Table 1: Methods of determination of LVO diameter, flow velocity, and reported mean (SD) values in mL/kg/min.

LVO diameterLVO flow velocityAngle correctionTime after birthLVO (mL/kg/min)
Preterm infantsTerm infants
MeanSD MeanSD

Alverson et al., 1983 [10]Ascending Aorta M mode trailing edge parasternal long axisAscending Aorta unguided CW doppler high suprasternal viewno1–5 days8221561423647

Walther et al., 1985 [6]Aortic Root M mode leading edge parasternal long axisAscending Aorta unguided CW doppler high suprasternal viewno1–5 days59260356223030

Hirsimäki et al., 1988 [16]Aortic Root M mode parasternal short axisAscending Aorta unguided CW doppler high suprasternal viewno24 hours2227359

Winberg et al., 1989 [17]Ascending Aorta M mode trailing edge parasternal long axisAscending Aorta unguided CW doppler high suprasternal viewno24 hours1618735

Walther et al., 1990 [18]Ascending aorta 2D internal diameter parasternal long axisAscending Aorta unguided CW doppler high suprasternal viewnounknown26250411625041

Agata et al., 1991 [19]Ascending Aorta M mode leading edge parasternal long axisAscending Aorta 2D guided PW doppler apical viewno24 hours3424556

Mandelbaum et al., 1991 [20]Aortic Annulus 2D internal diameter parasternal long axisAscending Aorta 2D guided PW doppler apical viewno5-48 hours1815040

Evans and Kluckow, 1996 [7]Ascending Aorta 2D internal diameter parasternal long axisAscending Aorta 2D guided PW doppler apical view<20°24 hours20233#55

Evans et al., 1996 [7]Ascending Aorta 2D internal diameter parasternal long axisAscending Aorta 2D guided PW doppler apical view<20°4 days20282#60

Pladys et al., 1999 [21]Ascending Aorta M mode trailing edge parasternal long axisAscending Aorta 2D guided PW doppler subcostal viewno24 hours17245*60

Tsai-Goodman et al., 2001 [22]Aortic Root M mode trailing edge parasternal long axisAscending Aorta unguided CW doppler high suprasternal viewno24 hours1024116241

Murase et al., 2002 [23]Ascending Aorta 2D internal diameter parasternal long axisAscending Aorta 2D guided PW doppler high suprasternal viewno24 hours11 37

Groves et al., 2008 [24]Ascending Aorta 2D internal diameter parasternal long axisAscending Aorta 2D guided PW doppler apical view<20°24 hours43288×80

Sloot et al., 2010 [25]Aortic Annulus 2D internal diameter parasternal long axisAscending Aorta 2D guided PW doppler subcostal viewno7 days5729674

#Preterm infants with mild respiratory distress, *Preterm infants with normal blood pressure, Preterm nonventilated infants, and ×Preterm infants with ductal size < median ductal size for cohort.