International Journal of Photoenergy http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Wide-Range Enhancement of Spectral Response by Highly Conductive and Transparent μc-SiOx:H Doped Layers in μc-Si:H and a-Si:H/μc-Si:H Thin-Film Solar Cells Wed, 24 Aug 2016 09:58:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/8172518/ The enhancement of optical absorption of silicon thin-film solar cells by the p- and n-type μc-SiOx:H as doped and functional layers was presented. The effects of deposition conditions and oxygen content on optical, electrical, and structural properties of μc-SiOx:H films were also discussed. Regarding the doped μc-SiOx:H films, the wide optical band gap () of 2.33 eV while maintaining a high conductivity of 0.2 S/cm could be obtained with oxygen incorporation of 20 at.%. Compared to the conventional μc-Si:H(p) as window layer in μc-Si:H single-junction solar cells, the application of μc-SiOx:H(p) increased the and led to a significant enhancement in the short-wavelength spectral response. Meanwhile, the employment of μc-SiOx:H(n) instead of conventional ITO as back reflecting layer (BRL) enhanced the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of μc-Si:H single-junction cell in the long-wavelength region, leading to a relative efficiency gain of 10%. Compared to the reference cell, the optimized a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem cell by applying p- and n-type μc-SiOx:H films achieved a of 1.37 V, of 10.55 mA/cm2, FF of 73.67%, and efficiency of 10.51%, which was a relative enhancement of 16%. Pei-Ling Chen, Po-Wei Chen, Min-Wen Hsiao, Cheng-Hang Hsu, and Chuang-Chuang Tsai Copyright © 2016 Pei-Ling Chen et al. All rights reserved. Heterogeneous Photochemistry: Solar Energy Conversion and Environmental Remediation Sun, 21 Aug 2016 08:24:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2083696/ Daniele Dondi, Sandra Babić, Irene Michael, Giovanni Palmisano, and Andrea Speltini Copyright © 2016 Daniele Dondi et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of a Textile-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Sun, 14 Aug 2016 07:14:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/3796074/ Solar energy conversion is an object of continuous research, focusing on improving the energy efficiency as well as the structure of photovoltaic cells. With efficiencies continuously increasing, state-of-the-art PV cells offer a good solution to harvest solar energy. However, they are still lacking the flexibility and conformability to be integrated into common objects or clothing. Moreover, many sun-exposed surface areas are textile-based such as garments, tents, truck coverings, boat sails, and home or outdoor textiles. Here, we present a new textile-based dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) which takes advantage from the properties inherent to fabrics: flexibility, low weight, and mechanical robustness. Due to the necessary thermostability during manufacturing, our DSC design is based on heat-resistant glass-fiber fabrics. After applying all needed layers, the overall structure was covered by a transparent and simultaneously conductive protective film. The light and still flexible large-area devices (up to 6 cm2 per individual unit) are working with efficiencies up to 1.8% at 1/5 of the sun. Stability tests assure no loss of photovoltaic activity over a period of at least seven weeks. Therefore, our technology has paved the way for a new generation of flexible photovoltaic devices, which can be used for the generation of power in the mentioned applications as well as in modern textile architecture. Klaus Opwis, Jochen Stefan Gutmann, Ana Rosa Lagunas Alonso, Maria Jesus Rodriguez Henche, Mikel Ezquer Mayo, Fanny Breuil, Enrico Leonardi, and Luca Sorbello Copyright © 2016 Klaus Opwis et al. All rights reserved. Study of Transition Region of p-Type SiO:H as Window Layer in a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H Multijunction Solar Cells Mon, 08 Aug 2016 16:27:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/3095758/ We have studied the p-type hydrogenated silicon oxide (:H) films prepared in the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition region as a window layer in a-Si:H/a-:H multijunction solar cells. By increasing the -to- flow ratio () from 10 to 167, the :H(p) films remained amorphous and exhibited an increased hydrogen content from 10.2% to 12.2%. Compared to the amorphous :H(p) film prepared at low , the :H(p) film deposited at of 167 exhibited a higher bandgap of 2.04 eV and a higher conductivity of 1.15 × 10−5 S/cm. With the employment of :H(p) films prepared by increasing from 10 to 167 in a-Si:H single-junction cell, the FF improved from 65% to 70% and the efficiency increased from 7.4% to 8.7%, owing to the enhanced optoelectrical properties of :H(p) and the improved p/i interface. However, the cell that employed :H(p) film with over 175 degraded the p/i interface and degraded the cell performance, which were arising from the onset of crystallization in the window layer. Compared to the cell using standard a-:H(p), the a-Si:H/a-:H tandem cells employing :H(p) deposited with of 167 showed an improved efficiency from 9.3% to 10.3%, with of 1.60 V, of 9.3 mA/cm2, and FF of 68.9%. Pei-Ling Chen, Po-Wei Chen, and Chuang-Chuang Tsai Copyright © 2016 Pei-Ling Chen et al. All rights reserved. A Population Classification Evolution Algorithm for the Parameter Extraction of Solar Cell Models Mon, 08 Aug 2016 13:19:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2174573/ To quickly and precisely extract the parameters for solar cell models, inspired by simplified bird mating optimizer (SBMO), a new optimization technology referred to as population classification evolution (PCE) is proposed. PCE divides the population into two groups, elite and ordinary, to reach a better compromise between exploitation and exploration. For the evolution of elite individuals, we adopt the idea of parthenogenesis in nature to afford a fast exploitation. For the evolution of ordinary individuals, we adopt an effective differential evolution strategy and a random movement of small probability is added to strengthen the ability to jump out of a local optimum, which affords a fast exploration. The proposed PCE is first estimated on 13 classic benchmark functions. The experimental results demonstrate that PCE yields the best results on 11 functions by comparing it with six evolutional algorithms. Then, PCE is applied to extract the parameters for solar cell models, that is, the single diode and the double diode. The experimental analyses demonstrate that the proposed PCE is superior when comparing it with other optimization algorithms for parameter identification. Moreover, PCE is tested using three different sources of data with good accuracy. Yiqun Zhang, Peijie Lin, Zhicong Chen, and Shuying Cheng Copyright © 2016 Yiqun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Carrier Formation Dynamics in Prototypical Organic Solar Cells as Investigated by Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Mon, 08 Aug 2016 13:19:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/9105460/ Subpicosecond transient absorption spectroscopy is a powerful tool used to clarify the exciton and carrier dynamics within the organic solar cells (OSCs). In this review article, we introduce a method to determine the absolute numbers of the excitons and carriers against delay time (t) only from the photoinduced absorption (PIA) and electrochemically induced absorption (EIA) spectra. Application of this method to rr-P3HT-, PTB7-, and SMDPPEH-based OSCs revealed common aspects of the carrier formation dynamics. First, the temporal evolution of the numbers of the excitons and carriers indicates that the late decay component of exciton does not contribute to the carrier formation process. This is probably because the late component has not enough excess energy to separate into the electron and hole across the donor/acceptor (D/A) interface. Secondly, the spectroscopy revealed that the exciton-to-carrier conversion process is insensitive to temperature. This observation, together with the fast carrier formation time in OSCs, is consistent with the hot exciton picture. Yutaka Moritomo, Kouhei Yonezawa, and Takeshi Yasuda Copyright © 2016 Yutaka Moritomo et al. All rights reserved. The Influence of Heating Time and Temperature on the Properties of CIGSSe Solar Cells Sun, 07 Aug 2016 12:56:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/4089369/ Nonencapsulated CIGSSe solar cells, with a silver grid, were exposed to different temperatures for various periods in order to measure the effect of the heat exposure in CIGSSe modules. The heat treatment time and temperature were varied during the experiments, which were executed at atmospheric conditions. In all the cases, after reaching a temperature of about 300°C, the IV measurement showed a reduction of 2-3% in terms of and . This is confirmed, respectively, by Raman and EQE measurements as well. The efficiency drop was −7%, −29%, and −48%, respectively, for 30 seconds, 300 seconds, and 600 seconds of exposure time. With temperatures larger than 225°C, the series resistance starts to increase exponentially and a secondary barrier becomes visible in the IV curve. This barrier prevents the extraction of electrons and consequently reducing the solar cells efficiency. Lock-in thermography demonstrated the formation of shunts on the mechanical scribes only for 300 and 600 seconds exposure times. The shunt resistance reduction is in the range of 5% for all time periods. Marco Giacomo Flammini, Nicola Debernardi, Maxime Le Ster, Brendan Dunne, Johan Bosman, and Mirjam Theelen Copyright © 2016 Marco Giacomo Flammini et al. All rights reserved. Accelerated Life Test for Photovoltaic Cells Using Concentrated Light Sun, 07 Aug 2016 08:24:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/9825683/ This paper presents a new method developed to significantly reduce the necessary time for the ageing tests for different types of photovoltaic cells. Two ageing factors have been applied to the photovoltaic cells: the concentrated light and the temperature. The maximum power of the photovoltaic cells was monitored during the ageing process. The electrical dc and ac parameters of the photovoltaic cells were measured and analyzed at 1 sun irradiance, before and after the test stress. During the test, two photovoltaic cells are kept at maximum power point and the other two are kept at open circuit voltage point. The method is validated through the results obtained for the monocrystalline silicon solar cell. Daniel Tudor Cotfas, Petru Adrian Cotfas, Dan Ion Floroian, and Laura Floroian Copyright © 2016 Daniel Tudor Cotfas et al. All rights reserved. Adhesion Improvement and Characterization of Magnetron Sputter Deposited Bilayer Molybdenum Thin Films for Rear Contact Application in CIGS Solar Cells Tue, 02 Aug 2016 11:18:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2124087/ Molybdenum (Mo) thin films are widely used as rear electrodes in copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells. The challenge in Mo deposition by magnetron sputtering lies in simultaneously achieving good adhesion to the substrates while retaining the electrical and optical properties. Bilayer Mo films, comprising five different thickness ratios of a high pressure (HP) deposited bottom layer and a low pressure (LP) deposited top layer, were deposited on 40 cm × 30 cm soda-lime glass substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. We focus on understanding the effects of the individual layer properties on the resulting bilayer Mo films, such as microstructure, surface morphology, and surface oxidation. We show that the thickness of the bottom HP Mo layer plays a major role in determining the micromechanical and physical properties of the bilayer Mo stack. Our studies reveal that a thicker HP Mo bottom layer not only improves the adhesion of the bilayer Mo, but also helps to improve the film crystallinity along the preferred [] direction. However, the surface roughness and the porosity of the bilayer Mo films are found to increase with increasing bottom layer thickness, which leads to lower optical reflectance and a higher probability for oxidation at the Mo surface. Weimin Li, Xia Yan, Armin G. Aberle, and Selvaraj Venkataraj Copyright © 2016 Weimin Li et al. All rights reserved. Sorbents Coupled to Solar Light TiO2-Based Photocatalysts for Olive Mill Wastewater Treatment Sun, 31 Jul 2016 11:56:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/8793841/ The aim of this work was to couple physical-chemical approaches with photocatalysis to reduce by a simple, inexpensive way the organic load of olive mill wastewater (OMW), mandatorily prior to the final discharge. Before irradiation, different sorbents were tested to remove part of the organic fraction, monitored by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD) and polyphenols (PP). Different low-cost, safe materials were tested, that is, Y zeolite (ZY), montmorillonite, and sepiolite. Considerable decrease of organic load was obtained, with the highest abatement (40%) provided by ZY (10 g L−1 in 1 : 10 OMW). Use of the three sorbents, in particular ZY, was convenient compared to commercial activated carbons. UV light photocatalytic tests, performed using P25 TiO2 on ZY-treated OMW, yielded quantitative remediation (ca. 90%). Also solar light provided significative results, PP being lowered by 74% and COD by 56%. Sol-gel anatase TiO2 and N-doped anatase TiO2 were also tested, obtaining good results, around 80% PP and 40% COD. Finally, an integrated approach was experimented by ZY-supported anatase TiO2 (TiO2@ZY). This photoreactive sorbent allowed one-pot treatment of OMW significative abatements of PP (77%) and COD (39%) with only 1 g L−1 material, under solar light. Andrea Speltini, Federica Maraschi, Michela Sturini, Valentina Caratto, Maurizio Ferretti, and Antonella Profumo Copyright © 2016 Andrea Speltini et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Hydrocalumite-Like Compounds as Catalyst Precursors in the Photodegradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Sun, 31 Jul 2016 07:20:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/5256941/ Three hydrocalumite-like compounds in a Ca/Al ratio of 2 containing nitrate and acetate anions in the interlaminar region were prepared by a simple, economic, and environmentally friendly method. The solids were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, nitrogen adsorption-desorption at −196°C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-Vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS). The catalytic activity of the calcined solids at 700°C was tested in the photodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) where 57% degradation of 2,4-D (40 ppm) and a mineralization percentage of 60% were accomplished within 150 minutes. The photocatalytic properties were attributed to mayenite hydration, since the oxide ions in the cages are capable of reacting with water to form hydroxide anions capable of breaking down the 2,4-D molecules. Manuel Sánchez-Cantú, Clara Barcelos-Santiago, Claudia M. Gomez, Esthela Ramos-Ramírez, Ma. de Lourdes Ruiz Peralta, Nancy Tepale, Valeria J. González-Coronel, A. Mantilla, and Francisco Tzompantzi Copyright © 2016 Manuel Sánchez-Cantú et al. All rights reserved. Heuristic Storage System Sizing for Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles Powered by Photovoltaic Charging Station Thu, 28 Jul 2016 13:25:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/3980284/ This paper discusses the utilisation of PV systems for electric vehicles charging for transportation requirements of smart cities. The gap between PV power output and vehicles charging demand is highly variable. Therefore, there is a need for additional support from a public distribution grid or a storage device in order to handle the residual power. Long term measurement data retrieved from a charging station for 15 vehicles equipped with a PV system were used in the research. Low and high irradiation seasons influenced the PV output. The charging demand of electric vehicles varied over the course of a year and was correlated to weather conditions. Therefore, the sizing and performance of a supportive storage device should be evaluated in a statistical manner using long period observations. Erik Blasius, Erik Federau, Przemyslaw Janik, and Zbigniew Leonowicz Copyright © 2016 Erik Blasius et al. All rights reserved. Multicore PSO Operation for Maximum Power Point Tracking of a Distributed Photovoltaic System under Partially Shading Condition Mon, 25 Jul 2016 11:57:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/9754514/ This paper identifies the partial shading problem of a PV module using the one-diode model and simulating the characteristics exhibiting multiple-peak power output condition that is similar to a PV array. A modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on the suggested search-agent deployment, retracking condition, and multicore operation is proposed in order to continuously locate the global maximum power point for the PV system. Partial shading simulation results for up to 16 modules in series/parallel formats are presented. A distributed PV system consisting of up to 8 a-silicon thin film PV panels and also having a dedicated DC/DC buck converter on each of the modules is tested. The converter reaches its steady state voltage output in 10 ms. However for MPPT operation, voltage, and current measurement interval is set to 20 ms to avoid unnecessary noise from the entire electric circuit. Based on the simulation and experiment results, each core of the proposed PSO operation should control no more than 4 PV modules in order to have the maximum tracking accuracy and minimum overall tracking time. Tracking for the global maximum power point of a distributed PV system under various partial shading conditions can be done within 1.3 seconds. Ru-Min Chao, Ahmad Nasirudin, I-Kai Wang, and Po-Lung Chen Copyright © 2016 Ru-Min Chao et al. All rights reserved. Solar Energy Validation for Strategic Investment Planning via Comparative Data Mining Methods: An Expanded Example within the Cities of Turkey Mon, 04 Jul 2016 12:32:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/8506193/ Energy supply together with the data management is one of the key challenges of our century. Specifically, to decrease the climate change effects as energy requirement increases day by day poses a serious dilemma. It can be adequately reconciled with innovative data management in (renewable) energy technologies. The new environmental-friendly planning methods and investments that are discussed by researchers, governments, NGOs, and companies will give the basic and most important variables in shaping the future. We use modern data mining methods (SOM and -Means) and official governmental statistics for clustering cities according to their consumption similarities, the level of welfare, and growth rate and compare them with their potential of renewable resources with the help of Rapid Miner 5.1 and MATLAB software. The data mining was chosen to make the possible secret relations visible within the variables that can be unpredictable at first sight. Here, we aim to see the success level of the chosen algorithms in validation process simultaneously with the utilized software. Additionally, we aim to improve innovative approach for decision-makers and stakeholders about which renewable resource is the most suitable for an exact region by taking care of different variables at the same time. Oya H. Yuregir and Cagri Sagiroglu Copyright © 2016 Oya H. Yuregir and Cagri Sagiroglu. All rights reserved. Solar Energy for a Solvent Recovery Stage in a Biodiesel Production Process Mon, 04 Jul 2016 09:52:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/1048095/ Recent research and development of clean energy have become essential due to the global climate change problem, which is caused largely by fossil fuels burning. Therefore, biodiesel, a renewable and ecofriendly biofuel with less environmental impact than diesel, continues expanding worldwide. The process for biodiesel production involves a significant energy demand, specifically in the methanol recovery stage through a flash separator and a distillation column. Traditionally, the energy required for this process is supplied by fossil fuels. It represents an opportunity for the application of renewable energy. Hence, the current study presents a system of thermal energy storage modeled in TRNSYS® and supported by simulations performed in ASPEN PLUS®. The aim of this research was to supply solar energy for a methanol recovery stage in a biodiesel production process. The results highlighted that it is feasible to meet 91% of the energy demand with an array of 9 parabolic trough collectors. The array obtained from the simulation was 3 in series and 3 in parallel, with a total area of 118.8 m2. It represents an energy saving of 70 MWh per year. José A. León, Gisela Montero, Marcos Coronado, José R. Ayala, Conrado García, Aníbal Luna, and Ana M. Vázquez Copyright © 2016 José A. León et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Boron Thermal Diffusion from Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposited Boron Silicate Glass for N-Type Solar Cell Process Application Sun, 03 Jul 2016 11:35:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/8183673/ An atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) system has been newly developed for boron silicate glass (BSG) film deposition dedicating to solar cell manufacturing. Using the system, thermal boron diffusion from the BSG film is investigated and confirmed in terms of process stability for surface property before BSG deposition and BSG thickness. No degradation in carrier lifetime is also confirmed. A boron diffusion simulator has been newly developed and demonstrated for optimization of this process. Then, the boron thermal diffusion from AP-CVD BSG is considered to be the suitable method for N-type silicon solar cell manufacturing. Ikuo Kurachi and Kentaro Yoshioka Copyright © 2016 Ikuo Kurachi and Kentaro Yoshioka. All rights reserved. Data-Driven Photovoltaic System Modeling Based on Nonlinear System Identification Thu, 30 Jun 2016 07:15:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2923731/ Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy sources are rapidly gaining potential growth and popularity compared to conventional fossil fuel sources. As the merging of PV systems with existing power sources increases, reliable and accurate PV system identification is essential, to address the highly nonlinear change in PV system dynamic and operational characteristics. This paper deals with the identification of a PV system characteristic with a switch-mode power converter. Measured input-output data are collected from a real PV panel to be used for the identification. The data are divided into estimation and validation sets. The identification methodology is discussed. A Hammerstein-Wiener model is identified and selected due to its suitability to best capture the PV system dynamics, and results and discussion are provided to demonstrate the accuracy of the selected model structure. Ayedh Alqahtani, Mohammad Alsaffar, Mohamed El-Sayed, and Bader Alajmi Copyright © 2016 Ayedh Alqahtani et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Shunt Losses in Industrial Silicon Solar Cells Wed, 29 Jun 2016 11:46:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/8029608/ Shunting is one of the key issues in industrial silicon solar cells which degrade cell performance. This paper presents an approach for investigation of the performance degradation caused by the presence of ohmic extended shunts at various locations in industrial silicon solar cells. Location, nature, and area of the shunts existing in solar cells have been examined by lock-in infrared thermography (LIT). Based on LIT images and experimental dark I-V curves of solar cell, shunted cell has been modeled, from which loss in fill factor and efficiency due to the specific shunt has been obtained. Distributed diode modeling approach of solar cell has been exploited for obtaining simulation results which were supported by experimental measurements. The presented approach is useful to estimate performance reduction due to specific shunts and to quantify losses, which can help in improving the efficiency of solar cell during production by tackling the shunt related problems based on the level of severity and tolerance. P. Somasundaran and R. Gupta Copyright © 2016 P. Somasundaran and R. Gupta. All rights reserved. Improving the Performance of a Semitransparent BIPV by Using High-Reflectivity Heat Insulation Film Mon, 27 Jun 2016 16:31:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/4174216/ Currently, standard semitransparent photovoltaic (PV) modules can largely replace architectural glass installed in the windows, skylights, and facade of a building. Their main features are power generation and transparency, as well as possessing a heat insulating effect. Through heat insulation solar glass (HISG) encapsulation technology, this study improved the structure of a typical semitransparent PV module and explored the use of three types of high-reflectivity heat insulation films to form the HISG building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) systems. Subsequently, the authors analyzed the influence of HISG structures on the optical, thermal, and power generation performance of the original semitransparent PV module and the degree to which enhanced performance is possible. The experimental results indicated that the heat insulation performance and power generation of HISGs were both improved. Selecting an appropriate heat insulation film so that a larger amount of reflective solar radiation is absorbed by the back side of the HISG can yield greater enhancement of power generation. The numerical results conducted in this study also indicated that HISG BIPV system not only provides the passive energy needed for power loading in a building, but also decreases the energy consumption of the HVAC system in subtropical and temperate regions. Huei-Mei Liu, Chin-Huai Young, Der-Juinn Horng, Yih-Chearng Shiue, and Shin-Ku Lee Copyright © 2016 Huei-Mei Liu et al. All rights reserved. Energy Storage Requirements for PV Power Ramp Rate Control in Northern Europe Mon, 27 Jun 2016 12:19:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2863479/ Photovoltaic (PV) generators suffer from fluctuating output power due to the highly fluctuating primary energy source. With significant PV penetration, these fluctuations can lead to power system instability and power quality problems. The use of energy storage systems as fluctuation compensators has been proposed as means to mitigate these problems. In this paper, the behavior of PV power fluctuations in Northern European climatic conditions and requirements for sizing the energy storage systems to compensate them have been investigated and compared to similar studies done in Southern European climate. These investigations have been performed through simulations that utilize measurements from the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant in Finland. An enhanced energy storage charging control strategy has been developed and tested. Energy storage capacity, power, and cycling requirements have been derived for different PV generator sizes and power ramp rate requirements. The developed control strategy leads to lesser performance requirements for the energy storage systems compared to the methods presented earlier. Further, some differences on the operation of PV generators in Northern and Southern European climates have been detected. Julius Schnabel and Seppo Valkealahti Copyright © 2016 Julius Schnabel and Seppo Valkealahti. All rights reserved. Impact of Overlapping Fe/TiO2 Prepared by Sol-Gel and Dip-Coating Process on CO2 Reduction Thu, 23 Jun 2016 11:44:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2392581/ Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe/TiO2) film photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating process to extend its photoresponsivity to the visible spectrum. To promote the CO2 reduction performance with the photocatalyst, some types of base materials used for coating Fe/TiO2, which were netlike glass fiber and Cu disc, were investigated. The characterization of prepared Fe/TiO2 film coated on netlike glass fiber and Cu disc was analyzed by SEM and EPMA. In addition, the CO2 reduction performance of Fe/TiO2 film coated on netlike glass disc, Cu disc, and their overlap was tested under a Xe lamp with or without ultraviolet (UV) light, respectively. The results show that the concentration of produced CO increases by Fe doping irrespective of base material used under the illumination condition with UV light as well as that without UV light. Since the electron transfer between two overlapped photocatalysts is promoted, the peak concentration of CO for the Fe/TiO2 double overlapping is approximately 1.5 times as large as the Fe/TiO2 single overlapping under the illumination condition with UV light, while the promotion ratio is approximately 1.1 times under that without UV light. Akira Nishimura, Xuyan Zhao, Takuya Hayakawa, Noriaki Ishida, Masafumi Hirota, and Eric Hu Copyright © 2016 Akira Nishimura et al. All rights reserved. Characterization of Photovoltaic Panels by means of Thermograph Analysis Tue, 21 Jun 2016 08:07:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/8560728/ Solar panels have become attractive in order to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. Their increased module efficiencies have caused not only a massive production but also a sensible drop on sale prices. Methods of characterization, instrumentation for in situ measurements, defect monitoring, process control, and performance are required. A temperature characterization method by means of thermograph analysis is exposed in this paper. The method was applied to multicrystalline modules, and the characterization was made with respect to two different variables, first a thermal transient and second a characterization with respect to the current. The method is useful in order to detect hot spots caused by mismatch conditions in electrical parameters. The description, results, and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. Noe Samano, José Alfredo Padilla-Medina, and Nimrod Vázquez Copyright © 2016 Noe Samano et al. All rights reserved. Design and Analysis of an Optical Coupler for Concentrated Solar Light Using Optical Fibers in Residential Buildings Mon, 20 Jun 2016 14:11:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/3176052/ Concentrated sunlight that is transmitted by fiber optics has been used for generating electricity, heat, and daylight. On the other hand, multijunction photovoltaic cells provide high efficiency for generating electricity from highly concentrated sunlight. This study deals with designing and simulating a high-efficiency coupler, employing a mathematical model to connect sunlight with fiber optics for multiple applications. The coupler concentrates and distributes irradiated light from a primary concentrator. In this study, a parabolic dish was used as the primary concentrator, a coupler that contains nine components called a compound truncated pyramid and a cone (CTPC), all of which were mounted on a plate. The material of both the CTPC and the plate was BK7 optical glass. Fiber optics cables and multijunction photovoltaic cells were connected to the cylindrical part of the CTPC. The fibers would transmit the light to the building to provide heat and daylight, whereas multijunction photovoltaic cells generate electricity. Theoretical and simulation results showed high performance of the designed coupler. The efficiency of the coupler was as high as , whereas the rim angle of the dish increased to an optimum angle. Distributed sunlight in the coupler increased the flexibility and simplicity of the design, resulting in a system that provided concentrated electricity, heat, and lighting for residential buildings. Afshin Aslian, Barmak Honarvar Shakibaei Asli, Chin Joo Tan, Faisal Rafiq Mahamd Adikan, and Alireza Toloei Copyright © 2016 Afshin Aslian et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Different MPPT Algorithms with a Proposed One Using a Power Estimator for Grid Connected PV Systems Mon, 20 Jun 2016 09:46:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/1728398/ Photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most important energy sources since it is clean and inexhaustible. It is important to operate PV energy conversion systems in the maximum power point (MPP) to maximize the output energy of PV arrays. An MPPT control is necessary to extract maximum power from the PV arrays. In recent years, a large number of techniques have been proposed for tracking the maximum power point. This paper presents a comparison of different MPPT methods and proposes one which used a power estimator and also analyses their suitability for systems which experience a wide range of operating conditions. The classic analysed methods, the incremental conductance (IncCond), perturbation and observation (P&O), ripple correlation (RC) algorithms, are suitable and practical. Simulation results of a single phase NPC grid connected PV system operating with the aforementioned methods are presented to confirm effectiveness of the scheme and algorithms. Simulation results verify the correct operation of the different MPPT and the proposed algorithm. Manel Hlaili and Hfaiedh Mechergui Copyright © 2016 Manel Hlaili and Hfaiedh Mechergui. All rights reserved. Sunlight-Induced Photochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue by Water-Soluble Carbon Nanorods Mon, 20 Jun 2016 09:15:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2583821/ Water-soluble graphitic hollow carbon nanorods (wsCNRs) are exploited for their light-driven photochemical activities under outdoor sunlight. wsCNRs were synthesized by a simple pyrolysis method from castor seed oil, without using any metal catalyst or template. wsCNRs exhibited the light-induced photochemical degradation of methylene blue used as a model pollutant by the generation of singlet oxygen species. Herein, we described a possible degradation mechanism of methylene blue under the irradiation of visible photons via the singlet oxygen-superoxide anion pathway. Anshu Bhati, Anupriya Singh, Kumud Malika Tripathi, and Sumit Kumar Sonkar Copyright © 2016 Anshu Bhati et al. All rights reserved. Enhanced Light Scattering by Preferred Orientation Control of Ga Doped ZnO Films Prepared through MOCVD Wed, 15 Jun 2016 12:01:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/1217576/ We have explored the effective approach to fabricate GZO/ZnO films that can make the pyramidal surface structures of GZO films for effective light scattering by employing a low temperature ZnO buffer layer prior to high temperature GZO film growth. The GZO thin films exhibit the typical preferred growth orientations along the (002) crystallographic direction at deposition temperature of 400°C and SEM showed that column-like granule structure with planar surface was formed. In contrast, GZO films with a pyramidal texture surface were successfully developed by the control of (110) preferred orientation. We found that the light diffuse transmittance of the film with a GZO (800 nm)/ZnO (766 nm) exhibited 13% increase at 420 nm wavelength due to the formed large grain size of the pyramidal texture surface. Thus, the obtained GZO films deposited over ZnO buffer layer have high potential for use as front TCO layers in Si-based thin film solar cells. These results could develop the potential way to fabricate TCO based ZnO thin film using MOCVD or sputtering techniques by depositing a low temperature ZnO layer to serve as a template for high temperature GZO film growth. The GZO films exhibited satisfactory optoelectric properties. Long Giang Bach, Nam Giang Nguyen, and Van Thi Thanh Ho Copyright © 2016 Long Giang Bach et al. All rights reserved. Aluminum-Doped SnO2 Hollow Microspheres as Photoanode Materials for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Thu, 09 Jun 2016 08:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/3129896/ Al doped SnO2 microspheres were prepared through hydrothermal method. As-prepared SnO2 microspheres were applied as photoanode materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The properties of the assembled DSCs were significantly improved, especially the open-circuit voltage. The reason for the enhancement was explored through the investigation of dark current curves and electrochemistry impedance spectra. These results showed that the Al doping significantly increased the reaction resistance of recombination reactions and restrained the dark current. The efficient lifetime of photoexcited electrons was also obviously lengthened. Binghua Xu, Zeng Chen, and Shengjun Li Copyright © 2016 Binghua Xu et al. All rights reserved. Efficiency Improvement of Three-Phase Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverters for Photovoltaic Systems Tue, 07 Jun 2016 12:46:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/2162190/ Medium-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems using cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverters have a capability to perform individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for each PV panel or each small group of panels, resulting in minimization of both power losses from panel mismatch and effect of partial shading. They also provide high power quality, modularity, and possibility of eliminating dc-dc boost stage and line-frequency transformer. However, each PV panel in the system is subjected to a double-line-frequency voltage ripple at the dc-link which reduces the MPPT efficiency. This paper proposes a dc-link voltage ripple reduction by third-harmonic zero-sequence voltage injection for improving the MPPT efficiency. Moreover, a control method to achieve individual MPPT control of each inverter cell is also presented. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed methods were verified by computer simulation. Nuntawat Thitichaiworakorn, Nattapon Chayopitak, and Natchpong Hatti Copyright © 2016 Nuntawat Thitichaiworakorn et al. All rights reserved. Photoinduced C-C Cross-Coupling of Aryl Chlorides and Inert Arenes Tue, 07 Jun 2016 08:36:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/5632613/ Here we report a facile, efficient, and catalyst-free method to realize C-C cross-coupling of aryl chlorides and inert arenes under UV light irradiation. The aryl radical upon homolytic cleavage of C-Cl bond initiated the nucleophilic substitution reaction with inert arenes to give biaryl products. This mild reaction mode can also be applied to other synthetic reactions, such as the construction of C-N bonds and trifluoromethylated compounds. Lele Wang, Wenzhao Qiu, Hongge Shao, and Rusheng Yuan Copyright © 2016 Lele Wang et al. All rights reserved. Photocatalysis in Environment, Energy, and Sustainability Sun, 05 Jun 2016 07:50:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijp/2016/5436847/ Wanjun Wang, Po Keung Wong, Suresh C. Pillai, Tian Ming, and Patrick S. M. Dunlop Copyright © 2016 Wanjun Wang et al. All rights reserved.