About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Photoenergy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 752605, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/752605
Research Article

Au/TiO2 Reusable Photocatalysts for Dye Degradation

1Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangore, Malaysia
2Department of Chemistry, Sree Neelakanta Government Sanskrit College, Pattambi, Kerala 679306, India

Received 1 July 2013; Revised 11 September 2013; Accepted 13 September 2013

Academic Editor: Jiaguo Yu

Copyright © 2013 Silija Padikkaparambil et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. R. I. Bickley, T. Gonzalez-Carreno, J. S. Lees, L. Palmisano, and R. J. D. Tilley, “A structural investigation of titanium dioxide photocatalysts,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 178–190, 1991. View at Scopus
  2. K. Nakata and A. Fujishima, “TiO2 photocatalysis: design and applications,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 169–189, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. A. Fujishima, T. N. Rao, and D. A. Tryk, “Titanium dioxide photocatalysis,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–21, 2000. View at Scopus
  4. H. L. Qin, G.-B. Gu, and S. Liu, “Preparation of nitrogen-doped titania using sol-gel technique and its photocatalytic activity,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 346–352, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. A. R. Gandhe and J. B. Fernandes, “A simple method to synthesize N-doped rutile titania with enhanced photocatalytic activity in sunlight,” Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 178, no. 9, pp. 2953–2957, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Zhang and W. C. Oh, “Kinetic study of the visible light-induced sonophotocatalytic degradation of MB solution in the presence of Fe/TiO2-MWCNT catalyst,” Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1589–1595, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Hattori, M. Yamamoto, H. Tada, and S. Ito, “A promoting effect of NH4F addition on the photocatalytic activity of sol-gel TiO2 films,” Chemistry Letters, no. 8, pp. 707–708, 1998. View at Scopus
  8. T. Umebayashi, T. Yamaki, H. Itoh, and K. Asai, “Band gap narrowing of titanium dioxide by sulfur doping,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 454–456, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. U. M. Khan, M. Al-Shahry, and W. B. Ingler Jr., “Efficient photochemical water splitting by a chemically modified n-TiO2,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5590, pp. 2243–2245, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. Sato, “Photocatalytic activity of NOx-doped TiO2 in the visible light region,” Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 123, no. 1-2, pp. 126–128, 1986. View at Scopus
  11. P. Zhou, J. Yu, and Y. Wang, “The new understanding on photocatalytic mechanism of visible-lightresponse N–S codoped anatase TiO2 by first-principles,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 142-143, pp. 45–53, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. T. Horikawa, M. Katoh, and T. Tomida, “Preparation and characterization of nitrogen-doped mesoporous titania with high specific surface area,” Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, vol. 110, no. 2-3, pp. 397–404, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. N. Binitha, Z. Yaakob, and R. Resmi, “Influence of synthesis methods on zirconium doped titania photocatalysts,” Central European Journal of Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 182–187, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. Zhou, J. Zhang, B. Cheng, and H. Yu, “Enhancement of visible-light photocatalytic activity of mesoporous Au–TiO2 nanocomposites by surface plasmon resonance,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2012, Article ID 532843, 10 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. P. V. Kamat, “Photochemistry on nonreactive and reactive (semiconductor) surfaces,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 267–300, 1993. View at Scopus
  16. C. Y. Wang, C. Y. Liu, X. Zheng, J. Chen, and T. Shen, “The surface chemistry of hybrid nanometer-sized particles. I. photochemical deposition of gold on ultrafine TiO2 particles,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 131, no. 1–3, pp. 271–280, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. Sclafani and J. M. Herrmann, “Influence of metallic silver and of platinum-silver bimetallic deposits on the photocatalytic activity of titania (anatase and rutile) in organic and aqueous media,” Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A, vol. 113, no. 2, pp. 181–188, 1998. View at Scopus
  18. A. Wold, “Photocatalytic properties of TiO2,” Chemistry of Materials, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 280–283, 1993. View at Scopus
  19. J. Yu, J. Xiong, B. Cheng, and S. Liu, “Fabrication and characterization of Ag–TiO2 multiphase nanocomposite thin films with enhanced photocatalytic activity,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 60, no. 3-4, pp. 211–221, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Link, C. Burda, Z. L. Wang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Electron dynamics in gold and gold-silver alloy nanoparticles: the influence of a nonequilibrium electron distribution and the size dependence of the electron-phonon relaxation,” Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 111, no. 3, pp. 1255–1264, 1999. View at Scopus
  21. C. Voisin, N. D. Fatti, D. Christofilos, and F. Vallee, “Ultrafast electron dynamics and optical nonlinearities in metal nanoparticles,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 105, no. 12, pp. 2264–2280, 2001. View at Scopus
  22. H. Zhu, X. Chen, Z. Zheng et al., “Mechanism of supported gold nanoparticles as photocatalysts under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation,” Chemical Communications, no. 48, pp. 7524–7526, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. H. Qin, G. Gu, and S. Liu, “Preparation of nitrogen-doped titania and its photocatalytic activity,” Rare Metals, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 254–262, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. N. Binitha, Z. Yaakob, M. R. Reshmi, S. Sugunan, V. K. Ambili, and A. A. Zetty, “Preparation and characterization of nano silver-doped mesoporous titania photocatalysts for dye degradation,” Catalysis Today, vol. 147, pp. S76–S80, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Riad, L. Saad, and S. Mikhail, “Influence of support type on the pore structure and the catalytic activity of Pt–Sn/ alumino-silicate catalysts,” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 262–271, 2008.
  26. M. Haruta, S. Tsubota, T. Kobayashi, H. Kageyama, M. J. Genet, and B. Delmon, “Low-temperature oxidation of CO over gold supported on TiO2, α-Fe2O3, and Co3O4,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 175–192, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. Belova, T. Borodina, H. Möhwald, and D. G. Shchukin, “The effect of high intensity ultrasound on the loading of Au nanoparticles into titanium dioxide,” Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 310–317, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. Luo, A. T. Cooper, and M. Fan, “Preparation and application of nanoglued binary titania-silica aerogel,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 161, no. 1, pp. 175–182, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. László Kőrösi, Szilvia Papp, Judit Ménesi et al., “Photocatalytic activity of silver-modified titanium dioxide at solid-liquid and solid-gas interfaces,” Colloids and Surfaces A, vol. 319, no. 1–3, pp. 136–142, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. F. Zhang, G. K. Wolf, X. Wang, and X. Liu, “Surface properties of silver doped titanium oxide films,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 65–70, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Y. Wu, J. Zhang, L. Xiao, and F. Chen, “Preparation and characterization of TiO2 photocatalysts by Fe3+ doping together with Au deposition for the degradation of organic pollutants,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 88, no. 3-4, pp. 525–532, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. Y.-C. Liu and L. C. Juang, “Electrochemical methods for the preparation of gold-coated TiO2 nanoparticles with variable coverages,” Langmuir, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 6951–6955, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. C. Henry, C. C. Hsueh, B. P. Timko, and M. S. Freund, “Reaction of pyrrole and chlorauric acid: a new route to composite colloids,” Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 148, no. 11, pp. D155–D162, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. T. Ioannides and X. E. Verykios, “Charge transfer in metal catalysts supported on doped TiO2: a theoretical approach based on metal-semiconductor contact theory,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 560–569, 1996. View at Scopus
  35. J. Huang, W. L. Dai, H. Li, and K. Fan, “Au/TiO2 as high efficient catalyst for the selective oxidative cyclization of 1,4-butanediol to γ-butyrolactone,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 252, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Silija, Z. Yaakob, M. A. Yarmo, S. Sugunan, and N. N. Binitha, “Visible light active anion codoped sol gel titania photocatalyst for pollutant degradation,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 252–259, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Barakat, V. Idakiev, R. Cousin et al., “Total oxidation of toluene over noble metal based Ce, Fe and Ni dopedtitanium oxides,” Applied Catalysis B, vol. 146, pp. 138–146, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. A. C. Gluhoi, N. Bogdanchikova, and B. E. Nieuwenhuys, “Alkali (earth)-doped Au/Al2O3 catalysts for the total oxidation of propene,” Journal of Catalysis, vol. 232, no. 1, pp. 96–101, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. O. Carp, C. L. Huisman, and A. Reller, “Photoinduced reactivity of titanium dioxide,” Progress in Solid State Chemistry, vol. 32, no. 1-2, pp. 33–177, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. V. Kamat, “Photophysical, photochemical and photocatalytic aspects of metal nanoparticles,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 106, no. 32, pp. 7729–7744, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. C. Liu and L. C. Juang, “Electrochemical methods for the preparation of gold-coated TiO2 nanoparticles with variable coverages,” Langmuir, vol. 20, no. 16, pp. 6951–6955, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. N. Sridewi, L. T. Tan, and K. Sudesh, “Solar photocatalytic decolorization and detoxification of industrial batik dye wastewater using P(3HB)-TiO2 nanocomposite films,” Clean—Soil, Air, Water, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 265–273, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. Marković, B. Jokić, Z. Šaponjić, B. Potkonjak, P. Jovančić, and M. Radetić, “Photocatalytic degradation of dye C.I. direct blue 78 using TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized on recycled wool-based nonwoven material,” Clean—Soil, Air, Water, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1002–1009, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Akbarzadeh, S. B. Umbarkar, R. S. Sonawane, S. Takle, and M. K. Dongare, “Vanadia-titania thin films for photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde in sunlight,” Applied Catalysis A, vol. 374, no. 1-2, pp. 103–109, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Jose, C. M. Sorensen, S. S. Rayalu, K. M. Shrestha, and K. J. Klabunde, “Au-TiO2 nanocomposites and efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production under UV-visible and visible light illuminations: a comparison of different crystalline forms of TiO2,” International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2013, Article ID 685614, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. A. Fujishima, K. Hashimoto, and T. Watanabe, TiO2 Photocatalysis: Fundamentals and Applications, Tokyo BKC, Tokyo, Japan, 1st edition, 1999.
  47. K. Ikeda, H. Sakai, R. Baba, K. Hashimoto, and A. Fujishima, “Photocatalytic reactions involving radical chain reactions using microelectrodes,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 101, no. 14, pp. 2617–2620, 1997. View at Scopus
  48. A. L. Linsebigler, G. Lu, and J. T. Yates Jr., “Photocatalysis on TiO2 surfaces: principles, mechanisms, and selected results,” Chemical Reviews, vol. 95, no. 3, pp. 735–758, 1995. View at Scopus
  49. B. G. Kwon and J. Yoon, “Experimental evidence of the mobility of hydroperoxyl/superoxide anion radicals from the illuminated TiO2 interface into the aqueous phase,” Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 667–670, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. J. Yu, G. Dai, Q. Xiang, and M. Jaroniec, “Fabrication and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of carbon self-doped TiO2 sheets with exposed {001} facets,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1049–1057, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. Q. Xiang, J. Yu, and P. K. Wong, “Quantitative characterization of hydroxyl radicals produced by various photocatalysts,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 357, no. 1, pp. 163–167, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Yu and J. Ran, “Facile preparation and enhanced photocatalytic H2-production activity of Cu(OH)2 cluster modified TiO2,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 1364–1371, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. Yu, G. Dai, and B. Cheng, “Effect of crystallization methods on morphology and photocatalytic activity of anodized TiO2 nanotube array films,” Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 114, no. 45, pp. 19378–19385, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. Yu, L. Yue, S. Liu, B. Huang, and X. Zhang, “Hydrothermal preparation and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous Au–TiO2 nanocomposite microspheres,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 334, no. 1, pp. 58–64, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. Q. Xiang, J. Yu, B. Cheng, and H. C. Ong, “Microwave-hydrothermal preparation and visible-light photoactivity of plasmonic photocatalyst Ag–TiO2 nanocomposite hollow spheres,” Chemistry, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1466–1474, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus