- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 891094, 5 pages
The Effects of Hypertension on Cognitive Function in Children and Adolescents
1Pediatric Nephrology, Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA
2The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
Received 14 October 2011; Revised 9 December 2011; Accepted 12 December 2011
Academic Editor: Esra Baskin
Copyright © 2012 Stephen D. Cha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. Din-Dzietham, Y. Liu, M. V. Bielo, and F. Shamsa, “High blood pressure trends in children and adolescents in national surveys, 1963 to 2002,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 13, pp. 1488–1496, 2007.
- B. Falkner, S. R. Daniels, J. T. Flynn et al., “The fourth report on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. 555–576, 2004.
- M. B. Lande, J. M. Kaczorowski, P. Auinger, G. J. Schwartz, and M. Weitzman, “Elevated blood pressure and decreased cognitive function among school-age children and adolescents in the United States,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 143, no. 6, pp. 720–724, 2003.
- H. R. Adams, P. G. Szilagyi, L. Gebhardt, and M. B. Lande, “Learning and attention problems among children with pediatric primary hypertension,” Pediatrics, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. e1425–e1429, 2010.
- I. Krause, R. Cleper, Y. Kovalski, L. Sinai, and M. Davidovits, “Changes in behavior as an early symptom of renovascular hypertension in children,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 2271–2274, 2009.
- C. E. Coffey, Pediatric Neuropsychiatry, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2006.
- C. Elbro, M. Dalby, and S. Maarbjerg, “Language-learning impairments: a 30-year follow-up of language-impaired children with and without psychiatric, neurological and cognitive difficulties,” International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 437–448, 2011.
- M. Glogowska, S. Roulstone, T. J. Peters, and P. Enderby, “Early speech- and language-impaired children: linguistic, literacy, and social outcomes,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 489–494, 2006.
- C. J. Johnson, J. H. Beitchman, and E. B. Brownlie, “Twenty-year follow-up of children with and without speech-language impairments: family, educational, occupational, and quality of life outcomes,” American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 51–65, 2010.
- M. Sharma, J. C. Kupferman, Y. Brosgol et al., “The effects of hypertension on the paediatric brain: a justifiable concern,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 933–940, 2010.
- T. A. Manolio, J. Olson, and W. T. Longstreth, “Hypertension and cognitive function: pathophysiologic effects of hypertension on the brain,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 255–261, 2003.
- J. R. Jennings, M. F. Muldoon, C. M. Ryan et al., “Cerebral blood flow in hypertensive patients: an initial report of reduced and compensatory blood flow responses during performance of two cognitive tasks,” Hypertension, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1216–1222, 1998.
- J. R. Jennings, “Autoregulation of blood pressure and thought: preliminary results of an application of brain imaging to psychosomatic medicine,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 384–395, 2003.
- R. K. Garg, “Posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 77, no. 903, pp. 24–28, 2001.
- J. Le, D. Zhang, S. Menees, J. Chen, and G. Raghuveer, “Vascular age is advanced in children with atherosclerosis-promoting risk factors,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 8–14, 2010.
- M. B. Lande, N. L. Carson, J. Roy, and C. C. Meagher, “Effects of childhood primary hypertension on carotid intima media thickness: a matched controlled study,” Hypertension, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 2006.
- M. B. Lande, T. A. Pearson, R. P. Vermilion, P. Auinger, and I. D. Fernandez, “Elevated blood pressure, race/ethnicity, and C-reactive protein levels in children and adolescents,” Pediatrics, vol. 122, no. 6, pp. 1252–1257, 2008.
- J. M. Noble, J. J. Manly, N. Schupf, M. X. Tang, R. Mayeux, and J. A. Luchsinger, “Association of C-reactive protein with cognitive impairment,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 87–92, 2010.
- A. P. Shapiro, R. E. Miller, and H. E. King, “Behavioral consequences of mild hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 355–360, 1982.
- R. E. Miller, A. P. Shapiro, and H. E. King, “Effect of antihypertensive treatment on the behavioral consequences of elevated blood pressure,” Hypertension, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 202–208, 1984.
- M. F. Elias, M. A. Robbins, and N. R. Schultz, “Clinical significance of cognitive performance by hypertensive patients,” Hypertension, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 192–197, 1987.
- S. R. Waldstein, C. M. Ryan, S. B. Manuck, D. K. Parkinson, and E. J. Bromet, “Learning and memory function in men with untreated blood pressure elevation,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 513–517, 1991.
- J. A. Suhr, J. C. Stewart, and C. R. France, “The relationship between blood pressure and cognitive performance in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III),” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 291–297, 2004.
- L. Kilander, H. Nyman, M. Boberg, L. Hansson, and H. Lithell, “Hypertension is related to cognitive impairment: a 20-year follow-up of 999 men,” Hypertension, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 780–786, 1998.
- T. G. Pickering, “Mental stress as a causal factor in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease,” Current Hypertension Reports, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 249–254, 2001.
- L. Germain and G. Chouinard, “Captopril treatment of major depression with serial measurements of blood cortisol concentrations,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 489–493, 1989.
- M. B. Lande, H. Adams, B. Falkner et al., “Parental assessments of internalizing and externalizing behavior and executive function in children with primary hypertension,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 207–212.e1, 2009.
- M. B. Lande, H. Adams, B. Falkner et al., “Parental assessment of executive function and internalizing and externalizing behavior in primary hypertension after anti-hypertensive therapy,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 157, no. 1, pp. 114–119, 2010.
- B. Croix and D. I. Feig, “Childhood hypertension is not a silent disease,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 527–532, 2006.
- M. B. Lande, A. C. Gerson, S. R. Hooper et al., “Casual blood pressure and neurocognitive function in children with chronic kidney disease: a report of the children with chronic kidney disease cohort study,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1831–1837, 2011.
- A. C. Gerson, R. Butler, M. Moxey-Mims et al., “Neurocognitive outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease: current findings and contemporary endeavors,” Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 208–215, 2006.
- M. Litwin, A. Niemirska, J. Śladowska-Kozlowska et al., “Regression of target organ damage in children and adolescents with primary hypertension,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2489–2499, 2010.