Table 5: Studies investigating atrial shunt in newborn infants.

Population studiedTimingFindings

Fukazawa et al., 1988 [50]102 term and preterm infantsFollowup till closure24% open at 1 week
13% open at 1 month
median diameter 4 mm

Hannu et al., 1989 [51]37 healthy term infants 24 hours41% closed
57% LR shunt
2% BD shunt

Hiraishi et al., 1991 [52]36 healthy term infants4-5 days53% closed
28% LR shunt
19% BD shunt

Evans and Iyer, 1994 [53]51 preterm infants < 1500 grams with mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hoursRegular during the first 3 weeks and then on indication until discharge46% < 3 mm, early closure
23% < 3 mm, persisting
18% > 3 mm, early closure
13% > 3 mm, persisting

Markhorst et al., 1995 [54]20 healthy term infants6 days90% closed
10% LR shunt
0% RL shunt

Riggs et al., 2000 [55]80 term and preterm infants with an atrial shuntFollowup till closuremedian closure time in term infants 119 days
median closure time in preterm infants 752 days
initial diameter not influencing closure