- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 503715, 8 pages
MEH-PPV and PCBM Solution Concentration Dependence of Inverted-Type Organic Solar Cells Based on Eosin-Y-Coated ZnO Nanorod Arrays
1School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
2Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
Received 1 August 2012; Revised 29 November 2012; Accepted 29 November 2012
Academic Editor: Manoj A. G. Nambuthiry
Copyright © 2013 Riski Titian Ginting et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- G. Li, R. Zhu, and Y. Yang, “Polymer solar cells,” Nature Photonics, vol. 6, pp. 153–161, 2012.
- G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, and A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science, vol. 270, no. 5243, pp. 1789–1791, 1995.
- J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates et al., “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5835, pp. 222–225, 2007.
- W. H. Kim, A. J. Mäkinen, N. Nikolov, R. Shashidhar, H. Kim, and Z. H. Kafafi, “Molecular organic light-emitting diodes using highly conducting polymers as anodes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 80, no. 20, pp. 3844–3846, 2002.
- M. P. de Jong, L. J. van Ijzendoorn, and M. J. A. de Voigt, “Stability of the interface between indium-tin-oxide and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulfonate) in polymer light-emitting diodes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 77, no. 14, pp. 2255–2257, 2000.
- M. Jørgensen, K. Norrman, and F. C. Krebs, “Stability/degradation of polymer solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 686–714, 2008.
- F. Zhang, X. Xu, W. Tang et al., “Recent development of the inverted configuration organic solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 1785–1799, 2011.
- Y. Sun, J. H. Seo, C. J. Takacs, J. Seifter, and A. J. Heeger, “Inverted polymer solar cells integrated with a low-temperature-annealed sol-gel-derived ZnO film as an electron transport layer,” Advanced Materials, vol. 23, no. 14, pp. 1679–1683, 2011.
- A. K. K. Kyaw, X. W. Sun, C. Y. Jiang, G. Q. Lo, D. W. Zhao, and D. L. Kwong, “An inverted organic solar cell employing a sol-gel derived ZnO electron selective layer and thermal evaporated MoO3 hole selective layer,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 93, no. 22, Article ID 221107, 3 pages, 2008.
- S. K. Hau, H. L. Yip, N. S. Baek, J. Zou, K. O'Malley, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Air-stable inverted flexible polymer solar cells using zinc oxide nanoparticles as an electron selective layer,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. 25, Article ID 253301, 3 pages, 2008.
- D. C. Lim, W. H. Shim, K. D. Kim et al., “Spontaneous formation of nanoripples on the surface of ZnO thin films as hole-blocking layer of inverted organic solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 11, pp. 3036–3040, 2011.
- S. R. Ferreira, R. J. Davis, Y. J. Lee, P. Lu, and J. W. P. Hsu, “Effect of device architecture on hybrid zinc oxide nanoparticle:poly(3- hexylthiophene) blend solar cell performance and stability,” Organic Electronics, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 1258–1263, 2011.
- M. Y. Lin, C. Y. Lee, S. C. Shiu et al., “Sol-gel processed CuOx thin film as an anode interlayer for inverted polymer solar cells,” Organic Electronics, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 1828–1834, 2010.
- N. Sekine, C. H. Chou, W. L. Kwan, and Y. Yang, “ZnO nano-ridge structure and its application in inverted polymer solar cell,” Organic Electronics, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1473–1477, 2009.
- M. N. Shan, S. S. Wang, Z. Q. Bian, J. P. Liu, and Y. L. Zhao, “Hybrid inverted organic photovoltaic cells based on nanoporous TiO2 films and organic small molecules,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1613–1617, 2009.
- R. Steim, S. A. Choulis, P. Schilinsky, and C. J. Brabec, “Interface modification for highly efficient organic photovoltaics,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. 9, Article ID 093303, 3 pages, 2008.
- T. Kuwabara, T. Nakayama, K. Uozumi, T. Yamaguchi, and K. Takahashi, “Highly durable inverted-type organic solar cell using amorphous titanium oxide as electron collection electrode inserted between ITO and organic layer,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 92, no. 11, pp. 1476–1482, 2008.
- C. Waldauf, M. Morana, P. Denk et al., “Highly efficient inverted organic photovoltaics using solution based titanium oxide as electron selective contact,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 23, Article ID 233517, 3 pages, 2006.
- G. D. Sharma, J. A. Mikroyannidis, and S. P. Singh, “Efficient bulk heterojunction solar cells based on D-A copolymers as electron donors and PC70BM as electron acceptor,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 135, no. 1, pp. 25–31, 2012.
- H. H. Liao, L. M. Chen, Z. Xu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell by low temperature annealing of Cs2CO3 interlayer,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. 17, Article ID 173303, 3 pages, 2008.
- Z. Q. Xu, J. P. Yang, F. Z. Sun, S. T. Lee, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Efficient inverted polymer solar cells incorporating doped organic electron transporting layer,” Organic Electronics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 697–704, 2012.
- M. Lira-Cantu and F. C. Krebs, “Hybrid solar cells based on MEH-PPV and thin film semiconductor oxides (TiO2, Nb2O5, ZnO, CeO2 and CeO2–TiO2): performance improvement during long-time irradiation,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 90, no. 14, pp. 2076–2086, 2006.
- S. Han, W. S. Shin, M. Seo, D. Gupta, S. J. Moon, and S. Yoo, “Improving performance of organic solar cells using amorphous tungsten oxides as an interfacial buffer layer on transparent anodes,” Organic Electronics, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 791–797, 2009.
- L. Vayssieres, “Growth of arrayed nanorods and nanowires of ZnO from aqueous solutions,” Advanced Materials, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 464–466, 2003.
- K. Takanezawa, K. Hirota, Q. S. Wei, K. Tajima, and K. Hashimoto, “Efficient charge collection with ZnO nanorod array in hybrid photovoltaic devices,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 19, pp. 7218–7223, 2007.
- C. Y. Chou, J. S. Huang, C. H. Wu, C. Y. Lee, and C. F. Lin, “Lengthening the polymer solidification time to improve the performance of polymer/ZnO nanorod hybrid solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, no. 9, pp. 1608–1612, 2009.
- B. K. Crone, I. H. Campbell, P. S. Davids, and D. L. Smith, “Charge injection and transport in single-layer organic light-emitting diodes,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 73, no. 21, pp. 3162–3164, 1998.
- W. J. Lee, H. Okada, A. Wakahara, and A. Yoshida, “Structural and photoelectrochemical characteristics of nanocrystalline ZnO electrode with Eosin-Y,” Ceramics International, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 495–498, 2006.
- M. S. White, D. C. Olson, S. E. Shaheen, N. Kopidakis, and D. S. Ginley, “Inverted bulk-heterojunction organic photovoltaic device using a solution-derived ZnO underlayer,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 14, Article ID 143517, 3 pages, 2006.
- H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, Y. Park, Y. Jin, and H. Suh, “Organic photovoltaic cells based on conjugated polymer/fullerene composites,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 1, no. 2-3, pp. 139–143, 2001.
- C. T. Chen, F. C. Hsu, S. W. Kuan, and Y. F. Chen, “The effect of C60 on the ZnO-nanorod surface in organicinorganic hybrid photovoltaics,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 95, no. 2, pp. 740–744, 2011.
- G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, J. Huang, and Y. Yang, “Manipulating regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene): [6,6]-phenyl-C 61-butyric acid methyl ester blends—route towards high efficiency polymer solar cells,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 30, pp. 3126–3140, 2007.
- P. H. Chen, H. H. Chen, R. Anbarasan, and L. S. Kuo, “Synthesis and characterization of Eosin Y functionalized MWCNT,” in Proceedings of the 4th IEEE Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Conference (NMDC '10), pp. 325–327, Monterey, Calif, USA, October 2010.
- D. Bi, F. Wu, Q. Qu et al., “Device performance related to amphiphilic modification at charge separation interface in hybrid solar cells with vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 9, pp. 3745–3752, 2011.
- D. C. Olson, Y. J. Lee, M. S. White et al., “Effect of polymer processing on the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/ZnO nanorod photovoltaic devices,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 111, no. 44, pp. 16640–16645, 2007.
- J. K. B. Thomas, V. Yana, L. Zhe, K. Dinesh, H. F. Richard, and R. M. Christopher, “White-light bias external quantum efficiency measurements of standard and inverted P3HT:PCBM photovoltaic cells,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 45, no. 41, Article ID 415101, 2012.
- T. W. Lee and O. O. Park, “The effect of different heat treatments on the luminescence efficiency of polymer light-emitting diodes,” Advanced Materials, vol. 12, no. 11, pp. 801–804, 2000.
- Y. M. Shen, C. S. Chen, P. C. Yang, S. Y. Ma, and C. F. Lin, “Improvement of surface morphology of thin films and performance by applying electric field on P3HT:PCBM based solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 99, pp. 263–267, 2012.