Table 1: Root means square, peak-valley value of active layers, and power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices fabricated using the active layers with and without TiO layer.

Method of preparationActive layerRMS
(nm)
Peak-valley value
(nm)
PCE
(%)

Spray coatingWithout TiO 0.564.321.76
With TiO 0.475.474.01
Spin coatingWith TiO 0.697.083.56