Table 1: Selected clinical trials comparing BP values in different groups of children.

StudyPatients’ ageStudy populationControl groupMain conclusions

Pharoah et al. [17], United Kingdom, 199815 years128 VLBW128 NBWThe systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The diastolic pressure was also higher but the difference was not significant.
Kistner et al. [18], Sweden, 200026 years33 (15 gestational week <32; 18 birth weight ≤2600 g)17 NBWPreterms had significantly higher casual systolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels compared to controls.
Doyle et al. [19], Australia, 200318 years156 VLBW38 NBWBP was significantly higher in late adolescence in VLBW survivors than in NBW subjects. Growth restriction in utero was not significantly related to BP in VLBW survivors.
Hack et al. [20], United States, 200520 years195 VLBW208 NBWVLBW individuals had a higher mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) than normal birth weight (NBW) control individuals (114 +/− 11 versus 112 +/− 13 mm Hg; ). DBP did not differ between groups. The rates of hypertension did not differ significantly between the groups.
Keijzer-Veen et al. [9], Netherlands, 200519 years588 (418 gestational week <32; 170 gestational week ≥32 and birth weight <1500 g)The prevalence of hypertension is higher in individuals who were born preterm when compared with the general population. Birth weight SDS and gestational age both did not affect the risk for hypertension.
Rodriguez-Soriano et al. [10], Spain, 20056–12 years40 ELBW43 NBWSystolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures did not differ between cases and controls.
Shankaran et al. [11], United States, 20066 years144 with IUGR372 full-termIn term infants IUGR was linked to risk of hypertension in early childhood. Relative risk compared to control group was 1,8.
Bayrakci et al. [12], Turkey, 20075–17 years41 preterms (<37 weeks of gestation)27 full-termThere is an inverse correlation between high nighttime SBP SDS and birth weight. Lightness for date was discovered as a major predictor of both nocturnal and daytime SBP SDS. Nocturnal SBP SDS was closely correlated with 24 h HR SDS. 24 h HR SDS was elevated in nondippers. Preterms have increased nocturnal SBP resulting in greater frequency of nondippers.
Pyhälä et al. [21], Finland, 200923 years44 VLBW37 NBWIn comparison with the control group the VLBW group had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure but the group differences were not statistically significant.
Lurbe et. al [22], spain, 200910–18 years114 LBW308 NBWObese low birth weight subjects had the highest systolic BP values over the 24 hours, whereas the nonobese subjects in the absence of low BW had the lowest values. No interaction existed between obesity and low birth weight in the office or ambulatory systolic blood pressure.
Keijzer-Veen et al. [13], Netherlands, 201020 years50 very premature individuals <32 weeks of gestation (21 SGA, 29 AGA)30 full-termSGA had lower weight and height than AGA.there were No differences in BMI were found. In SGA more mothers had hypertension during pregnancy. Men had significantly higher SBP and lower HR. AGA–higher daytime SBP, baseline SBP, SBP load. SGA versus AGA. There were no differences in SBP, DBP, HF, and MAP loads. Newborns born very prematurely have higher SBPs, but IUGR has no effect on it.
Hovi et al. [14], Finland, 201018–27 years118 VLBW120 NBWHigher rates of hypertension and higher 24-hour blood pressure in VLBW group were observed.
Vohr et al. [15], United States, 201016 years296 (birth weight <1250 g)95 NBWThe primary predictors of increased systolic blood pressure were weight gain velocity between birth and 36 months, pre-eclampsia, nonwhite race, and male gender. Predictors of diastolic blood pressure were weight gain velocity between birth and 36 months, brain injury, and male gender.
Fattal-Valevski et al. [23], Israel, 20118–12 years64 IUGR (mean birth weight ; 42% preterms)64 NBWSystolic blood pressure values were significantly lower in the IUGR group compared to the controls. There was no difference in diastolic blood pressure values. In the IUGR group, systolic blood pressure correlated significantly with current weight and body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure with weight gain between age 2 and 4 years. None of the blood pressure values correlated with birth weight.
Kwinta et al. [16], Poland 20116–7 years78 ELBW38 NBWHypertension was diagnosed in 10.3% of patient with ELBW. In control group hypertension was present in 5.2% cases but the difference was not significant. Statistically significant differences within night-time mean blood pressure, night-time blood pressure dipping, and mean systolic and diastolic BP load were detected