved. Materials and Methods. We performed an EMBASE-, Cochrane-, and PubMed-based review of all of the described cases of odontogenic CMRS from January 1980 to January 2013. Issues of clinical relevance, such as the primary aetiology and the teeth involved, were evaluated for each case. Results. From the 190 identified publications, 23 were selected for a total of 674 patients following inclusion criteria. According to these data, the main cause of odontogenic CMRS is iatrogenic, accounting for 65.7% of the cases. Apical periodontal pathologies (apical granulomas, odontogenic cysts, and apical periodontitis) follow them and account for 25.1% of the cases. The most commonly involved teeth are the first and second molars. Conclusion. Odontogenic CMRS is a common disease that must be suspected whenever a patient undergoing dental treatment presents unilateral maxillary chronic rhinosinusitis. Jerome R. Lechien, Olivier Filleul, Pedro Costa de Araujo, Julien W. Hsieh, Gilbert Chantrain, and Sven Saussez Copyright © 2014 Jerome R. Lechien et al. All rights reserved. Gastric Decompression Decreases Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in ENT Surgery Wed, 02 Apr 2014 14:11:42 +0000 There is a passive blood flow to the stomach during oral and nasal surgery. It may cause postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We researched the relationship between gastric decompression (GD) and severity of PONV in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgery. 137 patients who have been into ENT surgery were included in the study. In Group I (), patients received GD after surgery before extubation; patients in Group II () did not receive GD. In postoperative 2nd, 4th, 8th, and 12th hours, the number and ratio of patients demonstrating PONV were detected to be significantly more in Group II as compared to Group I. PONV was also significantly more severe in Group II as compared to Group I. In Group I, the PONV ratio in the 2nd hour was significantly more for those whose amounts of stomach content aspired were more than 10 mL as compared to those whose stomach content aspired was less than 10 mL. In the 4th, 8th, and 24th hours, there is no statistically significant difference between the stomach content aspired and PONV ratio. GD reduces the incidence and severity of PONV in ENT surgery. Kerem Erkalp, Nuran Kalekoglu Erkalp, M. Salih Sevdi, A. Yasemin Korkut, Hacer Yeter, Sertuğ Sinan Ege, Aysin Alagol, and Veysel Erden Copyright © 2014 Kerem Erkalp et al. All rights reserved. Mucin Gene Expression in Reflux Laryngeal Mucosa: Histological and In Situ Hybridization Observations Mon, 24 Mar 2014 11:00:24 +0000 Objectives/Hypothesis. To determine if laryngopharyngeal reflux alters mucin gene expression in laryngeal mucosa. Methods. In situ hybridization was employed to study the expression of the 8 well-characterised mucin genes MUC1-4, 5AC, 5B, 6, and 7 in reflux laryngeal mucosa from laryngeal ventricles, posterior commissures, and vocal folds compared to control/normal laryngeal mucosa. Results. MUC1-5 genes are expressed in normal and reflux laryngeal mucosa. MUC1, 3 and 4 are expressed in respiratory and squamous mucosa whereas MUC2 and 5AC are expressed in respiratory mucosa only. MUC3, 4 and 5AC are downregulated in reflux mucosa. MUC5AC expression is significantly reduced in the 3 mucosal sites and when mucosal type was taken into account, this remains significant in combined laryngeal and ventricular mucosa only. Conclusions. MUC3, 4 and 5AC expression is downregulated in laryngopharyngeal reflux. This may be due to laryngeal mucosal metaplasia and/or alteration of mucin gene expression in the preexisting mucosa. Altered mucin gene expression might predispose laryngeal mucosa to the damaging effect of reflux. Mahmoud El-Sayed Ali, David M. Bulmer, Peter W. Dettmar, and Jeffrey P. Pearson Copyright © 2014 Mahmoud El-Sayed Ali et al. All rights reserved. Allergic Sensitization to Perennial Allergens in Adults and Children Sensitized to Japanese Cedar or Japanese Cypress Pollen in Japan Mon, 17 Mar 2014 10:52:55 +0000 In Japan, seasonal allergic rhinitis in the spring due to exposure to Japanese cedar or Japanese cypress pollen is common. However, the allergic profile for perennial allergens in spring pollinosis remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the allergic profiles of 652 patients with rhinitis. Total serum IgE, serum-specific IgE, and blood eosinophil counts were measured. Allergic sensitization, determined by the serum allergen-specific IgE level, did not always correspond with the patient’s symptoms. Only 27% of patients with allergic symptoms in response to spring pollens were sensitized to these allergens alone; 31% of patients were also sensitized to perennial allergens, even without symptoms due to perennial allergens. Total serum IgE and eosinophil cell counts were significantly elevated in patients sensitized to perennial allergens and spring pollens, as compared to patients sensitized only to spring pollens. Most children sensitized to spring pollen (84%) were sensitized to perennial allergens, at a higher rate than adults (49%). Patients sensitized to spring pollens are likely to be latently sensitized to perennial allergens. This is especially true for children and should be monitored closely. Improvement in seasonal allergic conditions, including latent perennial allergy, is important to prevent symptoms that could advance to asthma. Masafumi Ohki and Masanobu Shinogami Copyright © 2014 Masafumi Ohki and Masanobu Shinogami. All rights reserved. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management Tue, 04 Mar 2014 13:04:24 +0000 Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. Sampath Chandra Prasad, Arun Azeez, Nikhil Dinaker Thada, Pallavi Rao, Andrea Bacciu, and Kishore Chandra Prasad Copyright © 2014 Sampath Chandra Prasad et al. All rights reserved. Hearing Benefit in Allograft Tympanoplasty Using Tutoplast Processed Malleus Thu, 13 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Objectives. Tutoplast processed human cadaveric ossicular allografts are a safe alternative for ossicular reconstruction where there is insufficient material suitable for autograft ossiculoplasty. We present a series of 7 consecutive cases showing excellent air-bone gap closure following canal-wall-down mastoidectomy for cholesteatoma and reconstruction of the middle ear using Tutoplast processed malleus. Patients and Methods. Tympanoplasty with Tutoplast processed malleus was performed in seven patients to reconstruct the middle ear following canal-wall-down mastoidectomy in a tertiary ENT centre. Main Outcome Measures. Hearing improvement and recurrence-free period were assessed. Pre-and postoperative audiograms were performed. Results. The average pre operative hearing loss was 50 ± 13 dB, with an air-bone gap of 33 ± 7 dB. Post operative audiograms at 25 months demonstrated hearing thresholds of 29 ± 10 dB, with an air-bone gap of 14 ± 6 dB. No prosthesis extrusion was observed, which compares favourably to other commercially available prostheses. Conclusions. Tutoplast processed allografts restore conductive hearing loss in patients undergoing mastoidectomy and provide an excellent alternative when there is insufficient material suitable for autograft ossiculoplasty. Anja Lieder and Wolfgang Issing Copyright © 2014 Anja Lieder and Wolfgang Issing. All rights reserved. Demography and Histologic Pattern of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Kenya Tue, 21 Jan 2014 13:11:15 +0000 Background. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a common head and neck cancer worldwide. Objective. To determine the demographic characteristics of patients with laryngeal cancer, establish their tumor characteristics and relate it to their smoking and alcohol ingestion habits. Methods. Fifty cases and fifty controls were recruited of matching age, sex, and region of residence. History and pattern of cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion was taken and analyzed. Results. 33 (66%) of the cases and 3 (6%) among controls were current cigarette smokers. 74% had smoked for more than 30 years, OR 21.3 (95% CI: 2.6–176.1). There was a male predominance (96%) and most cases (62%) were from the ethnic communities in the highland areas of Kenya predominantly in Central and Eastern provinces. Very heavy drinkers had increased risk of OR, 6.0 (95% CI: 1.957–18.398) and those who smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol had poorly differentiated tumors G3, , OR 11.652 (95% CI 2.305–58.895), and G4, OR 7.286 (95% CI 0.726–73.075). They also presented with advanced disease (73.6%). Conclusion. Cigarette smoking and alcohol ingestion are strong risk factors for development of late stage and poorly differentiated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Kenya. Owen Pyeko Menach, Asmeeta Patel, and Herbert Ouma Oburra Copyright © 2014 Owen Pyeko Menach et al. All rights reserved. Contralateral Ear Occlusion for Improving the Reliability of Otoacoustic Emission Screening Tests Sun, 12 Jan 2014 12:09:46 +0000 Newborn hearing screening is an established healthcare standard in many countries and testing is feasible using otoacoustic emission (OAE) recording. It is well documented that OAEs can be suppressed by acoustic stimulation of the ear contralateral to the test ear. In clinical otoacoustic emission testing carried out in a sound attenuating booth, ambient noise levels are low such that the efferent system is not activated. However in newborn hearing screening, OAEs are often recorded in hospital or clinic environments, where ambient noise levels can be 60–70 dB SPL. Thus, results in the test ear can be influenced by ambient noise stimulating the opposite ear. Surprisingly, in hearing screening protocols there are no recommendations for avoiding contralateral suppression, that is, protecting the opposite ear from noise by blocking the ear canal. In the present study we have compared transient evoked and distortion product OAEs measured with and without contralateral ear plugging, in environmental settings with ambient noise levels <25 dB SPL, 45 dB SPL, and 55 dB SPL. We found out that without contralateral ear occlusion, ambient noise levels above 55 dB SPL can significantly attenuate OAE signals. We strongly suggest contralateral ear occlusion in OAE based hearing screening in noisy environments. Emily Papsin, Adrienne L. Harrison, Mattia Carraro, and Robert V. Harrison Copyright © 2014 Emily Papsin et al. All rights reserved. Evidence of Bacterial Biofilms among Infected and Hypertrophied Tonsils in Correlation with the Microbiology, Histopathology, and Clinical Symptoms of Tonsillar Diseases Tue, 24 Dec 2013 09:30:14 +0000 Diseases of the tonsils are becoming more resistant to antibiotics due to the persistence of bacteria through the formation of biofilms. Therefore, understanding the microbiology and pathophysiology of such diseases represent an important step in the management of biofilm-related infections. We have isolated the microorganisms, evaluated their antimicrobial susceptibility, and detected the presence of bacterial biofilms in tonsillar specimens in correlation with the clinical manifestations of tonsillar diseases. Therefore, a total of 140 palatine tonsils were collected from 70 patients undergoing tonsillectomy at University Malaya Medical Centre. The most recovered isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (39.65%) followed by Haemophilus influenzae (18.53%). There was high susceptibility against all selected antibiotics except for cotrimoxazole. Bacterial biofilms were detected in 60% of patients and a significant percentage of patients demonstrated infection manifestation rather than obstruction. In addition, an association between clinical symptoms like snore, apnea, nasal obstruction, and tonsillar hypertrophy was found to be related to the microbiology of tonsils particularly to the presence of biofilms. In conclusion, evidence of biofilms in tonsils in correlation with the demonstrated clinical symptoms explains the recalcitrant nature of tonsillar diseases and highlights the importance of biofilm’s early detection and prevention towards better therapeutic management of biofilm-related infections. Saad Musbah Alasil, Rahmat Omar, Salmah Ismail, Mohd Yasim Yusof, Ghulam N. Dhabaan, and Mahmood Ameen Abdulla Copyright © 2013 Saad Musbah Alasil et al. All rights reserved. Aural Foreign Bodies: Descriptive Study of 224 Patients in Al-Fallujah General Hospital, Iraq Tue, 03 Dec 2013 15:17:49 +0000 Foreign bodies (FB) in the external auditory canal are relative medical emergency. The objective of this study was to describe the types of FB and their complications and to highlight on new FB not seen before which was the bluetooth devices that were used for cheating during high school examination in Al-Fallujah city. This was a two-year hospital-based descriptive study performed in the Department of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT), Al-Fallujah General Hospital, from June 2011 to May 2013; during this period, 224 FB had been extracted from 224 patients. Beads were extracted from 68 patients (30.4%), cotton tips were extracted from 50 patients (22.3%), seeds and garlic were extracted from 31 patients (13.8%), papers were extracted from 27 patients (12.1%), insects were extracted from 24 patients (10.7%), button batteries were extracted from 13 patients (5.8%), and bluetooth devices were extracted from 7 patients (3.1%). Most of the cases did not develop complications (87.5%) during extraction. The main complications were canal abrasion (4.5%). Proper instrumentation allows the uncomplicated removal of many FB. The use of general anesthesia is preferred in very young children. Bluetooth device objects should be considered as new aural FB, especially in our territory. Ahmad Nasrat Al-juboori Copyright © 2013 Ahmad Nasrat Al-juboori. All rights reserved. Comparison of Pediatric and Adult Tonsillectomies Performed by Thermal Welding System Thu, 28 Nov 2013 10:31:55 +0000 Objective. To compare pediatric and adult age groups in terms of postoperative bleeding and pain following tonsillectomy performed by thermal welding system (TWS). Method. The study consisted of 213 patients, of whom 178 were children and 35 were adults. The mean age of the pediatric patients (81 girls and 97 females) was years (range 3–13 years) and the mean age of the adults (20 males and 15 females) was years (range 15–41 years). All of the patients were evaluated in terms of postoperative bleeding and pain following tonsillectomy performed by TWS. Results. Bleeding was detected in the late postoperative period in 11 pediatric and 7 adult patients and of them 2 pediatric and 3 adult patients controlled under general. Postoperative bleeding was significantly less prevalent in the pediatric age group compared to the adult age group (). Likewise, postoperative pain was significantly less prevalent in the pediatric age group as compared to the adult age group (). Conclusion. Both postoperative bleeding and pain following tonsillectomy performed by TWS were more prevalent in the adult age group compared to the pediatric age group. Tolga Ersözlü, Yavuz Selim Yıldırım, and Selman Sarica Copyright © 2013 Tolga Ersözlü et al. All rights reserved.